[Dhammapado] This title is inferred from the usage in the text itself. From the end of the work we could infer a title Dharmmapado, but all the end-titles are Sanskritised (see further the note to the title at the end of this chapter). Cone titled the work Patna Dharmapada, which looks like a simplification of the end-title.01

1: Jama This is how the chapter titles appear in Cone's edition, it is not clear whether they are found in the manuscript or extracted from the end-titles by Cone herself.02

siddhaṁ namaḥ sarvvabuddhadharmmāryyasaṁghebhyaḥ
namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa


[1 ≈ Dhp 1]

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā Śloka All lines are to be understood as the pathyā form of the Śloka metre, unless otherwise indicated.03
manopūrvvaṁgamā -v- is always doubled after -r-, and no assimilation takes place. Pāḷi is unusual amongst the MIA languages in showing the development -vv- to -bb-.04 dhammā    manośreṣṭhā manojavā |

manasā ca praduṣṭena    bhāṣate Notice that Patna retains the three sibilants: manośreṣṭhā, manasā, bhāṣate, whereas in Pāḷi they have all become one: manoseṭṭhā, manasā, bhāsati.05 vā karoti vā |

tato naṁ dukham This word is sometimes spelt with simple -kh- in Patna owing to metrical considerations, see 75b, 80c, 144d, 145c, 260a; but here and at 273c there is no metrical reason for the spelling.06 anneti anneti shows regressive assimilation of the conjunct consonant. The Pāḷi form, which retains the complex cluster is more Sanskritic in this case.07    cakram vā vahato padaṁ ||


manopubbaṅgamā dhammā    manoseṭṭhā manomayā,

manasā ce paduṭṭhena    bhāsati vā karoti vā,

tato naṁ dukkham anveti    cakkaṁ va vahato padaṁ.


[2 ≈ Dhp 2]

ma[nopūrvvaṁ]gamā dhammā    manośreṣṭhā manojavā |

manasā ca prasannena    bhāṣate vā karoti vā |

tato naṁ sukham anneti    cchāyā vā anapāyinī ||


manopubbaṅgamā dhammā    manoseṭṭhā manomayā,

manasā ce pasannena    bhāsati vā karoti vā,

tato naṁ sukham anveti    chāyā va anapāyinī.


[3 ≈ Dhp 15]

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦−⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−    Vaitālīya x 4
iha śocati precca I count pr- as not making position here to give the normal cadence.08 śocati    pāpakam[mo ubhaya]ttha śocati This line has an unusual opening (also found in the Pāḷi), which seems to have been acceptable to the both groups of bhāṇakas.09 |

so śocati so vihaṁnyati vihaṁnyati is the passive of vihanati. 10     dṣṭā Patna retains the -vowel, whereas the vowel develops to a, i (as here), or u in Pāḷi.11 kammakileśam I do not count kileś- as having a svarabhakti vowel here as that would produce an irregular opening.12 āttano The long vowel is retained before a conjunct consonant, something which is usually avoided in Pāḷi, but regressive assimilation of the nasal to the stop (ātma- >> ātta-) still takes place.13 ||


⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦−⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−    Vetālīya x 4
idha socati pecca socati    pāpakārī ubhayattha socati,

so socati so vihaññati    disvā kammakiliṭṭham attano.


[4ab ≈ Dhp 16ab; cd ≈ Dhp 18cd]

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−    Vaitālīya x 4
iha Iha is the Sanskrit form of the word, which has developed to idha in Pāḷi.14 nandati precca nandati    katapuṁño Patna normally writes the first consonant as anusvara in these forms. In the Pāḷi manuscripts the same convention normally prevails, but the custom in transcription is to write it as the nasal of the class it belongs to.15 ubhayattha nandati |

so nandati [    ]dati Roth: so nandati s[o pramo]dati; Shukla: so nandati [so pramo]dati. However, the reading cannot be reconstructed here with such certainty. 16    dṣṭā kammaviśuddhim āttano This verse seems to combine Dhp 16 and 18, or it may be the Pāḷi has differentiated one verse into two. The Udānavarga and Gāndhārī rescensions agree with Patna.17 ||


⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−    Vetālīya x 4
idha nandati pecca modati    katapuñño ubhayattha nandati,


so modati so pamodati    disvā kammavisuddhim attano.


[5 ≈ Dhp 3]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
ākrośi maṁ avadhi maṁ    ajini maṁ ahāsi me The opening of the posterior line allows two shorts in 2nd and 3rd positions, which again seems to have been as acceptable to the bhāṇakas in the Patna tradition as it was to the Pāḷi bhāṇakas.18 |

ye tāni upanahyanti    veraṁ tesaṁ na śāmyati ||


−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
akkocchi maṁ avadhi maṁ    ajini maṁ ahāsi me,

ye ca taṁ upanayhanti    veraṁ tesaṁ na sammati.


[6 ≈ Dhp 4]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
ākro[śi maṁ] avadhi maṁ    ajini maṁ ahāsi me |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   9 syllables
ye tāni nopanahyanti    veraṁ tesaṁ upaśāmyati There are 9 syllables in this line, which is avoided in the Pāḷi by dropping niggahīta and subsequent sandhi of the vowels.19 ||


−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
akkocchi maṁ avadhi maṁ    ajini maṁ ahāsi me,

ye taṁ na upanayhanti    veraṁ tesūpasammati.


[7 ≈ Dhp 7]

⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
śubhā 'nupaśśiṁ viharantaṁ    indriyesu asaṁvtaṁ |

[bhojana]mhi amāttaṁñū    kuśīdaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ ||

taṁ ve prasahate māro    vāto rukkham va dubbalaṁ |


⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
subhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ    indriyesu asaṁvutaṁ,

bhojanamhi amattaññuṁ    kusītaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ,

−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−    savipulā
taṁ ve pasahati māro    vāto rukkhaṁ va dubbalaṁ.


[8 ≈ Dhp 8]

⏑⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
aśubhānupaśśiṁ viharantaṁ    indriyeṣu susaṁvtaṁ ||

bhojanamhi ca mā[ttraṁñū    sa]ddhaṁ āraddhavīriyaṁ |

taṁ ve na prasahate māro    vāto śelaṁ va parvvataṁ ||


⏑⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
asubhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ    indriyesu susaṁvutaṁ,

bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṁ    saddhaṁ āraddhavīriyaṁ,

−−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−    savipulā
taṁ ve nappasahati māro    vāto selaṁ va pabbataṁ.


[9 ≈ Dhp 328, Nāgavaggo]

⏑−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 4
sace labheyā The optative in Patna is an imperative in the Pāḷi, both can carry the same meaning. 20 nipakaṁ sapraṁñaṁ I take -pr- here and in the next verse as not making position to give the normal cadence.21    sāddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāradhīraṁ |

adhibhūya sabbāṇi pariśrav[āṇi]    careyā Read careya to correct the metre.22 tenāttamano satīmā ||


⏑−⏑−¦⏑,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 4
sace labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ    saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,

abhibhuyya sabbāni parissayāni    careyya tenattamano satīmā.


[10 ≈ Dhp 329, Nāgavaggo]

−−⏑−,¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 4
no ce labheyā nipakaṁ sapraṁñaṁ    sāddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāradhīraṁ |

rājā va rāṣṭaṁ vijitaṁ prahāya    eko ccare mātaṁgāranne va nāgo This line is irregular, and cannot be taken as the extended form of the metre that sometimes turns up, as there is no caesura after the 5th.23 ||


−−⏑−¦⏑,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 4
no ce labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ    saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−−⏑−¦−⏑−− irregular
rājā va raṭṭhaṁ vijitaṁ pahāya    eko care mātaṅgaraññe va nāgo.


[11 ≈ Dhp 330] This is an extra verse that is not part of a pair. It has been brought in here because of the similarity to the vocabulary in the previous verses in lines c and d: eko ccare ... mātaṁgāranne va nāgo.24

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−      pathyā x 2
ekassa caritaṁ śreyo    nāsti bāle bitīyatā |

−−⏑−,¦⏑⏑−¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−−−−¦−⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 2
eko ccare na ca pāpāni kayirā    appussuko Patna avoids the Vedic opening found in the Pāḷi by simplifying -kk- to -k-.25 mātaṁgāranne va nāgo The posterior line is very irregular.26 ||


−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−−   pathyā x 2
ekassa caritaṁ seyyo    natthi bāle sahāyatā,

−−⏑−,¦⏑⏑−¦−⏑−−¦¦−−−−,¦−−⏑−¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 2
eko care na ca pāpāni kayirā   appossukko mātaṅgaraññe va nāgo.


[12 ≈ Aṅg Bk. 4. 17]

chandadoṣabhayā mohā    yo dhammaṁ ativattati |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
nīhīrate tassa yaśo    kālapakkhe va candramā ||


chandā dosā bhayā mohā    yo dhammaṁ ativattati,

⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
nihīyati tassa yaso    kālapakkhe va candimā.


[13 ≈ Aṅg Bk. 4. 18]

chandadoṣabhayā mohā    yo dhammaṁ nātivattati |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
āpūrate tassa yaśo    śuklapakkhe śukla- here is an occasion where conjunct assimilation has not taken place in Patna, although it has in the Pāḷi text.27 va candramā ||


chandā dosā bhayā mohā    yo dhammaṁ nātivattati,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
āpūrati tassa yaso    sukkapakkhe va candimā.

Jamavarggaḥ The Sanskritic nominative 3rd person singular ending -aḥ never occurs in the text itself where it is normally the same as in the Pāḷi text: -o. 28