Ligged lingered on01 our Lord Buddha, knowing not of woe,
Nor want, nor pain, nor plague, nor age, nor death,
Save as when sleepers roam dim seas in dreams,
And land awearied on the shores of day,
Bringing strange merchandise from that black voyage.
Thus ofttimes, when he lay with gentle head
Lulled on the dark breasts of Yasōdhara,
Her fond hands fanning slow his sleeping lids,
He would start up and cry, “My world! Oh, world
I hear! I know! I come!” And she would ask,
“What ails my Lord?” with large eyes terror-struck;
For at such times the pity in his look
Was awful, awe inspiring02 and his visage face03 like a god's.
Then would he smile again to stay her tears,
And bid the veenas a stringed instrument a little like a lute04 sound; but once they set
A stringed gourd otherwise known as a wind harp05 on the sill, there where the wind
Could linger o'er its notes and play at will—
Wild music makes the wind on silver strings—
And those who lay around heard only that;
But Prince Siddārtha heard the Devas Lit.: bright-ones, gods06 play,
And to his ears they sang such words as these:—
We are the voices of the wandering wind,
Which moan for rest and rest can never find,
Lo! as the wind is, so is mortal life,
A moan, a sigh, a sob, a storm, a strife.
Wherefore and whence we are ye cannot know,
Nor where life springs, nor whither life doth go;
We are as ye are, ghosts from the inane,
What pleasure have we of our changeful pain?
What pleasure hast thou of thy changeless bliss?
Nay, if love lasted, there were joy in this;
But life's way is the wind's way, all these things
Are but brief voices breathed on shifting strings.
O Maya's son! because we roam the earth
Moan we upon these strings; we make no mirth,
So many woes we see in many lands,
So many streaming eyes and wringing hands.
Yet mock we while we wail, for, could they know,
This life they cling to is but empty show;
'Twere all as well to bid a cloud to stand,
Or hold a running river with the hand.
But thou that art to save, thine hour is nigh!
The sad world waiteth in its misery,
The blind world stumbleth on its round of pain;
Rise, Maya's child! wake! slumber not again!
We are the voices of the wandering wind:
Wander thou, too, O Prince, thy rest to find;
Leave love for love of lovers, for woe's sake
Quit state for sorrow, and deliverance make.
So sigh we, passing o'er the silver strings,
To thee who know'st not yet of earthly things;
So say we; mocking, as we pass away,
These lovely shadows wherewith thou dost play.
Thereafter it befel he sate at eve
Amid his beauteous Court, holding the hand
Of sweet Yasōdhara, and some maid told—
With breaks of music when her rich voice dropped—
An ancient tale to speed the hour of dusk,
Of love, and of a magic horse, and lands
Wonderful, distant, where pale peoples dwelled,
And where the sun at night sank into seas.
Then spake he, sighing, “Chitra brings me back
The wind's song in the strings with that fair tale:
Give her, Yasōdhara, thy pearl for thanks.
But thou, my pearl! is there so wide a world?
Is there a land which sees the great sun roll
Into the waves, and are their hearts like ours,
Countless, unknown, not happy—it may be—
Whom we might succour comfort07 if we knew of them?
Oft-times I marvel, as the Lord of day i.e. the Sun08
Treads from the east his kingly road of gold,
Who first on the world's edge hath hailed his beam,
The children of the morning; oftentimes,
Even in their arms and on thy breasts, bright wife,
Sore have I panted, at the sun's decline,
To pass with him into that crimson west
And see the peoples of the evening.
There must be many we should love—how else?
Now have I in this hour an ache, at last,
Thy soft lips cannot kiss away; oh, girl!
O Chitra! you that know of fairyland!
Where tether they that swift steed of thy tale?
My palace for one day upon his back,
To ride and ride and see the spread of the earth;
Nay, if I had yon callow young, inexperienced09 vulture's plumes—
The carrion heir of wider realms than mine—
How would I stretch for topmost Himalay,
Light where the rose-gleam lingers on those snows,
And strain my gaze with searching what is round!
Why have I never seen and never sought?
Tell me what lies beyond our brazen gates.”
Then one replied, “The city first, fair Prince!
The temples, and the gardens, and the groves,
And then the fields; and afterwards fresh fields,
With nullahs, ravines or gullies10maidāns, parks11 jungle, koss on koss; A quarter of a yojana, same as a gow12
And next King Bimbasāra's realm, and then
The vast flat world, with crores on crores of folk.”
“Good,” said Siddārtha; “let the word be sent
That Channa yoke my chariot—at noon
To-morrow I shall ride and see beyond.”
Whereof they told the King: “Our Lord, thy son,
Wills that his chariot be yoked at noon,
That he may ride abroad and see mankind.”
“Yea!” spake the careful King, “'tis time he see;
But let the criers go about and bid
My city deck decorate13 itself, so there be met
No noisome offensive14 sight; and let none blind or maimed,
None that is sick, or stricken deep in years,
No leper, and no feeble folk sickly folk15 come forth.”
Therefore the stones were swept, and up and down
The water-carriers sprinkled all the streets
From spirting = spurting, i.e. gushing16 skins, the housewives scattered fresh
Red powder on their thresholds, strung new wreaths,
And trimmed the tulsi-bush from Sanskrit tulasi: (the herb) basil, Bot.: ocimum sanctum17 before their doors.
The paintings on the walls were heightened up
With liberal brush, the trees set thick with flags,
The idols gilded; in the four-went ways
Suryadeva and the great gods shone
'Mid shrines of leaves; so that the city seemed
A capital of some enchanted land.
Also the crier passed, with drum and gong,
Proclaiming loudly, “Ho! all citizens,
The King commands that there be seen to-day
No evil sight: let no one blind or maimed,
None that is sick, or stricken deep in years,
No leper, and no feeble folk sickly folk18 go forth.
Let none, too, burn his dead nor bring them out
'Till nightfall. Thus Suddhōdana commands.”
So all was comely and the houses trim neat, tidy19
Throughout Kapilavastu, while the Prince
Came forth in painted car, which two steers drew,
Snow-white, with swirling dewlaps, and huge humps
Wrinkled against the carved and lacquered yoke,
Goodly it was to mark the people's joy
Greeting their Prince; and glad Siddārtha waxed
At sight of all those liege A loyal subject20 and friendly folk
Bright-clad and laughing as if life were good.
“Fair is the world,” he said, “it likes me well!
And light and kind these men that are not kings,
And sweet my sisters here, who toil and tend;
What have I done for these to make them thus?
Why, if I love them, should those children know?
I pray take up yon pretty Sākya boy
Who flung us flowers, and let him ride with me.
How good it is to reign in realms like this!
How simple pleasure is, if these be pleased
Because I come abroad! How many things
I need not if such little households hold
Enough to make our city full of smiles!
Drive Channa! through the gates, and let me see
More of this gracious world I have not known.”
So passed they through the gates, a joyous crowd
Thronging about the wheels, whereof some ran
Before the oxen, throwing wreaths; some stroked
Their silken flanks; some brought them rice and cakes,
All crying, “Jai! jai! victory!21for our noble Prince!”
Thus all the path was kept with gladsome joyful22 looks
And filled with fair sights—for the king's word was
That such should be—when midway in the road,
Slow tottering from the hovel where he hid,
Crept forth a wretch in rags, haggard and foul,
An old, old man, whose shrivelled skin, sun-tanned,
Clung like a beast's hide to its fleshless bones.
Bent was his back with load of many days,
His eyepits red with rust of ancient tears,
His dim orbs eyes, poetic23 blear with rheum, discharge24 his toothless jaws
Wagging with palsy A condition marked by tremor or shaking25 and the fright to see
So many and such joy. One skinny hand
Clutched a worn staff to prop his quavering limbs.
And one was pressed upon the ridge of ribs
Whence, came in gasps the heavy painful breath.
“Alms!” moaned he, “give, good people! for I die
To-morrow or the next day!” then the cough
Choked him, but still he stretched his palm, and stood
Blinking, and groaning 'mid his spasms, “Alms!”
Then those around had wrenched his feeble feet
Aside, and thrust him from the road again,
Saying, “The Prince! dost see? get to thy lair!” hideaway26
But that Siddārtha cried, “Let be! let be!
Channa! what thing is this who seems a man,
Yet surely only seems, being so bowed,
So miserable, so horrible, so sad?
Are men born sometimes thus? What meaneth he
Moaning “to-morrow or next day I die?”
Finds he no food that so his bones jut forth?
What woe hath happened to this piteous one?”
Then answer made the charioteer, “Sweet Prince!
This is no other than an aged man.
Some fourscore years ago his back was straight,
His eye bright, and his body goodly: now
The thievish years have sucked his sap strength27 away,
Pillaged his strength and filched stolen28 his will and wit;
His lamp has lost its oil, the wick burns black;
What life he keeps is one poor lingering spark
Which flickers for the finish: such is age;
Why should your Highness heed?” Then spake the Prince:
“But shall this come to others, or to all,
Or is it rare that one should be as he?”
“Most noble,” answered Channa, “even as he,
Will all these grow if they shall live so long.”
“But,” quoth the Prince, “if I shall live as long
Shall I be thus; and if Yasōdhara
Live fourscore years, is this old age for her,
Jālini, little Hasta, Gautami,
And Gunga, and the others?” “Yea, great Sir!”
The charioteer replied. Then spake the Prince:
“Turn back, and drive me to my house again!
I have seen that I did not think to see.”
Which pondering, to his beauteous Court returned
Wistful Thoughtful29 Siddārtha, sad of mien appearance30 and mood;
Nor tasted he the white cakes nor the fruits
Spread for the evening feast, nor once looked up
While the best palace-dancers strove to charm:
Nor spake—save one sad thing—when wofully
Yasōdhara sank to his feet and wept,
Sighing, “Hath not my Lord comfort in me?”
“Ah, Sweet!” he said, “such comfort that my soul
Aches, thinking it must end, for it will end,
And we shall both grow old, Yasōdhara!
Loveless, unlovely, weak, and old, and bowed.
Nay, though we locked up love and life with lips
So close that night and day our breaths grew one,
Time would thrust in between to filch steal31 away
My passion and thy grace, as black Night steals
The rose-gleams from yon peak, which fade to grey
And are not seen to fade. This have I found,
And all my heart is darkened with its dread,
And all my heart is fixed to think how Love
Might save its sweetness from the slayer, Time,
Who makes men old.” So through that night he sate
And all that night
The King Suddhōdana dreamed troublous dreams.
The first fear of his vision was a flag
Broad, glorious, glistening with a golden sun,
The mark of Indra; but a strong wind blew,
Rending Tearing32 its folds divine, and dashing it
Into the dust; whereat a concourse gathering33 came
Of shadowy Ones, who took the spoiled silk up
And bore it eastward from the city gates.
The second fear was ten huge elephants,
With silver tusks and feet that shook the earth,
Trampling the southern road in mighty march;
And he who sate upon the foremost beast
Was the King's son—the others followed him.
The third fear of the vision was a car,
Shining with blinding light, which four steeds drew,
Snorting white smoke and champing fiery foam;
And in the car the Prince Siddārtha sate.
The fourth fear was a wheel which turned and turned,
With nave of burning gold and jewelled spokes,
And strange things written on the binding tire,
Which seemed both fire and music as it whirled.
The fifth fear was a mighty drum, set down
Midway between the city and the hills,
On which the Prince beat with an iron mace,
So that the sound pealed like a thunderstorm,
Rolling around the sky and far away.
The sixth fear was a tower, which rose and rose
High o'er the city till its stately head
Shone crowned with clouds, and on the top the Prince
Stood, scattering from both hands, this way and that,
Gems of most lovely light, as if it rained
Jacynths and rubies; and the whole world came
Striving to seize those treasures as they fell
Towards the four quarters. But the seventh fear was
A noise of wailing, and behold six men
Who wept and gnashed their teeth, and laid their palms
Upon their mouths, walking disconsolate. sad and unconsoled34
These seven fears made the vision of his sleep,
But none of all his wisest dream-readers
Could tell their meaning. Then the King was wroth, angry35
Saying, “There cometh evil to my house,
And none of ye have wit the knowledge36 to help me know
What the great gods portend sending me this.”
So in the city men went sorrowful
Because the King had dreamed seven signs of fear
Which none could read; but to the gate there came
An aged man, in robe of deer-skin clad,
By guise a hermit, known to none; he cried,
“Bring me before the King, for I can read
The vision of his sleep;” who, when he heard
The sevenfold mysteries of the midnight dream,
Bowed reverent and said, “O Mahārāj!
I hail this favoured House, whence shall arise
A wider-reaching splendour than the sun's!
Lo! all these seven fears are seven joys,
Whereof the first, where thou didst see a flag—
Broad, glorious, gilt with Indra's badge decorated with Indra's ensign37—cast down
And carried out, did signify the end
Of old faiths and beginning of the new;
For there is change with gods not less than men,
And as the days pass kalpas aeons38 pass at length.
The ten great elephants that shook the earth
The ten great gifts of wisdom signify,
In strength whereof the Prince shall quit his state
And shake the world with passage of the Truth.
The four flame-breathing horses of the car
Are those four fearless virtues which shall bring
Thy son from doubt and gloom to gladsome light;
The wheel that turned with nave of burning gold
Was that most precious Wheel of perfect Law
Which he shall turn in sight of all the world.
The mighty drum whereon the Prince did beat,
Till the sound filled all lands, doth signify
The thunder of the preaching of the Word
Which he shall preach; the tower that grew to heaven
The growing of the Gospel of this Buddh
Sets forth; and those rare jewels scattered thence
The untold treasures are of that good Law
To gods and men dear and desirable.
Such is the interpretation of the tower;
But for those six men weeping with shut mouths,
They are the six chief teachers Often mentioned in the discourses, they are: Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambali, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta39 whom thy son
Shall, with bright truth and speech unanswerable,
Convince of foolishness. O King! rejoice,
The fortune of my Lord the Prince is more
Than kingdoms, and his hermit-rags will be
Beyond fine cloths of gold. This was thy dream!
And in seven nights and days these things shall fall.”
So spake the holy man, and lowly made
The eight prostrations, touching thrice the ground;
Then turned and passed; but when the King bade send
A rich gift after him, the messengers
Brought word, “We came to where he entered in
At Chandra's temple, but within was none
Save a grey owl which fluttered from the shrine.”
The gods come sometimes thus.
But the sad King
Marvelled, and gave command that new delights
Be compassed found40 to enthral Siddārtha's heart
Amid those dancers of his pleasure-house;
Also he set at all the brazen doors
A double guard.
Yet who shall shut out Fate!
For once again the spirit of the Prince
Was moved to see this world beyond his gates,
This life of man, so pleasant, if its waves
Ran not to waste and woful finishing
In Time'sdry sands, “I pray you let me view
Our city as it is,” such was his prayer
To King Suddhōdana. “Your Majesty
In tender heed With caring thought41 hath warned the folk before
To put away ill things and common sights,
And make their faces glad to gladden me,
And all the causeways gay; yet have I learned
This is not daily life, and if I stand
Nearest, my father, to the realm and thee,
Fain Willingly42 would I know the people and the streets,
Their simple usual ways, and workday deeds,
And lives which those men live who are not kings.
Give me good leave, dear Lord! to pass unknown
Beyond my happy gardens; I shall come
The more contented to their peace again,
Or wiser, father, if not well content.
Therefore, I pray thee, let me go at will,
To-morrow, with my servants, through the streets.”
And the King said, amidst his Ministers,
“Belike Perhaps43 this second flight may mend the first.
Note how the falcon starts at every sight
New from his hood, but what a quiet eye
Cometh of freedom; let my son see all,
And bid them bring me tidings of his mind.”
Thus on the morrow, when the noon was come,
The Prince and Channa passed beyond the gates,
Which opened to the signet of the King; the King's official seal44
Yet knew not they who rolled the great doors back
It was the King's son in that merchant's robe,
And in the clerkly dress his charioteer.
Forth fared they by the common way afoot,
Mingling with all the Sākya citizens,
Seeing the glad and sad things of the town:
The painted streets alive with hum of noon,
The tailers cross-legged 'mid their spice and grain,
The buyers with their money in the cloth,
The war of words to cheapen this or that,
The shout to clear the road, the huge stone wheels,
The strong slow oxen and their rustling loads,
The singing bearers with the palanquins,
The broad-necked hamals porters, or bearers45 sweating in the sun,
The housewives bearing water from the well
With balanced chatties, poles46 and athwart across47 their hips
The black-eyed babes; the fly-swarmed sweetmeat shops,
The weaver at his loom, the cotton-bow
Twanging, the millstones grinding meal, the dogs
Prowling for orts, morsels, left-over food48 the skilful armourer
With tong and hammer linking shirts of mail,
The blacksmith with a mattock a kind of pick49 and a spear
Reddening together in his coals, the school
Where round their Guru, in a grave half-moan,
The Sākya children sang the mantra Vedic texts50 through
And learned the greater and the lesser gods;
The dyers stretching waistcloths in the sun
Wet from the vats—orange, and rose, and green;
The soldiers clanking past with swords and shields,
The camel-drivers rocking on the humps,
The Brahman proud, the martial Kshatriya,
The humble toiling Sudra; here a throng crowd51
Gathered to watch some chattering snake-tamer
Wind round his wrist the living jewellery
Of asp and nāg, snake, possibly here meaning a cobra52 or charm the hooded death
To angry dance with drone of beaded gourd;
There a long line of drums and horns, which went,
With steeds gay painted and silk canopies,
To bring the young bride home; and here a wife
Stealing with cakes and garlands to the god
To pray her husband's safe return from trade,
Or beg a boy next birth; hard by the booths
Where the swart dark-skinned53 potters beat the noisy brass
For lamps and lotas; pots (Hindi)54 thence, by temple walls
And gateways, to the river and the bridge
Under the city walls.
These had they passed
When from the roadside moaned a mournful voice,
“Help, masters! lift me to my feet; oh, help!
Or I shall die before I reach my house!”
A stricken wretch it was, whose quivering frame,
Caught by some deadly plague, lay in the dust
Writhing, with fiery purple blotches specked:
The chill sweat beaded on his brow, his mouth
Was dragged awry was twisted55 with twitchings of sore pain,
The wild eyes swam with inward agony.
Gasping, he clutched the grass to rise, and rose
Half-way, then sank, with quaking feeble limbs
And scream of terror, crying, “Ah, the pain!
Good people, help!” whereon Siddārtha ran,
Lifted the woful man with tender hands,
With sweet looks laid the sick head on his knee,
And, while his soft touch comforted the wretch,
Asked, “Brother, what is ill with thee? what harm
Hath fallen? wherefore canst thou not arise?
Why is it, Channa, that he pants and moans,
And gasps to speak, and sighs so pitiful?”
Then spake the charioteer: “Great Prince! this man
Is smitten with some pest; his elements
Are all confounded; Meaning: his body is out of balance56 in his veins the blood,
Which ran a wholesome river, leaps and boils
A fiery flood; his heart, which kept good time,
Beats like an ill-played drum-skin, quick and slow;
His sinews slacken like a bow-string slipped;
The strength is gone from ham, and loin, and neck,
And all the grace and joy of manhood fled:
This is a sick man with the fit acute disease57 upon him.
See how he plucks and plucks to seize his grief,
And rolls his bloodshot orbs, eyes, poetic58 and grinds his teeth,
And draws his breath as if 'twere choking smoke!
Lo! now he would be dead, but shall not die
Until the plague hath had its work in him,
Killing the nerves which die before the life;
Then, when his strings nerves, poetic59 have cracked with agony
And all his bones are empty of the sense
To ache, the plague will quit and light alight, land60 elsewhere.
Oh, sir! it is not good to hold him so!
The harm may pass, and strike thee, even thee.”
But spake the Prince, still comforting the man,
“And are there others; are there many thus?”
Or might it be to me as now with him?”
“Great Lord!” answered the charioteer, “this comes
In many forms to all men; griefs and wounds,
Sickness and tetters, skin diseases61 palsies, paralysis with tremblings62 leprosies,
Hot fevers, watery wastings, issues, discharges63 blains blisters, sores64
Befall all flesh and enter everywhere.”
“Come such ills unobserved?”the Prince inquired.
And Channa said, “Like the sly snake they come
That stings unseen; like the striped murderer,
Who waits to spring from the Karunda bush, Hindi: a shrub; Bot.: carissa carandas; Sanskrit: karamarda65
Hiding beside the jungle path; or like
The lightning, striking these and sparing those,
As chance may send.”
“Then all men live in fear?”
“So live they, Prince!”
“And none can say, ‘I sleep
Happy and whole to-night, and so shall wake'? ”
“None say it.”
“And the end of many aches,
Which come unseen, and will come when they come,
Is this, a broken body and sad mind,
And so old age?”
“Yea, if men last as long.”
“But if they cannot bear their agonies,
Or if they will not bear, and seek a term;
Or if they bear, and be, as this man is,
Too weak except for groans, and so still live,
And growing old, grow older, then—what end?”
“They die, Prince.”
“Yea, at the last comes Death,
In whatsoever way, whatever hour.
Some few grow old, most suffer and fall sick
But all must die—behold, where comes the Dead!”
Then did Siddārtha raise his eyes, and see
Fast pacing towards the river brink a band
Of wailing people; foremost one who swung
An earthen bowl with lighted coals; behind
The kinsmen, shorn, with mourning marks, ungirt,
Crying aloud, “O Rama, Rama, hear!
Call upon Rama, brothers”; next the bier,
Knit of four poles with bamboos interlaced,
Whereon lay, stark and stiff, feet foremost, lean,
Chapfallen, With loose chin66 sightless, hollow-flanked, a-grin, grinning67
Sprinkled with red and yellow dust—the Dead,
Whom at the four-went ways crossroads68 they turned head first,
And crying “Rama, Rama!” carried on
To where a pile was reared beside the stream:
Thereon they laid him, building fuel up—
Good sleep hath one that slumbers on that bed!
He shalt not wake for cold, albeit he lies
Naked to all the airs—for soon they set
The red flame to the corners four, which crept,
And licked, and flickered, finding out his flesh
And feeding on it with swift hissing tongues,
And crackle of parched skin, and snap of joint;
Till the fat smoke thinned and the ashes sank
Scarlet and grey, with here and there a bone
White midst the grey—the total of the man.
Then spake the Prince: “Is this the end which comes
To all who live?”
“This is the end that comes
To all,” quoth said69 Channa, “he upon the pyre—
Whose remnants are so petty that the crows
Caw hungrily, then quit the fruitless feast—
Ate, drank, laughed, loved, and lived, and liked life well,
Then came—who knows?—some gust of jungle wind,
A stumble on the path, a taint poison70 in the tank,