Ānāpānasatisuttaṁ ChS: Ānāpānassati-, and so throughout. We would, in fact, expect gemination in this word as we see in e.g. anussati, but it appears that the Burmese reading is a scribal correction and that historically the form has been written without gemination.01 (MN 118)
The Discourse about Mindfulness while Breathing

The Setting

Evaṁ Thai: evam.02 me sutaṁ:
Thus I heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī

Pubbārāme Migāramātupāsāde,
at Migāra's Mother's mansion in the Eastern Grounds, There were two main monasteries in Sāvatthī: Jetavana, given by the merchant Anāthapiṇḍika (known as the chief of male alms-givers, dāyakānaṁ aggaṁ), and Pubbārāma, which was given by Visākhā (known as the chief of female alms-givers, dāyikānaṁ aggaṁ). According to tradition the Buddha spent the Rains Retreats in one or other of these monasteries from his 20th Rains Retreat until his 44th, so this discourse can be traced to the later period of his teaching career.03

sambahulehi abhiññātehi abhiññātehi The repetition of the same word (abhiññātehi) in the Pāḷi indicates emphasis: very well known.04 Therehi Sāvakehi saddhiṁ
together with a great many very well-known Elder Disciples

āyasmatā ca Sāriputtena, Thai: Sārīputtena; Thai always spells the name like this.05 āyasmatā ca Mahāmoggallānena,
(such as) with venerable Sāriputta, with venerable Mahāmoggallāna,

āyasmatā ca Mahākassapena, āyasmatā ca Mahākaccāyanena,
with venerable Mahākassapa, with venerable Mahākaccāyana,

āyasmatā ca Mahākoṭṭhitena, āyasmatā ca Mahākappinena,
with venerable Mahākoṭṭhita, with venerable Mahākappina,

āyasmatā ca Mahācundena, āyasmatā ca Anuruddhena, Thai omits āyasmatā ca Anuruddhena, probably by mistake.06
with venerable Mahācunda, with venerable Anuruddha,

āyasmatā ca Revatena, āyasmatā ca Ānandena,
with venerable Revata, with venerable Ānanda,

aññehi ca abhiññātehi abhiññātehi Therehi Sāvakehi saddhiṁ.
together with other very well-known Elder Disciples.

The Training of the Monks

Tena kho pana samayena Therā bhikkhū nave bhikkhū Thai omits nave bhikkhū, but includes it in the repetition below.07 ovadanti anusāsanti.
Then at that time the Elder monks were advising and instructing the new monks. Comm: ovadanti anusāsantī ti āmisasaṅgahena dhammasaṅgahena cā ti; dvīhi saṅgahehi saṅgaṇhitvā kammaṭṭhānovādānusāsanīhi ovadanti ca anusāsanti ca; advising and instructing means assisting in material (needs) and in spiritual ones; having assisted with these two assistances, they advised and instructed with advice and instruction in subjects for meditation (kammaṭṭhāna).08

Appekacce Therā bhikkhū dasa pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
Some Elder monks were advising and instructing ten monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū vīsam-pi PTS: vīsatim pi, and below, alternative form.09 bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing twenty monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū tiṁsam-pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing thirty monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū cattārīsam-pi BJT: cattarīsam-pi; Thai: cattāḷīsam-pi, and below, alternative spelling.10 bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing forty monks,

te ca navā bhikkhū Therehi bhikkhūhi ovadiyamānā anusāsiyamānā
and while those new monks were being advised and instructed by the Elder monks

uḷāraṁ Thai: oḷāraṁ, and below, alternative spelling.11 pubbenāparaṁ visesaṁ pajānanti. PTS, ChS: jananti, and below, different form with more or less the same meaning.12
they came to know successive lofty attainments. Comm: sīlaparipūraṇādito pubbavisesato uḷārataraṁ aparaṁ kasiṇaparikammādivisesaṁ jānantī ti; with the completion of virtue and so on they came to know other much loftier attainments based on the preparations for colour-circle meditation.13

Tena kho pana samayena Bhagavā Tad-ahuposathe pannarase, Thai: paṇṇarase, and below. Both forms seem to be current.14
Then at that time the Gracious One, on that very Uposatha day of the fifteenth, The Uposatha day is the new or full moon day which falls twice a month. There is normally 15 days between each Uposatha, but adjustments are made so that the 3rd and the 7th in each season fall on the 14th day. On this day the Community assembles to hear the chanting of the Pātimokkha code of discipline (except at the Pavāraṇā, see the next note).15

Pavāraṇāya puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā,
on the Pavāraṇā full moon night, The Pavāraṇā (Invitation) is a formal ceremony of the Community which takes place at the end of the Rains Retreat, which normally runs from July to October for the early Rains, or from August to November. At the ceremony each monk or nun makes an Invitation to other Community members to point out any shortcomings in their behaviour.16

Bhikkhusaṅghaparivuto abbhokāse nisinno hoti.
was sat in the open air surrounded by the Community of monks.

Atha kho Bhagavā,
Then the Gracious One,

tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ Thai omits second tuṇhībhūtaṁ, here and below. The repetition indicates emphasis: complete silence.17 Bhikkhusaṅghaṁ anuviloketvā, bhikkhū āmantesi:
after seeing the community of monks were maintaining complete silence, addressed the monks (saying):

“Āraddhosmi bhikkhave imāya paṭipadāya,
“I am satisfied, Comm: Āraddho ti tuṭṭho.18 monks, with this practice,

āraddhacittosmi bhikkhave imāya paṭipadāya
my mind is satisfied with this practice,

tasmātiha bhikkhave bhiyyosomattāya viriyaṁ ChS: vīriyaṁ, ChS always spells this word in this way, further instances will not be noted.19 ārabhatha
therefore, monks, put forth even more energy

appattassa pattiyā, anadhigatassa adhigamāya, asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya,
for the attainment of the unattained, for the accomplishment of the unaccomplished, for the realisation of the unrealised, The datives in this sentence are being used like infinitives and have verbal force, the use of dassanāya 4 lines below is similar.20

idhevāhaṁ Sāvatthiyaṁ Komudiṁ cātumāsiniṁ āgamissāmī.” ti BJT, ChS: āgamessāmī ti, and similarly throughout, alternative form.21
I will be right here at Sāvatthī until the fourth month of Komudī comes.” Komudī is the full-moon night of the month Kattikā (October-November), when the water-lily (kumuda) is said to blossom.22

Assosuṁ kho jānapadā bhikkhū:
The monks in the country heard:

“Bhagavā kira tattheva Sāvatthiyaṁ Komudiṁ cātumāsiniṁ āgamissatī,” ti
“The Gracious One will be right there at Sāvatthī until the fourth month of Komudī comes,”

te ca ChS omits ca.23 jānapadā bhikkhū Sāvatthiṁ Thai: Sāvatthiyaṁ, but osarati normally takes the accusative, not the locative.24 osaranti Bhagavantaṁ dassanāya. Dassanāya is a dative being used as a quasi-infinitive.25
and those monks in the country descended on Sāvatthī to see the Gracious One.

Te ca kho PTS, Thai omit kho.26 Therā bhikkhū bhiyyosomattāya nave bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
Those Elder monks put forth even more energy advising and instructing the new monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū dasa pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing ten monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū visam-pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing twenty monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū tiṁsam-pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing thirty monks,

appekacce Therā bhikkhū cattārīsam-pi bhikkhū ovadanti anusāsanti,
some Elder monks were advising and instructing forty monks,

te ca navā bhikkhū therehi bhikkhūhi ovadiyamānā anusāsiyamānā
and while those new monks were being advised and instructed by the Elder monks

uḷāraṁ pubbenāparaṁ visesaṁ pajānanti.
they came to know (even more) successive lofty attainments.

Tena kho pana samayena Bhagavā Tad-ahuposathe pannarase,
Then at that time the Gracious One, on that very Uposatha day of the fifteenth,

Komudiyā cātumāsiniyā puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā,
on the Komudī full moon night at the end of four months,

Bhikkhusaṅghaparivuto abbhokāse nisinno hoti.
was sat in the open air surrounded by the Community of monks.

Atha kho Bhagavā
Then the Gracious One,

tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhibhūtaṁ Bhikkhusaṅghaṁ anuviloketvā bhikkhū āmantesi:
after seeing the community of monks were maintaining complete silence, addressed the monks (saying):

“Apalāpāyaṁ bhikkhave parisā; nippalāpāyaṁ bhikkhave parisā,
“The assembly, monks, is without frivolous speech; the assembly, monks, is free from frivolous speech,

suddhā sāre Thai: suddhasāre; compound form of the words in the text.27 patiṭṭhitā.
it is solely established in the essential.

Tathārūpo ayaṁ bhikkhave Bhikkhusaṅgho, tathārūpāyaṁ ChS: tathārūpā ayaṁ, and similarly throughout, parsed form of the words in the text.28 bhikkhave parisā,
Such, monks, is this Community of monks, such, monks, is this assembly,

yathārūpā parisā āhuneyyā pāhuneyyā dakkhiṇeyyā añjalikaraṇīyā, PTS: āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo, there needs to be agreement between parisā and the words in apposition.29
and the assembly is worthy of offerings, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverential salutation,

anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassa. PTS adds ti.30
it is an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. The last phrase (from āhuneyyā... onwards) is the concluding part of the praise of the Community that occurs in the formula beginning: Iti pi so...31

Tathārūpo ayaṁ bhikkhave Bhikkhusaṅgho, tathārūpāyaṁ bhikkhave parisā,
Such, monks, is this Community of monks, such, monks, is this assembly,

yathārūpāya parisāya appaṁ dinnaṁ bahuṁ Thai, ChS: bahu, here and just below; there needs to be agreement in the adjectives.32 hoti,
and giving a little gift to the assembly produces a great amount (of merit),

bahuṁ dinnaṁ bahutaraṁ.
and a great gift (produces) an even greater amount.

Tathārūpo ayaṁ bhikkhave Bhikkhusaṅgho, tathārūpāyaṁ bhikkhave parisā,
Such, monks, is this Community of monks, such, monks, is this assembly,

yathārūpā parisā dullabhā dassanāya lokassa.
and the assembly is rare to see in the world.

Tathārūpo ayaṁ bhikkhave Bhikkhusaṅgho, tathārūpāyaṁ bhikkhave parisā,
Such, monks, is this Community of monks, such, monks, is this assembly,

yathārūpaṁ parisaṁ alaṁ yojanagaṇanāni dassanāya gantuṁ puṭosenāpi. Thai: pūṭaṁsenāpi, which shows the first word in the accusative case.33
and it is suitable to go many leagues, even with a bag of provisions, to see this assembly. Comm: puṭosaṁ vuccati pātheyyaṁ. The phrase is somewhat elliptic, but the meaning is that even going on a long journey for which provisions would be required is worthwhile if one gets to see such an assembly.34

Noble Persons

Santi PTS reads: Tathārūpo ayaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhusaṅgho tathārūpā 'yaṁ, bhikkhave, parisā. Santi..., but the repetition is unwarranted.35 bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Arahanto khīṇāsavā vusitavanto katakaraṇīyā,
who are Worthy, without pollutants, who have done what ought to be done,

ohitabhārā anuppattasadatthā
who have put down the burden, reached their goal,

parikkhīṇabhavasaññojanā PTS: -saṁyojan-, alternative spelling. PTS always spells this word in this way, further instances will not be noticed.36 sammad-aññā vimuttā:
destroyed the fetters that lead to continuation (of existence), who through final knowledge are free:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks. Worthy Ones (Arahantā) are the highest of the four Noble Persons (Ariya Puggalā).37

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
who, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters,

opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā:
will arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ PTS: imāsmiṁ, printer's error.38 Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
who, through the complete destruction of three fetters,

rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā,
and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion,

Sakadāgāmino sakid-eva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti:
are Once-Returners, and will return only once more to this world, and (then) will make an end to suffering:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
who, through the complete destruction of three fetters,

Sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyanā: BJT: -parāyaṇā, there is very often a variation in the texts between & n.39
are Stream-Enterers, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Monks Practising the 37 Things on the Side of Awakening

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Catunnaṁ Satipaṭṭhānānaṁ bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Four Ways of Attending to Mindfulness: See my text and translation of Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta elsewhere on this website.40

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks. These monks enumerated here are all in one way or another practising to become Noble Persons through developing the various factors in the 37 things on the side of Awakening.41

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Catunnaṁ Sammappadhānānaṁ bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Four Right Strivings: This is the same as Right Endeavour (Sammāvāyāma) in the Eightfold Noble Path.42

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Catunnaṁ Iddhipādānaṁ Thai, ChS abbreviate as catunnaṁ sammappadhānānaṁ bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti ... catunnaṁ iddhipādānaṁ ... pañcannaṁ indriyānaṁ, etc. until the last item in the bojjhaṅga-s, which is written out in full.43 bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Four Paths to Power: The Four Paths to Power are Concentration of desire ... energy ... mind ... (and) investigation ... accompanied by the process of striving.44

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Pañcannaṁ Indriyānaṁ bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Five Faculties: Faith (saddhā), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samādhi), and wisdom (paññā).45

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Pañcannaṁ Balānaṁ bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Five Strengths: The same as the Faculties, but brought to perfection.46

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Sattannaṁ PTS: sattānaṁ, alternative spelling; we often see a variation between long vowel and simple consonant (Vc) and short vowel and doubled consonants (vcc) in the texts.47 Bojjhaṅgānaṁ bhāvanānuyegamayuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Seven Factors of Awakening: These are enumerated below.48

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

Ariyassa Aṭṭhaṅgikassa Maggassa bhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the Noble Eight-Fold Path: Right View (Sammādiṭṭhi), Right Thought (Sammāsaṅkappa), Right Speech (Sammāvācā), Right Action (Sammākammanta), Right Livelihood (Sammā-Ājīva), Right Endeavour (Sammāvāyāma), Right Mindfulness (Sammāsati), Right Concentration (Sammāsamādhi).49

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Six further meditations These six meditations are also grouped together elsewhere, e.g. MahāRāhulasutta (MN 61). The first four are collectively known as the Spiritual Moods (Brahmavihārā).50

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

mettābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation that is friendliness: Mettā is an abstract formation from the normal word for friend in Pāḷi, mitta.51

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

karuṇābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā Thai, ChS abbreviate as mettābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti ... karuṇābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā, etc. up and till aniccasaññā-, which is written in full.52 viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation that is kindness: Often translated as compassion, but that word is more correctly applied to anukampa, it means being concerned for the welfare of others, kindness towards other beings.53

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

muditābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation that is gladness: Happiness at the success of others, the opposite of jealousy and envy.54

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

upekkhābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā PTS: upekhā, alternative spelling, showing the ‘long vowel-single consonant/short vowel-double consonant’ alternation. PTS always spells this word thus.55 viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation that is equanimity: For this and the next two meditations see my discussion in the notes to MahāRāhulovādasutta (MN 62).56

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

asubhabhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation on the unattractive:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.

Santi bhikkhave bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe
Monks, there are monks in this Community of monks

aniccasaññābhāvanānuyogam-anuyuttā viharanti:
who live engaged in and devoted to the development of the meditation that is the perception of impermanence:

evarūpā pi bhikkhave santi bhikkhū imasmiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghe.
monks, there are such monks in this Community of monks.