The Establishment of the Pāḷi Text

BJT: Buddha Jayantī Tripiṭaka Granthamālā: 25 (Colombo, 1977, reprinted 2005).

PTS: Sutta-Nipāta, edited by Dines Anderson and Helmer Smith (London, 1913, reprinted Oxford, 1990).

Chalmers: Buddha's Teachings, edited and translated by Lord Chalmers (Harvard oriental Series Volume 37). (Cambridge, Mass. 1932, reprinted Delhi, 1997). This claims to simply quote PTS, but in fact differs from it in a number of the readings adopted.01

ChS: Suttanipātapāḷi (Romanized edition of the Burmese Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana Edition, published Selangor, Malaysia, 2002).

 

Text and Translation

Uragasuttaṁ (Sn 1.1)
The Discourse about the Snake

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− The metre is Opacchandasaka, except for 7a, which is a Vetālīya line. Problems regarding the metre are discussed in the notes.02
Yo uppatitaṁ vineti kodhaṁ,
That one who removes the anger that has arisen,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
visataṁ BJT, ChS, Chalmers: visaṭaṁ, but see Norman’s note in The Group of Discourses II (original edition, pub. 1992) p. 131.03 sappavisaṁ va osadhehi,
as he would (remove) pervasive snake venom with medicines

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ ChS: -ttacaṁ; here and throughout. This corrects the metre but doesn’t appear to be justified historically. PTS records readings from three Burmese manuscripts, which in those days, at least, showed no sign of the reading, so it is probably a modern correction.04 purāṇaṁ. [1]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo rāgam-udacchidā asesaṁ,
That one who cuts off passion without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
bhisapupphaṁ va saroruhaṁ vigayha,
like one who has plucked a lotus growing in a lake,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [2]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo taṇham-udacchidā asesaṁ,
That one who cuts off craving without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
saritaṁ sīghasaraṁ visosayitvā,
having dried up that quick-flowing stream,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva BJT: -īva, here and at 8, 10, 11, 16 & 17 below; this is very inconsistent and must be due to printer’s errors.05 tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [3]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo mānam-udabbadhī asesaṁ,
That one who has destroyed conceit without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
naḷasetuṁ va sudubbalaṁ mahogho,
like a great flood (destroys) a very weak bridge of reeds,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [4]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nājjhagamā bhavesu sāraṁ,
That one who has not found (any) essence in existences,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
vicinaṁ puppham-iva BJT: vicīnaṁ puppham-īva; the metre is incorrect here, but the BJT reading doesn’t correct it. We could read ivā, which would give the normal cadence.06 udumbaresu,
like one examining a fig tree (does not find) a flower,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [5]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassantarato na santi kopā,
For the one who has no anger inwardly,

⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
itibhavābhavatañ-ca BJT, ChS: bhavābhavataṁ ca; ChS always writes niggahīta before the palatal. The metre is one mattā too few in the opening; it may be we should count the opening syllable as heavy m.c., as this is sometimes required in mattāchandas texts.07 vītivatto,
who has overcome this and that existence,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [6]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−⏑⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−
Yassa vitakkā vidhūpitā,
For the one who has dispelled (wrong) thoughts,

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
ajjhattaṁ suvikappitā asesā,
totally cut (them) off Commentary interprets vikappita as kappita here. 08 within himself without remainder,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [7]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī, The metre is one mattā too many in the opening here and in the following 5 verses. Norman, in his note to this verse (GDII, p. 135), suggests reading nāccasărī m.c. to correct the metre; as both Patna and Udānavarga have the simplex in this place, the suggestion seems cogent.09
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind, On the translation of the important phrase many opinions have been expressed, the commentary makes good sense though: Idāni yo nāccasārīti, ettha yo nāccasārīti yo nātidhāvi. Na paccasārīti na ohīyi. Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? Accāraddhavīriyena hi uddhacce patanto accāsarati, atisithilena kosajje patanto paccāsarati; now he who does not overstep the limit, here he who does not overstep the limit means he who does not run too far. Nor lag behind means nor remain behind. What has been said? Through too much extertion there is a falling into distraction and overstepping the limit, through being too slack there is a falling into laziness and a lagging behind.10

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
sabbaṁ Chalmers: sabbam, against the metre.11 accagamā imaṁ papañcaṁ,
who has completely overcome the obstacle,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [8]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti ñatva PTS, Chalmers, ChS: ñatvā, against the metre.12 loke,
knowing “all this is false” in the world,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [9]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti vītalobho,
“all this is false”, being without greed,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [10]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti BJT reads īdan, printer’s error.13 vītarāgo,
“all this is false”, being without passion,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [11]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti vītadoso,
“all this is false”, being without hatred,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [12]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti vītamoho,
“all this is false”, being without delusion,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [13]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassānusayā na santi keci,
For the one with no underlying tendencies,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
mūlā ca PTS, Chalmers omit ca against the metre.14 akusalā samūhatāse,
having uprooted all unwholesome roots,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [14]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassa darathajā na santi keci,
For the one with no distress that has arisen,

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
oraṁ āgamanāya paccayāse,
which is a reason for return to this world,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [15]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassa vanathajā na santi BJT santī here, santi above, printer’s error.15 keci,
For the one with no desire that has arisen,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
vinibandhāya bhavāya hetukappā,
having a cause for bondage to existence,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. [16]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nīvaraṇe pahāya pañca,
The one who abandons the five hindrances,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
anigho BJT, Chalmers: anīgho, against the metre.16 tiṇṇakathaṁkatho visallo,
who is free from confusion, doubt and darts,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. PTS: purāṇan ti.17 [17]
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Uragasuttaṁ Niṭṭhitaṁ ChS: uragasuttaṁ paṭhamaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ; Chalmers omits.18
The Discourse about the Snake is Complete