13: Śaraṇa

 

[216 ≈ Dhp 188, Buddhavaggo]

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
bahū veśaraṇaṁ yānti    parvvate ca vanāni ca |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
vastūni rukkhacittāṇi    manuṣyā bhayatajjitā These opening four verses occur also in the Pāḷi Buddhavaggo. Verse 191 in the Pāḷi, which is a summary of the Four Truths, is not found here. In Pāḷi it reads: dukkhaṁ, dukkhasamuppādaṁ, dukkhassa ca atikkamaṁ, ariyañ-caṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ dukkhūpasamagāminaṁ.01 ||

 

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
bahuṁ ve saraṇaṁ yanti    pabbatāni vanāni ca,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
ārāmarukkhacetyāni    manussā bhayatajjitā.

 

[217 ≈ Dhp 189, Buddhavaggo]

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
na etaṁ śaraṇaṁ khemmaṁ    na etaṁ śaraṇam I count resolusion at the 4th here, but we could equally as well read netaṁ as in the Pāḷi verse, which would then give a normal opening without the need for resolution.02 uttamaṁ |

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
etaṁ We need to read netaṁ to correct the sense, otherwise the meaning is: that is not a safe refuge, that is not the ultimate refuge, having come to that refuge one is freed from all suffering!03 śaraṇam āgaṁma    sabbadukkhā pramuccati ||

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
netaṁ kho saraṇaṁ khemaṁ    netaṁ saraṇam uttamaṁ,

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
netaṁ saraṇam āgamma    sabbadukkhā pamuccati.

 

[218 ≈ Dhp 190, Buddhavaggo]

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
yo tu buddhañ ca dhammañ ca    saghaṁ Scribal error, read: saṁghaṁ.04 ca śaraṇaṁ gato |

−−⏑[⏑]−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−
cattāri ca We need to exclude ca m.c.05 ariyasaccāni    yathābhūtāni paśśati ||

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
yo ca buddhañ ca dhammañ ca    saṅghañ ca saraṇaṁ gato,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
cattāri ariyasaccāni    sammappaññāya passati:

 

[219 ≈ Dhp 192, Buddhavaggo]

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
etaṁ ve śaraṇaṁ khemmaṁ    etaṁ śaraṇam uttamaṁ |

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
etaṁ śaraṇam āgamma    sabbadukkhā pramuccati ||

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
etaṁ kho saraṇaṁ khemaṁ    etaṁ saraṇam uttamaṁ,

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
etaṁ saraṇam āgamma    sabbadukkhā pamuccati.

 

[220 ≈ Jā 334.1]

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
gavāṁ ce taramāṇānāṁ    jihmaṁ gacchati puṅgavo |

−−−−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
sabbā tā jihmaṁ gacchaṁti    nette jihmagate sati ||

 

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
gavañ-ce taramānānaṁ    jimhaṁ gacchati puṅgavo,

−−−−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
sabbā tā jimhaṁ gacchanti    nette jimhaṁ gate sati.

 

[221 ≈ Jā 334.2 a-d]

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
evām eva manuṣyesu    yo hoti śreṣṭhasaṁmato |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
sa ce adhaṁmaṁ carati    prāg eva itarā prajā ||

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−¦⏑−⏑−
evam-eva manussesu    yo hoti seṭṭhasammato,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
so ce adhammaṁ carati    pageva itarā pajā.

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
sabbaṁ raṭṭhaṁ dukhaṁ seti    rājā ce hoti adhammiko.

 

[222 ≈ Jā 334.3]

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
gavāṁ ce taramāṇānāṁ    ujjuṁ gacchati puṅgavo |

−−−−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
sabbā tā ujjuṁ gacchaṁti    nette ujjugate sati ||

 

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
gavañ-ce taramānānaṁ    ujuṁ gacchati puṅgavo,

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−¦⏑−⏑−
sabbā tā ujuṁ gacchanti    nette ujugate sati.

 

[223 ≈ Jā 334.4 a-d]

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
evām eva manuṣyesu    yo hoti śreṣṭhasaṁmato |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
sa ce va dhaṁmaṁ carati    prāg eva itarā prajā ||

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−¦⏑−⏑−
evam-eva manussesu    yo hoti seṭṭhasammato,

−⏑−−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
so ce pi dhammaṁ carati    pageva itarā pajā.

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
sabbaṁ raṭṭhaṁ sukhaṁ seti    rājā ce hoti dhammiko.

 

[224 ≈ Dhp 169, Lokavaggo]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
dhaṁmaṁ care sucaritaṁ    na naṁ duccaritaṁ care |

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
dhammacārī sukhaṁ śeti    assiṁ loke paramhi ca ||

 

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
dhammaṁ care sucaritaṁ    na naṁ duccaritaṁ care,

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
dhammacārī sukhaṁ seti    asmiṁ loke paramhi ca.

 

[225 cf. Dhp 169, Lokavaggo]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
dhaṁmaṁ care sucaritaṁ    na naṁ duccaritaṁ care |

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
brahmacārī The only difference between this and the last verse is the exchange of dhamma- for brahma- here; for a similar exchange giving rise to a new verse, cf. 227 and 228 below.06 sukhaṁ śeti    assiṁ loke paramhi ca ||

 

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
dhammaṁ care sucaritaṁ    na naṁ duccaritaṁ care,

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
dhammacārī sukhaṁ seti    asmiṁ loke paramhi ca.

 

[226 ≈ Dhp 364, Bhikkhuvaggo]

−−−−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
dhaṁmārāmo dhaṁmarato    dhaṁmaṁ anuvicintayaṁ |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
dhammaṁ anussaraṁ bhikkhū    dhammā na parihāyati ||

 

−−−−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
dhammārāmo dhammarato    dhammaṁ anuvicintayaṁ,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
dhammaṁ anussaraṁ bhikkhu    saddhammā na parihāyati.

 

[227 ≈ Tha 303]

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−,⏑−¦⏑⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 4
dhammo have rakkhati dhammacārī    dhammo sucinno sukhāya dahāti The metre in the cadence is very wrong here and there is either a scribal error, or a fault of the transmission of the verse.07 |

−−⏑−¦−,−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
esānuśaṁso dhamme sucinne Replacement of two light syllables by one heavy one has taken place at the 6th here. The Pāḷi verse has the same phenomenon.08    na doggatiṁ gacchati dhammacārī ||

 

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 4
dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṁ    dhammo suciṇṇo sukham āvahāti

−−⏑−¦−,−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
esānisaṁso dhamme suciṇṇe    na duggatiṁ gacchati dhammacārī

 

[228 cf. Tha 303]

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−,⏑−¦⏑⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 4
dhammo have rakkhati brahmacārī    dhammo sucinno sukhāya dahāti |

−−⏑−¦−,−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
esā 'nuśaṁso dhamme sucinne    na doggatiṁ gacchati Text reads: gacchati. Cone's note reads: ccha is repeated by mistake at the beginning of the line, 13 A ii.09 brahmacārī ||

 

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 4
dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṁ    dhammo suciṇṇo sukham āvahāti

−−⏑−¦−,−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
esānisaṁso dhamme suciṇṇe    na duggatiṁ gacchati dhammacārī

 

[229 ≈ Dhp 155, Jarāvaggo]

⏑⏑−−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−    ravipulā
acarittā brahmaceraṁ    aladdhā yovvane dhanaṁ |

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
jinnakroṁcā va jhāyaṁti    jhīnamacche va pallare ||

 

⏑⏑−−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−    ravipulā
acaritvā brahmacariyaṁ    aladdhā yobbane dhanaṁ

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
jiṇṇakoñcā va jhāyanti    khīṇamacche va pallale.

 

[230 ≈ Dhp 156, Jarāvaggo]

⏑⏑−−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−    ravipulā
acarittā brahmaceraṁ    aladdhā yovvane dhanaṁ |

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
śenti cāpādhikinno vā    porāṇāni a 'nutthunaṁ Avagraha has been written in this word by mistake, read: anutthunaṁ.10 ||

 

⏑⏑−−¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−    ravipulā
acaritvā brahmacariyaṁ    aladdhā yobbane dhanaṁ

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
senti cāpātikhittā va    purāṇāni anutthunaṁ.

 

[231 ≈ Dhp 91, Arahantavaggo]

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
ujjujjanti satīmanto ī- is m.c. to give the pathyā cadence.11    na nikete ramaṁti te |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
haṁsā va pallaraṁ hettā    okam okaṁ jahaṁti te ||

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
uyyuñjanti satīmanto    na nikete ramanti te,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
haṁsā va pallalaṁ hitvā    okam okaṁ jahanti te.

 

[232 ≈ Dhp 175, Lokavaggo]

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā / 9 syllables
haṁsā va ādiccapathe    vehāyasaṁ yānti iddhiyā The posterior line has 9 syllables, a reading ākāśe (cf. the Paḷi) would correct the metre.12 |

−−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
niyyāṁti dhīrā lokamhi    mārasenaṁ pramaddiya ||

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
haṁsādiccapathe yanti    ākāse yanti iddhiyā,

−−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
nīyanti dhīrā lokamhā    jetvā māraṁ savāhanaṁ.

 

[233 ≈ Dhp 146, Jarāvaggo]

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
kin nu hāśo kim ānando    niccaṁ prajjalite sati |

−⏑−−¦⏑,−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
andhakāramhi prakkhittā I count pr- here as making position to give the pathyā cadence.13    pradīpaṁ na gaveṣatha ||

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
ko nu hāso kim ānando    niccaṁ pajjalite sati?

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
andhakārena onaddhā    padīpaṁ na gavesatha?

 

[234 ≈ Dhp 315, Nirayavaggo]

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
praccaṁtimaṁ vā nagaraṁ    guttaṁ sāntarabāhiraṁ |

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−
evaṁ rakkhatha āttānaṁ    khaṇo vo mā upaccagū |

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
khaṇātītā hi śocaṁti    nirayamhi samappitā ||

 

⏑⏑−⏑¦−,−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    mavipulā
nagaraṁ yathā paccantaṁ    guttaṁ santarabāhiraṁ,

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−
evaṁ gopetha attānaṁ    khaṇo vo mā upaccagā,

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
khaṇātītā hi socanti    nirayamhi samappitā.

 

[235 ≈ Dhp 264, Dhammaṭṭhavaggo]

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    bhavipulā
na muṇḍabhāvā śamaṇo    avrato alikaṁ bhaṇaṁ |

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
icchālobhasamāpanno    śamaṇo kiṁ bhaviṣyati ||

 

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−    navipulā
na muṇḍakena samaṇo    abbato alikaṁ bhaṇaṁ

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
icchālobhasamāpanno    samaṇo kiṁ bhavissati?

 

[236 ≈ Dhp 265, Dhammaṭṭhavaggo]

−⏑⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−
yo tu śameti pāpāni    aṇutthūlāni sabbaśo |

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
śamaṇā eva pāpānāṁ    śamaṇo ti pravuccati ||

 

−⏑⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−
yo ca sameti pāpāni    aṇuṁ thūlāni sabbaso,

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
samitattā hi pāpānaṁ    samaṇo ti pavuccati.

 

[237 ≈ Dhp 339, Taṇhāvaggo]

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
yassa chattrīśatiṁ sotā    mānāphassamayā bhriśā |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
vāhā vahanti dudriṣṭiṁ    saṁkappā ggredhaniśśitā ||

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
yassa chattiṁsatī sotā    manāpassavanā bhusā,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−
vāhā vahanti duddiṭṭhiṁ    saṅkappā rāganissitā.

 

[238 ≈ Dhp 221, Kodhavaggo]

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Triṣṭubh x 4
krodhaṁ jahe viprajaheya -ă is m.c. < -ā to give the normal cadence.14 mānaṁ    saṁyojanaṁ sabbam atikrameyā |

−−⏑−¦−⏑,⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
taṁ nāmarūpamhi asajjamānaṁ    akiṁcanaṁ nānupatanti dukkhā ||

 

−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−    Tuṭṭhubha x 4
kodhaṁ jahe vippajaheyya mānaṁ    saṁyojanaṁ sabbam atikkameyya

−−⏑−¦−−,⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
taṁ nāmarūpasmiṁ asajjamānaṁ    akiñcanaṁ nānupatanti dukkhā.

Śaraṇavarggaḥ