A Reconstruction of the Uraga Verses

 

Bearing in mind the comments made in the above study, we might here attempt a reconstruction of how the verses may have looked before the additions.The presentation of the verses is given in Pāḷi, but there is no evidence that the verses ever appeared in that language in this form, so it is merely a convenience for the interested student that we use that language.01 When we remove verse six Which, as I said above, is probably an interpolation.02 and the substitution series and place the fifth verse at the beginning, we see that there is a remarkable resemblance between the Gāndhārī and the Pāḷi, in both sequence and content, which indicates that we are probably quite close to the original collection. In making this speculative reconstruction, I have corrected the metre wherever the parallels indicate the necessity, though there are occasions where it appears the metre was faulty in the original, in which case I have let it stand.03

 

Sn 1.5 ≈ Gāndhārī 81

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nājjhagamā bhavesu sāraṁ,
That one who has not found (any) essence in existences,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−⏑−−
vicinaṁ puppham-iva udumbaresu, The metre is faulty in the cadence here, and also in Patna and Gāndhārī; the Udānavarga redactor(s) have completely rewritten the line.04
like one examining a fig tree (does not find) a flower,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ Text: -iva tacaṁ. All the parallels have gemination at the beginning of the word, which is needed to fit the metre, and was probably in the original version of the text, even if the manuscripts do not support the reading.05 purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.1 ≈ Gāndhārī 82

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo uppatitaṁ vineti kodhaṁ,
That one who removes the anger that has arisen,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
visaṭaṁ sappavisaṁ va osadhehi,
as he would (remove) pervasive snake venom with medicines

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.2 ≈ Gāndhārī 83

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo rāgam-udacchidā asesaṁ,
That one who cuts off passion without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
bhisapupphaṁ va saroruhaṁ vigayha,
like one who has plucked a lotus growing in a lake,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.3 ≈ Gāndhārī 84

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo taṇham-udacchidā asesaṁ,
That one who cuts off craving without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
saritaṁ sīghasaraṁ visosayitvā,
having dried up that quick-flowing stream,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.4 ≈ Gāndhārī 83acd 85bcd

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo mānam-udabbadhī asesaṁ,
That one who has destroyed conceit without remainder,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
naḷasetuṁ va sudubbalaṁ mahogho,
like a great flood (destroys) a very weak bridge of reeds,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.7 ≈ Udānavarga 32.77 As this verse does in fact have a close parallel in the Udānavarga, it may have been in the original collection, and been lost in the Gāndhārī; alternatively it may be a late addition that found its way into the Pāḷi and Udānavarga rescensions, and it would then need to be omitted here.06

−⏑⏑−¦−⏑−⏑−
Yassa vitakkā vidhūpitā, The metre of this line is Vetālīya in both the Pāḷi and Udānavarga.07
For the one who has dispelled (wrong) thoughts,

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
ajjhattaṁ suvikappitā asesā,
totally cut (them) off within himself without remainder,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.8 ≈ Gāndhārī 86

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasarī Text: nāccasārī. The verses in all the parallels have the simplex here, which corrects the metre.08 na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
sabbaṁ accagamā imaṁ papañcaṁ,
who has completely overcome the obstacle,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.9 ≈ Gāndhārī 87

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nāccasarī na paccasārī,
He who does not overstep the limit nor lag behind,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
“sabbaṁ vitatham-idan”-ti ñatva loke,
knowing “all this is false” in the world,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.14 ≈ Gāndhārī 88acd

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassānusayā na santi keci,
For the one with no underlying tendencies,

−−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
mūlā ca akusalā samūhatāse,
having uprooted all unwholesome roots,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.15 ≈ Gāndhārī 88bcd

−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassa darathajā na santi keci,
For the one with no distress that has arisen,

−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
oraṁ āgamanāya paccayāse,
which is a reason for return to this world,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.16 ≈ Gāndhārī 89

−⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yassa vanathajā na santi keci,
For the one with no desire that has arisen,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
vinibandhāya bhavāya hetukappā,
having a cause for bondage to existence,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.

 

Sn 1.17 ≈ Gāndhārī 90

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
Yo nīvaraṇe pahāya pañca,
The one who abandons the five hindrances,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
anigho tiṇṇakathaṁkatho visallo,
who is free from confusion, doubt and darts,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
so bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ,
that monk abandons the near and far shore,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
urago jiṇṇam-iva ttacaṁ purāṇaṁ.
like a snake (who has abandoned) its old, worn-out skin.