Versions of Conditional Origination
(Paṭiccasamuppādaṁ)

compiled by

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
(September 2013)

 

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Basic (Nidānasaṁyuttaṁ, SN 12):

Anulomaṁ:
Forward Order

Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
Because of ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

Saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
Because of (volitional) processes: consciousness,

Viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
Because of consciousness: mind and body,

Nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
Because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

Saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
Because of the six sense spheres: contact,

Phassapaccayā vedanā,
Because of contact: feeling,

Vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
Because of feeling: craving,

Taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
Because of craving: attachment,

Upādānapaccayā bhavo,
Because of attachment: continuation,

Bhavapaccayā jāti,
Because of continuation: birth,

Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
Because of birth: old age, death,

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
Grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
And so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.”

Paṭilomaṁ:
Reverse Order

Avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho,
From the cessation of ignorance, there is the cessation of (volitional) processes,

Saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho,
From the cessation of (volitional) processes, the cessation of consciousness,

Viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho,
From the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of mind and body,

Nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho,
From the cessation of mind and body, the cessation of the six sense spheres,

Saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho,
From the cessation of the six sense spheres, the cessation of contact,

Phassanirodhā vedanānirodho,
From the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling,

Vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho,
From the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving,

Taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho,
From the cessation of craving, the cessation of attachment,

Upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho,
From the cessation of attachment, the cessation of continuation,

Bhavanirodhā jātinirodho,
From the cessation of continuation, the cessation of birth,

Jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
From the cessation of birth, old age, death,

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti,
Grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) cease,

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.
And so there is a cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Mahānidāna (DN 14):

Circular Order:

Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
Because of birth: old age, death,

Bhavapaccayā jāti,
Because of continuation: birth,

Upādānapaccayā bhavo,
Because of attachment: continuation,

Taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
Because of craving: attachment,

Vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
Because of feeling: craving,

Phassapaccayā vedanā,
Because of contact: feeling,

Nāmarūpapaccayā phasso,
Because of mind and body: contact,

Viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpam,
Because of consciousness: mind and body,

Nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
Because of mind and body: consciousness,

Nāmarūpapaccayā phasso,
Because of mind and body: contact,

Phassapaccayā vedanā,
Because of contact: feeling,

Vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
Because of feeling: craving,

Taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
Because of craving: attachment,

Upādānapaccayā bhavo,
Because of attachment: continuation,

Bhavapaccayā jāti,
Because of continuation: birth,

Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
Because of birth: old age, death,

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
Grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
And so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

The Arising of Unwholesome States:

Vedanā paṭicca taṇhā,
Because of feeling: craving,

Taṇhaṁ paṭicca pariyesanā,
Because of craving: pursuance,

Pariyesanaṁ paṭicca lābho,
Because of pursuance: acquisition,

Lābhaṁ paṭicca vinicchayo,
Because of acquisition: discrimination,

Vinicchayaṁ paṭicca chandarāgo ,
Because of discrimination: passionate desire,

Chandarāgaṁ paṭicca ajjhosānaṁ,
Because of passionate desire: cleaving,

Ajjhosānaṁ paṭicca pariggaho,
Because of cleaving: possessiveness,

Pariggahaṁ paṭicca macchariyaṁ paṭicca ārakkhādhikaraṇaṁ,
Because of possessiveness: selfishness,

Macchariyaṁ paṭicca ārakkho,
Because of selfishness: guarding,

Ārakkhādhikaraṇaṁ daṇḍādānasatthādāna-kalahaviggahavivādatuvaṁtuvaṁpesuññamusāvādā,
On account of guarding: the taking up of sticks, the taking up of swords, quarrels, disputes, contention, slandering of the other, false speech,

aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā sambhavanti.
and many wicked unwholesome states arise.

 

Transcendental (Nidānasaṁyuttaṁ, 23):

Avijjūpanisā saṅkhārā,
Dependent on ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

Saṅkhārūpanisā viññāṇaṁ,
Dependent on (volitional) processes: consciousness,

Viññāṇūpanisā nāmarūpaṁ,
Dependent on consciousness: mind and body,

Nāmarūpūpanisā saḷāyatanaṁ,
Dependent on mind and body: the six sense spheres,

Saḷāyatanūpanisā phasso,
Dependent on the six sense spheres: contact,

Phassūpanisā vedanā,
Dependent on contact: feeling,

Vedanūpanisā taṇhā,
Dependent on feeling: craving,

Taṇhūpanisā upādānaṁ,
Dependent on craving: attachment,

Upādānūpanisā bhavo,
Dependent on attachment: continuation,

Bhavūpanisā jāti,
Dependent on continuation: birth,

Jātūpanisā dukkhaṁ,
Dependent on birth: suffering,

Dukkhūpanisā saddhā,
Dependent on suffering: faith,

Saddhūpanisaṁ pāmojjaṁ,
Dependent on faith: delight,

Pāmojjūpanisā pīti,
Dependent on delight: joy,

Pītūpanisā passaddhi,
Dependent on joy: calm,

Passaddhūpanisaṁ sukhaṁ,
Dependent on calm: happiness,

Sukhūpaniso samādhi,
Dependent on happiness: concentration,

Samādhūpanisaṁ yathābhūtañāṇadassanaṁ,
Dependent on concentration: knowledge and vision of things as they are,

Yathābhūtañāṇadassanūpanisā nibbidā,
Dependent on knowledge and vision of things as they are: disinterest,

Nibbidūpaniso virāgo,
Dependent on disinterest: dispassion,

Virāgūpanisā vimutti,
Dependent on dispassion: freedom,

Vimuttūpanisaṁ khayeñāṇaṁ.
Dependent on freedom: knowldege of the destruction (of the pollutants).

 

Pratityasamutpāda from Lalitavistara (LV Ch. 26 vv. 36-39)

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Saṁkalpakalpajanitena ayoniśena
With the production of various thoughts that are not wise

⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑
Bhavate avidya, na pi saṁbhavako 'sya kaści,
Comes ignorance, no one is a producer of it,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Saṁskārahetu dadate, na ca saṁkramo 'sti,
Volitional (processes) are spoken of, but there is no maker,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Vijñānam-udbhavati saṁkramaṇaṁ pratītya,
Consciousness arises being made by conditions,

 

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Vijñāna nāma tatha rūpa samutthitāsti,
With consciousness there is an arising of name and form,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Nāme ca rūpi samudenti ṣaḍ-indriyāṇi,
With name and form originate the six sense spheres,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Ṣaḍ-indriyair nipatito itĭ sparśa uktaḥ,
Contact is said to fall upon the six sense spheres,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Sparśena tisra anuvartati vedanā ca,
With contact the three feelings follow along,

 

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Yat-kiṁci vedayitu sarva satṛṣṇa uktā,
Whatever feeling there is, all are said to be with craving,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−−−−
Tṛṣṇāta sarva upajāyati duḥkhaskandhaḥ,
From craving is born a whole mass of suffering,

⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Upadānato bhavati sarva bhavapravṛttiḥ,
From attachment comes the whole round of existence,

⏑−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Bhavapratyayā ca samudeti hi jātir-asya,
Because of continuation of existence birth arises for him,

 

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑−¦−⏑−−
Jātīnidāna jarăvyādhidukhāni bhonti,
With birth as condition comes the suffering of old-age and sickness,

⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Upapatti naika vividhā bhavapañjare 'smin,
Rebirth is not one, but various in the round of existence,

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Em eṣa sarva itĭ pratyayato jagasya,
Thus from all these conditions there is the world,

⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑
Na ca ātma puṅgalu na samkramako 'sti kaści.
There is no self or person encountered anywhere.

 

from Buddhacarita:

Reconstructed by E H Johnson from the Chinese and Tibetan versions of chapter 14, which is now lost in the Sanskrit.

49. Then as the third watch of that night drew on, the best of those who understood trance (dhyāna) meditated on the real nature of this world:—

50. “Alas! Living creatures obtain but toil; over and over again they are born, grow old, die, pass on and are reborn.

51. Further man’s sight is veiled by passion (rajas) and by the darkness of delusion (moha), and from the excess of his blindness he does not know the way out of this great suffering.”

52. After thus considering, he reflected in his mind, “What is it verily, whose existence causes the the approach of old age (jarā) and death (maraṇa)?”

53. Penetrating the truth to its core, he understood that old age and death are produced, when there is birth (jāti).

54. He saw that head-ache is only possible when the head is already in existence; for when the birth of a tree has come to pass, then only can the felling of it take place.

55. Then the thought again arose in him, “What does this birth proceed from?” Then he saw rightly that birth is produced from existence due to the power of the act (karmabhava).

56. With his divine eyesight he saw that active being (pravtti) proceeds from the act, not from a Creator (Iśvara) or from Nature (Prakti?) or from a self without a cause.

57. Just as, if the first knot in a bamboo is wisely cut, everything quickly comes into order, so his knowledge advanced in proper order.

58. Thereon the sage applied his mind to determining the origin of existence (bhava). Then he saw that the origin of existence was to be found in appropriation (upādāna).

59. This act arises from appropriating the various vows and rules (śīlavrata) of life, sensual pleasures (kāma), views of self (ātmavāda) and false views (dṣṭi), as fire arises by appropriating fuel.

60. Then the thought occurred to him, “From what cause does appropriation come?” Thereon he recognised the causal condition (pratyaya) of appropriation to lie in thirst (tṣṇā).

61. Just as the forest is set ablaze by a little fire, when the wind fans it, so thirst gives birth to the vast sins (kleśa) of sensual pleasure and the rest.

62. Then he reflected, “From what does thirst arise?” Thereon he concluded that the cause of thirst is sensation (vedanā).

63. Mankind, overwhelmed by their sensations, thirsts for the means of satisfying them; for no one in the absence of thirst takes pleasure in water.

64. Then he again meditated, “What is the source of sensation?” He, who had put an end to sensation, saw also the cause of sensation to be in contact (sparśa).

65. Contact is to be explained as the uniting of the object, the sense and the mind, whence sensation is produced, just as fire is produced from the uniting of the two rubbing sticks and fuel.

66. Next he considered that contact has a cause. Thereon he recognised the cause to lie in the six organs of sense (ṣaḍāyatana).

67. The blind man does not percieve objects, since his eye does not bring them into junction with his mind; if sight exists, the junction takes place. Therefore there is contact, when the sense-organs exists.

68. Further he made up his mind to understand the origin of the six organs of sense. Thereon the knower of causes knew the cause to be name-and-form (nāmarūpa).

69. Just as the leaf and the stalk are only said to exist when there is a shoot in existence, so the six organs of sense only arise when name-and-form is in existence.

70. Then the thought occurred to him, “What is the cause of name-and-form?” Thereon he, who had passed to the further side of knowledge (jñāṇa), saw its origin to lie in consciousness (vijñāṇa).

71. When consciousness arises, name-and-form is produced. When the development of the seed is completed, the sprout assumes a bodily form.

72. Next he considered, “From what does consciousness come into being?” Then he knew that it is produced by supporting itself on name-and-form.

73. Then after he had understood the order of causality, he thought over it; his mind travelled over the views that he had formed and did not turn aside to other thoughts.

74. Consciousness is the causal condition from which name and form is produced. Name-and-form again is the support on which consciousness is based.

75. Just as a boat conveys a man . . . . . . , so consciousness and name-and-form are causes of each other.

76. Just as redhot iron causes grass to blaze and as blazing grass makes iron redhot, of such a kind is their mutual causality.

77. Thus he understood that from consciousness arises name-and-from, from the latter originate the senses and from the senses arises contact.

78. But of contact he knew sensation to be born, out of sensation thirst, out of thirst appropriation, and out of appropriation similarly existence.

79. From exixtence comes birth, from birth he knew old age and death to arise. He rightly understood that the world is produced by the causal conditions.

80. Then this conclusion came firmly on him, that from the annihilation of birth old age and death are suppressed (nirodha), that from the destruction of existence birth itself is destroyed, and that existence ceases to be through the suppression of appropriation.

81. Further the latter is suppressed through the suppression of thirst; if sensation does not exist, thirst does not exist; if contact is destroyed, sensation does not come into existence; from the non-existence of the six organs of sense contact is destroyed.

82. Similarly if name-and-form is rightly suppressed, all the six organs of sense are destroyed too; and the former is suppressed through the suppression of consciousness, and the latter is suppressed also through the suppression of the factors (saṁskāra).

83. Similarly the great seer understood that the factors are suppressed by the complete absence of ignorance (avidyā). Therefore he knew properly what was to be known and stood out before the world as the Buddha.