Appendix: More Udānas

3: The Udānas in the Jātaka There are many udānas in the Jātaka, but only those ascribed to the Bodhisatta are mentioned here.01

 

Twice the Bodhisatta is reported as having made the Aho sukham! exclamatory udāna, See above.02 the first time after he became an ascetic in his life as Temiya (Ja. 538); and again when he became an ascetic in his life as Vessantara (Ja. 547).

The exalted utterances in the Jātaka are far more numerous than the exclamations, which perhaps reflects a development in the Medieval period where the exalted utterance in verse was perhaps felt to be the true udāna. Compare also the early medieval Udānavarga, where even the prose udānas recorded in the Pāḷi Udāna have been versified.03


From the Bodhisatta's lives we can quote the following udānas. First in his life as King Sīlava, in praise of effort (Ja. 51):

Sīlavarājā pi kho alaṅkatapaṭiyatto setacchattassa heṭṭhā sarabhapādake kañcanapallaṅke nisinno attano sampattiṁ oloketvā: “Ayañ-ca evarūpā sampatti amaccasahassassa ca jīvitapaṭilābho mayi viriyaṁ akaronte na kiñci abhavissa, viriyabalena panāhaṁ naṭṭhañ-ca imaṁ yasaṁ paṭilabhiṁ, amaccasahassassa ca jīvitadānaṁ adāsiṁ, āsacchedaṁ vata akatvā viriyam-eva kattabbaṁ. Kataviriyassa hi phalaṁ nāma evaṁ samijjhatī” ti cintetvā udānavasena imaṁ gātham-āha:

Āsīsetheva puriso, ~ na nibbindeyya paṇḍito;
Passāmi vohaṁ attānaṁ, ~ yathā icchiṁ tathā ahū ti. This verse recurrs as the 1st verse of a longer udāna given in J. 539 below.04


In a life as a rich merchant, having escaped from robbers, the Bodhisatta uttered the following udāna (Ja. 103):

Yattha verī nivisati, ~ na vase tattha paṇḍito,
Ekarattaṁ dirattaṁ vā, ~ dukkhaṁ vasati verisū ti.


Having followed the advice of some Paccekabuddhas, and avoided the wiles of some yakkhinīs, he once attained to a Kingdom, and seeing his glory uttered the following udāna (Ja. 132):

Bodhisatto taṁ attano siriso bhaggaṁ olokayamāno va cintesi: “Sacāhaṁ tāsaṁ yakkhinīnaṁ abhisaṅkhataṁ dibbarūpaṁ olokessaṁ, jīvitakkhayaṁ patto abhavissaṁ, imaṁ siriso bhaggaṁ na olokessaṁ. Paccekabuddhānaṁ pana ovāde ṭhitabhāvena idaṁ mayā sampattan”-ti. Evañ-ca pana cintetvā udānaṁ udānento imaṁ gātham-āha:

Kusalūpadese dhitiyā daḷhāya ca,
Anivattitattā bhayabhīrutāya ca,
Na rakkhasīnaṁ vasamāgamimhase,
Sa sotthibhāvo mahatā bhayena me ti.


After having been born as a quail, and escaped from the clutches of his enemy the falcon, he uttered the following udāna (Ja. 169):

Sohaṁ nayena sampanno, ~ pettike gocare rato,
Apetasattu modāmi, ~ sampassaṁ attham-attano ti.


The Bodhisatta once made the determination to go forth and live the life of an ascetic, even though his wife had just given birth for the second time. On that occasion he uttered the following udāna (Ja. 201):

So tattha vasanto: “Evarūpam-pi nāma me ducchindaniyaṁ puttadārabandhanaṁ kilesabandhanaṁ chinditan”-ti udānaṁ udānento imā gāthā avoca:

Na taṁ daḷhaṁ bandhanam-āhu dhīrā,
Yadāyasaṁ dārujapabbajañ-ca,
Sārattarattā maṇikuṇḍalesu,
Puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā.

Etaṁ daḷhaṁ bandhanam-āhu dhīrā,
Ohārinaṁ sīthilaṁ duppamuñcaṁ,
Etam-pi chetvāna vajanti dhīrā,
Anapekkhino kāmasukhaṁ pahāyā ti.


In his life as Guttila the Bodhisatta was taken to heaven on the orders of Sakka, the lord of the gods, and there he saw how the good were rewarded for their good deeds, and determining to emulate them he uttered this exalted utterance (Ja. 243): These verses are also found in Guttilavimāna in Vimānavatthu 617-8.05

Svāgataṁ vata me ajja, ~ suppabhātaṁ suhuṭṭhitaṁ,
Yaṁ addasāmi devatāyo, ~ accharākāmavaṇṇiyo.

Imāsāhaṁ Dhammaṁ sutvā, ~ kāhāmi kusalaṁ bahuṁ,
Dānena samacariyāya, ~ saṁyamena damena ca,
Svāhaṁ tattha gamissāmi, ~ yattha gantvā na socare ti.


Having recovered from sickness, gone to the Himalayas, and attained the deep knowledges (abhiññā) and absorptions (jhāna), in a life as an anonymous brāhmaṇa, he uttered the following udāna (Ja. 293):

Phuṭṭhassa me aññatarena byādhinā,
Rogena bāḷhaṁ dukhitassa ruppato,
Parisussati khippam-idaṁ kaḷevaraṁ,
Pupphaṁ yathā paṁsuni ātape kataṁ.

Ajaññaṁ jaññasaṅkhātaṁ, ~ asuciṁ sucisammataṁ,
Nānākuṇapaparipūraṁ, ~ jaññarūpaṁ apassato.

Dhiratthumaṁ āturaṁ pūtikāyaṁ,
Jegucchiyaṁ assuciṁ byādhidhammaṁ,
Yatthappamattā adhimucchitā pajā,
Hāpenti maggaṁ sugatūpapattiyā ti.


In his life as Aḍḍhamāsakarājā, the Bodhisatta was tempted to kill the good King Udaya who ruled with him, but overcame the evil thought and having confessed to the other his prior intention, he spoke the following udāna (Ja. 421):

Addasaṁ kāma te mūlaṁ, saṅkappā kāma jāyasi,
Na taṁ saṅkappayissāmi, evaṁ kāma na hehisī ti.


The following verse, ascribed to the Bodhisatta in a life as a unnamed King, is later called an udāna by his Queen, and is unusual in that it is said to have been uttered while in absorption (jhāna) (Ja. 459):

Tato paṭṭhāya Rājā vatthukāmesu viratto anapekkho hutvā nānaggarasabhojanaṁ bhuñjitvā, itthiyo anālapitvā anoloketvā virattacitto uṭṭhāya sirigabbhaṁ pavisitvā, nisinno setabhittiyaṁ kasiṇaparikammaṁ katvā jhānaṁ nibbattesi. So jhānappatto kāme garahanto:

Dhiratthu subahū kāme, ~ duggandhe bahukaṇṭake,
Ye ahaṁ paṭisevanto, ~ nālabhiṁ tādisaṁ sukhan-ti.


In his life as the prince Temiya he spoke the following udānas in the discussion he had with his charioteer Sunanda, after revealing that he was not in fact deaf and dumb as he had pretended to be (Ja. 538):

Evaṁ Mahāsattassa attano guṇe kathentassa pīti uppajji, tato pītivegena udānaṁ udānento āha:

Api ataramānānaṁ, ~ phalāsāva samijjhati,
Vipakkabrahmacariyosmi, ~ evaṁ jānāhi sārathi.

Api ataramānānaṁ, ~ sammad-attho vipaccati,
Vipakkabrahmacariyosmi, ~ nikkhanto akutobhayo ti.


The following udāna was spoken by the Bodhisatta, shortly after being invested as King in his life as King Mahājanaka (Ja. 539): The first verse was found above at J. 51. All six verses also occur in J. 483, but they are there ascribed to King Brahmadatta, after he was saved by the Bodhisatta in a life as a stag.06

Atha Mahāsatto setacchattassa heṭṭhā rājāsane nisinno va Sakkasirisadisaṁ mahantaṁ sirivilāsaṁ oloketvā, attano mahāsamudde katavāyāmaṁ anussari. Tassa: Viriyaṁ nāma kattabbayuttakaṁ, sacāhaṁ mahāsamudde viriyaṁ nākarissaṁ, na imaṁ sampattiṁ alabhissan-ti taṁ vāyāmaṁ anussarantassa pīti uppajji. So pītivegena udānaṁ udānento āha:

Āsīsetheva puriso, ~ na nibbindeyya paṇḍito,
Passāmi vohaṁ attānaṁ, ~ yathā icchiṁ tathā ahu.

Āsīsetheva puriso, ~ na nibbindeyya paṇḍito,
Passāmi vohaṁ attānaṁ, ~ udakā thalam-ubbhataṁ.

Vāyam-etheva puriso, ~ na nibbindeyya paṇḍito,
Passāmi vohaṁ attānaṁ, ~ yathā icchiṁ tathā ahu.

Vāyam-etheva puriso, ~ na nibbindeyya paṇḍito,
Passāmi vohaṁ attānaṁ, ~ udakā thalam-ubbhataṁ.

Dukkhūpanīto pi naro sapañño,
Āsaṁ na chindeyya sukhāgamāya,
Bahū hi phassā ahitā hitā ca,
Avitakkitā maccum-upabbajanti.

Acintitam-pi bhavati, ~ cintitam-pi vinassati,
Na hi cintāmayā bhogā, ~ itthiyā purisassa vā ti.


A little later in the same Jātaka, King Mahājanaka having renounced the world, lived like an ascetic in his palace, remembering the virtues of the Paccekabuddhas who lived in his Royal garden, and uttered the following udāna in praise of their virtues:

Sukhakāmā rahosīlā, ~ vadhabandhā upāratā,
Kassa nu ajja ārāme, ~ daharā vuddhā ca acchare.

Atikkantavanathā dhīrā, ~ namo tesaṁ mahesinaṁ,
Ye ussukamhi lokamhi, ~ viharanti manussukā.

Te chetvā maccuno jālaṁ, ~ tataṁ māyāvino daḷhaṁ,
Chinnālayattā gacchanti, ~ ko tesaṁ gatim-āpaye ti.


In the Jātaka Avidūrenidānakathā (278/9) See also the Dhammapadaṭṭhakathā to Dhp 153/4.10 it is stated that the Buddha's first utterance after attaining Sambodhi were the following gāthās, which are ascribed to all those who become Buddhas:

Evaṁ aparimāṇena sirivibhavena pūjiyamāno mahāpuriso anekappakāresu acchariyadhammesu pātubhūtesu sabbaññutaññāṇaṁ paṭivijjhitvā sabbabuddhānaṁ avijahitaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

Anekajātisaṁsāraṁ, ~ sandhāvissaṁ anibbisaṁ,
Gahakāraṁ gavesanto, ~ dukkhā jāti punappunaṁ.

Gahakāraka diṭṭhosi, ~ puna gehaṁ na kāhasi,
Sabbā te phāsukā bhaggā, ~ gahakūṭaṁ visaṅkhataṁ,
Visaṅkhāragataṁ cittaṁ, ~ taṇhānaṁ khayam-ajjhagā.