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Book IX: [Kumārānveṣaṇo]
[The Deputation to the Prince]
tatastadā maṁtripurohitau tau vāṣpapratodābhihatau nṛpeṇa |
viddhau sadaśvāviva sarvayatnātsauhārdaśīghraṁ yayaturvanaṁ tat || 9.1
1. Then the two, the counsellor and the family priest, beaten by the king with his scourge of tears, went with every effort to that forest in the hurry of affection, like two noble horses goaded.
tamāśramam jātapariśramau tāvupetya kāle sadṛśānuyātrau |
rājarddhimutsṛjya vinītaceṣṭāvupeyaturbhārgavadhiṣṇyameva || 9.2
2. Having come at last full of weariness to that hermitage, accompanied by a fitting train, — they dismissed their royal pomp and with sober gestures entered the abode of Bhārgava.
tau nyāyatastaṁ pratipūjya vipraṁ tenārcitau tāvapi cānurūpam |
kṛtāsanau bhārgavamāsanasthaṁ chittvā kathāmūcaturātmakṛtyam || 9.3
3. Having saluted that Brāhman with due respect, and having been honoured by him with due reverence in return, having seated themselves, plunging at once into the subject, they addressed Bhārgava, who was likewise seated, concerning their errand.
śuddhaujasaḥ śuddhaviśālakīrterikṣvākuvaṁśaprabhavasya rājñaḥ |
imaṁ janaṁ vettu bhavānadhīraṁ śrutagrahe maṁtraparigrahe ca || 9.4
4. ‘Let your honour know us to be respectively imperfect proficients in preserving the sacred learning and in retaining the state-counsels, — in the service of the monarch of the Ikṣvāku race, pure in his valour and pure and wide in his glory.
tasyeṁdrakalpasya jayaṁtakalpaḥ putro jarāmṛtyubhayaṁ titīrṣuḥ |
ihābhyupetaḥ kila tasya hetorāvāmupetau bhagavānavaitu || 9.5
5. ‘His son, who is like Jayanta, while he himself is like Indra, has come here, it is said, desirous to escape from the fear of old age and death, — know that we two are come here on account of him.’
tau so 'bravīdasti sa dīrghabāhuḥ prāptaḥ kumāro na tu nāvabuddhaḥ |
dharmo 'yamāvartaka ityavetya yātastvarāḍābhimukho mumukṣuḥ || 9.6
6. He answered them, ‘That prince of the long arms did indeed come here, but not as one unawakened; "this dharma only brings us back again," — recognising this, he went off forthwith towards Arāḍa, seeking liberation.’
tasmāttatastāvupalabhya tattvaṁ taṁ vipramāmaṁttya tadaiva sadyaḥ |
khinnāvakhinnāviva rājaputraḥ prasasratustena yataḥ sa yātaḥ || 9.7
7. Then they two, having understood the true state of things, bade that Brāhman at once farewell, and wearied though they were, went on as if they were unwearied, thither whither the prince was gone.
yāṁtau tatastau sṛjayā vihīnamapaśyatāṁ taṁ vapuṣā jvalaṁtam |
nṛpopaviṣṭaṁ pathi vṛkṣamūle sūryaṁ ghanābhogamiva praviṣṭam || 9.8
8. As they were going, they saw him bereft of all ornaments, Is sṛjayā for srajā?01 but still radiant with his beauty, sitting like a king in the road at the foot of a tree, like the sun under the canopy of a cloud.
yānaṁ vihāyopayayau tatastaṁ purohito maṁtradhareṇa sārdham |
yathā vanasthaṁ sahavāmadevo rāmaṁ didṛkṣurmuniraurvaśeyaḥ || 9.9
9. Leaving his chariot, the family priest then went up to the prince with the counsellor, as the saint Aurvaśeya Agastya, the son of Urvaśī. Vāmadeva was Daśaratha's counsellor.02 went with Vāmadeva, wishing to see Rāma when he dwelt in the forest.
tāvarcayāmāsaturarhatastaṁ divīva śukrāṁgirasau maheṁdram |
pratyarcayāmāsa sa cārhatastau divīva śukrāṁgirasau maheṁdraḥ || 9.10
10. They paid him honour as was fitting, as Śukra and Aṅgiras honoured Indra in heaven; and he in return paid due honour to them, as Indra in heaven to Śukra and Aṅgiras.
kṛtābhyanujñāvabhitastatastau niṣīdatuḥ śākyakuladhvajasya |
virejatustasya ca saṁnikarṣe punarvasū yogagatāviveṁdoḥ || 9.11
11. Then they, having obtained his permission, sat down near him who was the banner of the Śākya race; and they shone in his proximity like the two stars of the asterism Punarvasū in conjunction with the moon.
taṁ vṛkṣamūlasthamabhijvalaṁtaṁ purohito rājasutaṁ babhāṣe |
yathopaviṣṭaṁ divi pārijāte vṛhaspatiḥ śakrasutaṁ jayaṁtam || 9.12
12. The family priest addressed the prince who shone brightly as he sat at the foot of the tree, as Vṛhaspati addressed Indra's son Jayanta, seated in heaven under the heavenly tree pārijāta:
tvacchokaśalye hṛdayāvagāḍhe mohaṁ gato bhūmitale muhūrtam |
kumāra rājā nayanāṁbuvarṣo yattvāmavocattadidaṁ nibodha || 9.13
13. ‘O prince, consider for a moment what the king with his eyes raining tears said to thee, as he lay fainting on the ground with the arrow of thy sorrow plunged into his heart.
jānāmi dharmaṁ prati niścayaṁ te paraimi te 'cyāvinametamartham |
ahaṁ tvakāle vanasaṁśrayātte śokāgnināgnipratimena dahye || 9.14
14. “I know that thy resolve is fixed upon religion, and I am convinced that this purpose of thine is unchanging; Conjectural. [The Tibetan reads the second line, khyod·kyi obyuṅ·var ogyur·var don·ni es·pao, ‘I know thy purpose which is about to arise (or has arisen) in thy mind’. Can they have read bhāvinam or bhāvitam? H.W.]03 but I am consumed with a flame of anguish like fire at thy flying to the woods at an inopportune time.
tadehi dharmapriya matpriyārthaṁ dharmārthameva tyaja buddhimetām |
ayaṁ hi mā śokarayaḥ pravṛddho nadīrayaḥ kūlamivābhihaṁti || 9.15
15. “Come, thou who lovest duty, for the sake of what is my heart's desire, — abandon this purpose for the sake of duty; this huge swollen stream of sorrow sweeps me away as a river's torrent its bank.
meghāṁbukakṣādriṣu yā hi vṛttiḥ samīraṇārkāgnimahāśanīnām |
tāṁ vṛttimasmāsu karoti śoko vikarṣaṇocchoṣaṇadāhabhedaiḥ || 9.16
16. “That effect I read vṛttiḥ.04 which is wrought in the clouds, water, the dry grass, and the mountains by the wind, the sun, the fire, and the thunderbolt, — that same effect this grief produces in us by its tearing in pieces, its drying up, its burning, and its cleaving.
tadbhuṁkṣva tāvadvasudhādhipatyaṁ kāle vanaṁ yāsyasi śāstradṛṣṭe |
aniṣṭabaṁdhau kuru māpyupekṣāṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu dayā hi dharmaḥ || 9.17
17. “Enjoy therefore for a while the sovereignty of the earth, — thou shalt go to the forest at the time provided by the śāstras, — do not show disregard for thy unhappy kindred, — compassion for all creatures is the true religion.
na caiṣa dharmo vana eva siddhaḥ pure 'pi siddhirniyatā yatīnām |
buddhiśca yatnaśca nimittamatra vanaṁ ca liṁgaṁ ca hi bhīrucihnam || 9.18
18. “Religion is not wrought out only in the forests, the salvation of ascetics can be accomplished even in a city; thought and effort are the true means; the forest and the badge are only a coward's signs.
maulīdharairaṁsaviṣaktahāraiḥ keyūraviṣṭabdhasrajairnareṁdraiḥ |
lakṣmyaṁkamadhye parivartamānaiḥ prāpto gṛhasthairapi mokṣadharmaḥ || 9.19
19. “Liberation has been attained even by householders, Indras among men, who wore diadems, and carried strings of pearls suspended on their shoulders, whose garlands were entangled with bracelets, and who lay cradled in the lap of Fortune.
dhruvānujau yau balivajrabāhū vaibhrājamāṣāḍhamathāṁtidevam |
videharājaṁ janakaṁ tathaiva pākadrumaṁ senajitaśca rājñaḥ || 9.20
20. “Bali and Vajrabāhu, the two younger brothers of Dhruva, Vaibhrāja, Āṣāḍha and Antideva, Cf. I,57; IX, 60.05 and Janaka also, the king of the Videhas, and king Senajit's son, his tree of ripe blessing; My reading pākadrumam is conjectural, Pāradrumau as two old kings would be a possible reading. Senajit's son is praised for his philosophical depth in Mahābh. XII, 6524, &c.; he is there called Medhāvin. [The Tibetan has brtan·pai (dhruva) nu vo, ‘the firm one's younger brother (?)'; it also has ogro daṅ daṅ ljon·in·can for pākadruma, ‘having a tree of—’? It takes senajitaṣka rājñaḥ as acc. plural. H.W.]06
etān gṛhasthān nṛpatīnavehi naiḥśreyase dharmavidhau vinītān |
ubhe 'pi tasmādyugapadbhajasva cittādhipatyaṁ ca nṛpaśriyaṁ ca || 9.21
21. “Know that all these great kings who were householders were well skilled in attaining the merit which leads to final bliss, — do thou also therefore obtain both Ubhe 'pi, although with pragṛhya e.07 simultaneously — royal magnificence and the control over the mind.
icchāmi hi tvāmupaguhya gāḍhaṁ kṛtābhiṣekaṁ salilārdrameva |
dhṛtātapatraṁ samudīkṣamāṇastenaiva harṣeṇa vanaṁ praveṣṭum || 9.22
22. “I desire, — when I have once closely embraced thee after thy kingly consecration is once performed, and while thou art still wet with the sacred water, — when I behold thee with the pomp of the royal umbrella, — in the fulness of that joy to enter the forest."
ityabravīdbhūmipatirbhavaṁtaṁ vākyena vāṣpagrathitākṣareṇa |
śrutvā bhavānarhati tatpriyārthaṁ snehena tatsnehamanuprayātum || 9.23
23. ‘Thus did the king say to thee in a speech whose words were stopped by tears, — surely having heard it, for the sake of what is so dear to him, thou wilt with all affection follow his affection.
śokāṁbhasi tvatprabhave hyagādhe duḥkhārṇave majjati śākyarājaḥ |
tasmāttamuttāraya nāthahīnaṁ nirāśrayaṁ magnamivārṇave gām || 9.24
24. ‘The king of the Śākyas is drowned in a deep sea of sorrow, full of waves of trouble, springing from thee; do thou therefore deliver him helpless and protectorless like an ox drowning in the sea.
bhīṣmeṇa gaṁgodarasaṁbhavena rāmeṇa rāmeṇa ca bhārgaveṇa |
śrutvā kṛtaṁ karma pituḥ priyārthaṁ pitustvamapyarhasi kartumiṣṭam || 9.25
25. ‘Having heard that Bhīṣma who sprang from Gaṅgā's womb, Rāma, and Rāma the son of Bhṛgu, — all did what would please their fathers; surely thou too wilt do thy father's desire.
saṁvardhayitrīṁ ca samehi devīmagastyajuṣṭāṁ diśamaprayātām |
pranaṣṭavatsāmiva vatsalāṁ gāmajasramārttāṁ kalituṁ na cārhasi || 9.26
26. ‘Consider also the queen, who brought thee up, who has not yet gone to the region inhabited by Agastya The south,— the region of the god of death.08 — wilt thou not take some heed of her, who ceaselessly grieves like a fond cow that has lost her calf?
haṁsena haṁsīmiva viprayuktāṁ tyaktāṁ gajeneva vane kareṇum |
ārttāṁ sanāthāmapi nāthahīnāṁ trātuṁ vadhūmarhasi darśanena || 9.27
27. ‘Surely thou wilt succour thy wife by the sight of thee, who now mourns widowed yet with her lord still alive, — like a swan separated from her mate or a female elephant deserted in the forest by her companion.
ekaṁ sutaṁ bālamanarhaduḥkhaṁ saṁtāpasaṁtapta [.. .. .. .. ..] |
taṁ rāhulaṁ mokṣaya baṁdhuśokād rāhūpasargādiva pūrṇacaṁdram || 9.28
28. ‘Thy only son, a child little deserving such woe, distressed with sorrow, and Five syllables are here lost,—apakvasattvam? [Ed: Johnson reads saṁtāpamantargatamudvahantam (which gives the line analysis −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−), and translates: ‘yet bearing the smart of sorrow in his heart’.]09 [.. .. .. .. ..] — O deliver Rāhula from the grief of his kindred like the full moon from the contact of Rāhu!
śokāgninā tvadviraheṁdhanena niḥśvāsadhūmena tamaḥśikhena |
tvaddarśanāyarchati dahyamānaḥ so 'ṁtaḥpuraṁ caiva puraṁ ca kṛtsnam || 9.29
29. ‘Burned with the fire of anguish within him, to which thy absence adds fresh fuel, — a fire whose smoke is sighs and its flame despair, — he wanders for a sight of thee through the women's apartments and the whole city.’
sa bodhisattvaḥ paripūrṇasattvaḥ śrutvā vacastasya purohitasya |
dhyātvā muhūrtaṁ guṇavadguṇajñaḥ pratyuttaraṁ praśritamityuvāca || 9.30
30. The Bodhisattva, — whose perfection was absolute, — having heard the words of the family priest, reflected for a moment, knowing all the virtues of the virtuous, and then thus uttered his gentle reply:
avaimi bhāvaṁ tanayaprasaktaṁ viśeṣato yo mayi bhūmipasya |
jānannapi vyādhijarāvipadbhyo bhītastvagatyā svajanaṁ tyajāmi || 9.31
31. ‘I well know the paternal tenderness Should we read tanayaprasaktam?10 of the king, especially that which he has displayed towards me; yet knowing this as I do, still alarmed at sickness, old age, and death, I am inevitably forced to leave my kindred.
draṣṭuṁ priyaṁ kaḥ svajanaṁ hi necchennāsau yadi syātpriyaviprayogaḥ |
yadā tu bhūtvāpi bhavedviyogastato guruṁ snigdhamapi tyajāmi || 9.32
32. ‘Who would not wish to see his dear kindred, if but this separation from beloved ones did not exist? but since even after it has been once, separation will still come again, it is for this that I abandon my father, however loving.
maddhetukaṁ yattu narādhipasya śokaṁ bhavānarhati na priyaṁ me |
yatsvapnabhūteṣu samāgameṣu saṁtapyate bhāvini viprayogaiḥ || 9.33
33. ‘I do not however approve that thou shouldst consider the king's grief as caused by me, when in the midst of his dream-like unions he is afflicted by thoughts of separations in the future.
evaṁ ca te niścayametu buddhirdṛṣṭvā vicitraṁ vividhapracāram |
saṁtāpaheturna suto na baṁdhurajñānanaimittika eṣa tāpaḥ || 9.34
34. ‘Thus let thy thoughts settle into certainty, having seen the multiform in its various developments; neither a son nor kindred is the cause of sorrow, — this sorrow is only caused by ignorance.
yadādhvagānāmiva saṁgatānāṁ kāle viyogo niyataḥ prajānām |
prājño janaḥ ko nu bhajeta śokaṁ baṁdhupriyaḥ sannapi baṁdhuhīnaḥ || 9.35
35. ‘Since parting is inevitably fixed in the course of time for all beings, just as for travellers who have joined company on a road, — what wise man would cherish sorrow, when he loses his kindred, even though he loves them? Some letters have been lost in the original.11
ihaiti hitvā svajanaṁ paratra pralabhya cehāpi punaḥ prayāti |
gatvāpi tatrāpyaparatra gacchetyevaṁ jano yogini ko 'nurodhaḥ || 9.36
36. ‘Leaving his kindred in another world, he departs hither; and having stolen away Pralabhya, cf. Horace, ‘vivens moriensque fefellit’. [The Tibetan has rab·tu bslas·nas, ‘having deceived’. H.W.]12 from them here, he goes forth once more; "having gone thither, go thou elsewhere also," — such is the lot of mankind, — what consideration can the yogin have for them? The Tibetan has for the fourth line de·ltar (evaṁ) odor·ldan skye·la rjes·su rten rnam ci, ‘thus what kind of reliance is there on man who is of a leaving disposition?’ Should we read in the orginal ityevaṁ jane tyāgini ko ’nurodhaḥ?13
yadā ca garbhātprabhṛti prajānāṁ vadhāya [.. ..] nubadhāya mṛtyuḥ Johnson reads: yadā ca garbhāt prabhṛti pravṛttaḥ sarvāsv avasthāsu vadhāya mṛtyuḥ.14 |
kasmādakāle vanasaṁśrayaṁ me putrapriyastatra bhavān avocat || 9.37
37. ‘Since from the moment of leaving the womb death is a characteristic adjunct, Can anubadhāya be wrongly used for anubandhāya?15 why, in thy affection for thy son, hast thou called my departure to the forest ill-timed?
bhavatyakālo viṣayābhipattau kālastathaivābhividhau pradiṣṭaḥ | 9.38
kālo jagatkarṣati sarvakālānarcārhake śreyasi sarvakālaḥ ||
38. ‘There may be an "ill time" in one's attaining a worldly object, — time indeed is described as inseparably connected with all things; Cf. Pāṇ.III, 3, 44.16 time drags the world into all its various times; but all time suits a bliss which is really worthy of praise. I.e. mukti can never be ill-timed. But this is an obscure śloka (verse).17
rājyaṁ mumukṣurmayi yacca rājā tadapyudāraṁ sadṛśaṁ pituśca |
pratigrahītuṁ mama na kṣamaṁ tu lobhādapathyānnamivāturasya || 9.39
39. ‘That the king should wish to surrender to me his kingdom, — this is a noble thought, well worthy of a father; but it would be as improper for me to accept it, as for a sick man through greed to accept unwholesome food.
kathaṁ nu mohāyatanaṁ nṛpatvaṁ kṣamaṁ prapattuṁ viduṣā nareṇa |
sodvegatā yatra madaḥ śramaśca paropacāreṇa ca dharmapīḍā || 9.40
40. ‘How can it be right for the wise man to enter royalty, the home of illusion, where are found anxiety, passion, and weariness, and the violation of all right through another's service?
jāṁbūnadaṁ harmyamiva pradīptaṁ viṣeṇa saṁyuktamivottamānnam |
grāhākulaṁ ca sthitaṁ [.. .. .. .. .. .. ..] ramyaṁ vyasanāśrayaṁ ca Johnson reads: grāhākulaṁ ca ambviva sāra vindaṁ rājyaṁ hi ramyaṁ vyasanāśrayaṁ ca, and translates the whole verse: ‘For kingship is at the same time full of delights and the vehicle of calamity, like a golden palace all on fire, like dainty food mixed with poison, or like a lotus-pond infested with crocodiles.’18 || 9.41
41. ‘The golden palace seems to me to be on fire; the daintiest viands seem mixed with poison; infested with crocodiles The remainder of the prince's speech is lost. By Beal's translation from the Chinese, fifteen verses are wanting. [Ed: the lacunae (which are here given in italics), are filled in in the text and translation presented here from Johnson's edition, where it appears that in fact only 10 verses were lost to Cowell's manuscripts. The numbers in italics for the rest of this chapter are given from Johnson's edition which necessarily parts company with Cowell's at this point.]19 [is the tranquil lotus-bed].’
itthaṁ ca rājyaṁ na sukhaṁ na dharmaḥ pūrve yathā jātaghṛṇā nareṁdrāḥ |
vayaḥprakarṣe 'parihāryaduḥkhe rājyāni muktvā vanameva jagmuḥ || 9.42
And thus kingship is neither pleasure nor dharma, so that the kings of old, when age came on with it's unavoidable suffering, felt disgust and, giving up their kingdoms, betook themselves to the forest.
varaṁ hi bhuktāni tṛṇānyaraṇye toṣaṁ paraṁ ratnamivopaguhya |
sahoṣitaṁ śrīsulabhairna caiva doṣairadṛśyairiva kṛṣṇasarpaiḥ || 9.43
For it is better to eat herbs in the forest, embracing the highest contentment as if one were concealing a jewel, than to live with the dangers to which sovereignty is exposed, as if with loathsome black snakes.
ślāghyaṁ hi rājyāni vihāya rājñāṁ dharmābhilāṣeṇa vanaṁ praveṣṭum |
bhagnapratijñasya na tūpapannaṁ vanaṁ parityajya gṛhaṁ praveṣṭum || 9.44
For it is praiseworthy for kings to leave their kingdoms and enter the forest in the desire for dharma, but it is not fitting to break one's vow and forsaking the forest to go to one's home.
jātaḥ kule ko hi naraḥ sasattvo dharmābhilāṣeṇa vanaṁ praviṣṭaḥ |
kāṣāyamutsṛjya vimuktalajjaḥ puraṁdarasyāpi puraṁ śrayeta || 9.45
For what man of resolution and good family, having once gone to the forest in the desire for dharma, would cast off the robe and, dead to shame, proceed to the city even of Puraṁdara?
lobhāddhi mohādathavā bhayena yo vāṁtamannaṁ punarādadīta |
lobhātsa mohādathavā bhayena saṁtyajya kāmān punarādadīta || 9.46
For only the man, who from greed, delusion or fear, would take again the food he has vomited up, would from greed, delusion or fear, abondon the lusts of the flesh and then return to them.
yaśca pradīptāccharaṇātkathaṁcinniṣkramya bhūyaḥ praviśettadeva |
gārhasthyamutsṛjya sa dṛṣṭadoṣo mohena bhūyo 'bhilaṣedgrahītum || 9.47
And the man who, after escaping with difficulty from a burning house, would enter that very house again, only he, after giving up the state of a householder, because he sees its dangers, would desire out of delusion to assume it again.
yā ca śrutirmokṣamavāptavanto nṛpā gṛhasthā iti naitadasti |
śamapradhānaḥ kva ca mokṣadharmo daṁḍapradhānaḥ kva ca rājadharmaḥ || 9.48
As for the tradition that kings obtained final emancipation while remaining in their homes, this is not the case. How can the dharma of salvation in which quietude predominates be reconciled with the dharma of kings in which severity of action predominates?
śame ratiścecchithilaṁ ca rājyaṁ rājye matiścecchamaviplavaśca |
śamaśca taikṣṇyaṁ ca hi nopapannaṁ śītoṣṇayoraikyamivodakāgnyoḥ || 9.49
If a king delights in quietude, his kingdom collapses; if his mind turns to his kingdom, his quietude is ruined. For quietude and severity are incompatible, like the union of water which is cold and fire which is hot.
tanniścayādvā vasudhādhipāste rājyāni muktvā śamamāptavaṁtaḥ |
rājyāṁgitā vā nibhṛtendriyatvādanaiṣṭhike mokṣakṛtābhimānāḥ || 9.50
Either therefore these lords of the earth resolutely cast aside their kingdoms and obtained quietude, or stained by kingship, they claimed to have attained liberation on the ground that their senses were under control, but in fact only reached a state that was not final.
teṣāṁ ca rājye 'stu śamo yathāvatprāpto vanaṁ nāhamaniścayena |
chittvā hi pāśaṁ gṛhabaṁdhusaṁjñaṁ muktaḥ punarna pravivikṣurasmi || 9.51
Or let it be conceded they duly attained quietude while holding kingship, still I have not gone to the forest with an undecided mind; for having cut through the net known as home and kindred I am freed and have no intention of re-entering the net."
ityātmavijñānaguṇānurūpaṁ muktaspṛhaṁ hetumadūrjitaṁ ca |
śrutvā nareṁdrātmajamuktavantaṁ pratyuttaraṁ maṁtradharo 'pyuvāca || 9.42 (9.52)
42. Having heard the king's son uttering this discourse, well suitable to his virtues and knowledge of the soul, freed from all desires, full of sound reasons, and weighty, — the counsellor thus made answer:
yo niścayo maṁtravarastavāyaṁ nāyaṁ na yukto na tu kālayuktaḥ |
śokāya hitvā pitaraṁ vayaḥsthaṁ syāddharmakāmasya hi te na dharmaḥ || 9.43 (9.53)
43. ‘This resolve of thine is an excellent counsel, not unfit in itself but only unfit at the present time; it could not be thy duty, loving duty as thou dost, to leave thy father in his old age to sorrow.
nūnaṁ ca buddhistava nātisūkṣmā dharmārthakāmeṣvavicakṣaṇā vā |
hetoradṛṣṭasya phalasya yastvaṁ pratyakṣamarthaṁ paribhūya yāsi || 9. 44 (9.54)
44. ‘Surely thy mind is not very penetrating, or it is ill-skilled in examining duty, wealth, and pleasure, The three well-known ‘secular’ ends of human action.20 — when for the sake of an unseen result thou departest disregarding a visible end.
punarbhavo 'stīti ca kecidāhurnāstīti kecinniyatapratijñāḥ |
evaṁ yadā saṁśayito 'yamarthastasmāt kṣamaṁ bhoktumupasthitā śrīḥ || 9.45 (9.55)
45. ‘Again, some say that there is another birth, — others with confident assertion say that there is not; since then the matter is all in doubt, it is right to enjoy the good fortune which comes into thy hand.
bhūyaḥ pravṛttiryadi kācidasti raṁsyāmahe tatra yathopapattau |
atha pravṛttiḥ parato na kācitsiddho 'prayatnājjagato 'sya mokṣaḥ || 9.46 (9.56)
46. ‘If there is any activity hereafter, we will enjoy ourselves in it as may offer; or if there is no activity beyond this life, then there is an assured liberation to all the world without any effort.
astīti kecitparalokamāhurmokṣasya yogaṁ na tu varṇayaṁti |
agneryathā hyuṣṇamapāṁ dravatvaṁ tadvatpravṛttau prakṛtiṁ vadaṁti || 9.47 (9.57)
47. ‘Some say there is a future life, but they do not allow the possibility of liberation; as fire is hot by nature and water liquid, so they hold that there is a special nature in our power of action. I.e. it cannot be abolished.21
kecitsvabhāvāditi varṇayaṁti śubhāśubhaṁ caiva bhavābhavau ca |
svābhāvikaṁ sarvamidaṁ ca yasmādato 'pi mogho bhavati prayatnaḥ || 9.48 (9.58)
48. ‘Some maintain that all things arise from inherent properties, — both good and evil and existence and non-existence; and since all this world thus arises spontaneously, therefore also all effort of ours is vain.
yadiṁdriyāṇāṁ niyataḥ pracāraḥ priyāpriyatvaṁ viṣayeṣu caiva |
saṁyujyate yajjarayārttibhiśca kastatra yatno nanu sa svabhāvaḥ || 9.49 (9.59)
49. ‘Since the action of the senses is fixed, and so too the agreeableness or the disagreeableness of outward objects, — then for that which is united to old age and pains, what effort can avail to alter it? Does it not all arise spontaneously?
adbhirhutāśaḥ śamamabhyupaiti tejāṁsi cāpo gamayaṁti śoṣam |
bhinnāni bhūtāni śarīrasaṁsthānyaikyaṁ ca dattvā jagadudvahaṁti || 9.50 (9.60)
50. ‘The fire becomes quenched by water, and fire causes I read gamayanti.22 water to evaporate; and different elements, united in a body, producing unity, bear up the world.
yatpāṇipādodarapṛṣṭhamūrdhnā nirvartate garbhagatasya bhāvaḥ |
yadātmanastasya ca tena yogaḥ svābhāvikaṁ tatkathayaṁti tajjñāḥ || 9.51 (9.61)
51. ‘That the nature of the embryo in the womb is produced as composed of hands, feet, belly, back, and head, and that it is also united with the soul, — the wise declare that all this comes of itself spontaneously.
kaḥ kaṁṭakasya prakaroti taikṣṇyaṁ vicitrabhāvaṁ mṛgapakṣiṇāṁ vā |
svabhāvataḥ sarvamidaṁ pravṛttaṁ na kāmakāro 'sti kutaḥ prayatnaḥ || 9.52 (9.62)
52. ‘Who causes the sharpness of the thorn? or the various natures of beasts and birds? All this has arisen spontaneously; there is no acting from desire, how then can there be such a thing as will?
sargaṁ vadaṁtīśvaratastathānye tatra prayatne puruṣaṣya ko 'rthaḥ |
ya eva heturjagataḥ pravṛttau heturnivṛttau niyataḥ sa eva || 9.53 (9.63)
53. ‘Others say that creation comes from Īśvara, what need then is there of the effort of the conscious soul? Puruṣa.23 That which is the cause of the action of the world, is also determined as the cause of its ceasing to act.
kecidvadaṁtyātmanimittameva prādurbhavaṁ caiva bhavakṣayaṁ ca |
prādurbhavaṁ tu pravadaṁtyayatnādyatnena mokṣādhigamaṁ bruvaṁti || 9.54 (9.64)
54. ‘Some say that the coming into being and the destruction of being are alike caused by the soul, but they say that coming into being arises without effort, while the attainment of liberation is by effort.
naraḥ pitṇāmanṛṇaḥ prajābhirvedairṛṣīṇāṁ kratubhiḥ surāṇām |
utpadyate sārdhamṛṇaistribhistairyasyāsti mokṣaḥ kila tasya mokṣaḥ || 9.55 (9.65)
55. ‘A man discharges his debt to his ancestors by begetting offspring, to the saints by sacred lore, to the gods by sacrifices; he is born with these three debts upon him, — whoever has liberation (from these,) he indeed has liberation.
ityevametena vidhikrameṇa mokṣaṁ sayatnasya vadaṁti tajjñāḥ |
prayatnavaṁto 'pi hi vikrameṇa mumukṣavaḥ khedamavāpnuvaṁti || 9.56 (9.66)
56. ‘Thus by this series of rules the wise promise liberation to him who uses effort; but however ready for effort with all their energy, those who seek liberation will find weariness.
tatsaumya mokṣe yadi bhaktirasti nyāyena sevasva vidhiṁ yathoktam |
evaṁ bhaviṣyatyupapattirasya saṁtāpanāśaśca narādhipasya || 9.57 (9.67)
57. ‘Therefore, gentle youth, if thou hast a love for liberation, follow rightly the prescribed rule; thus wilt thou thyself attain to it, and the king's grief will come to an end.
yā ca pravṛttā bhavadoṣabuddhistapovanebhyo bhavanaṁ praveṣṭum |
tatrāpi ciṁtā tava tāta mā bhūt pūrve 'pi jagmuḥ svagṛhaṁ vanebhyaḥ || 9.58 (9.68)
58. ‘And as for thy meditations on the evils of life ending in thy return from the forest to thy home, — let not the thought of this trouble thee, my son, — those in old time also have returned from the forests to their houses.
tapovanastho 'pi vṛtaḥ prajābhirjagāma rājā puramaṁbarīṣaḥ |
tathā mahīṁ viprakṛtāmanāryaistapovanādetya rarakṣa rāmaḥ || 9.59 (9.69)
59. ‘The king Ambarīṣa, Probably the son of Nābhāga.24 though he had dwelt in the forest, went back to the city, surrounded by his children; so too Rāma, seeing the earth oppressed by the base, came forth from his hermitage and ruled it again.
tathaiva śālvādhipatirdrumākṣo vanātsasūnuḥ svapuraṁ praviśya |
brahmarṣibhūtaśca munervaśiṣṭhāddadhre śriyaṁ sāṁkṛtiraṁtidevaḥ || 9.60 (9.70)
60. ‘So too Drumākṣa, the king of the Śālvas, came to his city from the forest with his son; and Sāṁkṛti Antideva, This might mean Aṁtideva (cf. I, 57, IX, 20) the son of Saṁkṛti, but in Mahābh. XII, 1013 we have Raṁtideva the son of Saṁkṛti; cf. Burnouf on Rudraka and Udraka, Introduction, p. 386. [The Tibetan takes sāṁkṛti as sbyin·sreg·daṅ·bcas, ‘together with burnt offering’. H.W.] Would this imply an old reading sāhuti?— For Aṁtideva's connection with Vaśiṣṭha see Mahābh. XII, 8591.25 after he had become a Brahmarṣi, received his royal dignity from the saint Vaśiṣṭha.’
evaṁvidhā dharmayaśaḥpradīptā vanāni hitvā bhavanānyabhīyuḥ |
tasmānna doṣo 'sti gṛhaṁ praveṣṭuṁ tapovanāddharmanimittameva || 9.61 (9.71)
61. ‘Such men as these, illustrious in glory and virtue, left the forests and came back to their houses; therefore it is no sin to return from a hermitage to one's home, if it be only for the sake of duty.’
tato vacastasya niśamya maṁtriṇaḥ priyaṁ hitaṁ caiva nṛpasya cakṣuṣaḥ |
anūnamavyastamasaktamadrutaṁ dhṛtau sthito rājasuto 'bravīdvacaḥ || 9.62 (9.72)
62. Then having heard the affectionate and loyal words of the minister, who was as the eye of the king, — firm in his resolve, the king's son made his answer, with nothing omitted or displaced, I read avyastam.26 neither tedious Or ‘prejudiced’?27 nor hasty:
ihāsti nāstīti ya eṣa saṁśayaḥ parasya vākyairna mamātra niścayaḥ |
avetya tattvaṁ tapasā śamena vā svayaṁ grahīṣyāmi yadatra niścitam || 9.63 (9.73)
63. ‘This doubt whether anything exists or not, is not to be solved for me by another's words; having determined the truth by asceticism or quietism, I will myself grasp whatever is ascertained concerning it.
na me kṣamaṁ saṁgaśataṁ hi darśanaṁ grahītumavyaktaparaṁ parāhatam |
buddhaḥ parapratyayato hi ko vrajejjano 'ṁdhakāre 'ṁdha ivāṁdhadeśitaḥ || 9.64 (9.74)
64. ‘It is not for me to accept a theory which depends on the unknown and is all controverted, and which involves a hundred prepossessions; what wise man would go by another's belief? Mankind are like the blind directed in the darkness by the blind.
adṛṣṭatattvasya sato 'pi kiṁ tu me śubhāśubhe saṁśayite śubhe matiḥ |
vṛthāpi khedo 'pi varaṁ śubhātmanaḥ sukhaṁ na tattve 'pi vigarhitātmanaḥ || 9.65 (9.75)
65. ‘But even though I cannot discern the truth, yet still, if good and evil are doubted, let one's mind be set on the good; even a toil MSS khedo.28 in vain is to be chosen by him whose soul is good, while the man of base soul has no joy even in the truth.
imaṁ tu dṛṣṭvāgamamavyavasthitaṁ yaduktamāptaistadavehi sādhviti |
prahīṇadoṣatvamavehi cāptatāṁ prahīṇadoṣo hyanṛtaṁ na vakṣyati || 9.66 (9.76)
66. ‘But having seen that this "sacred tradition" is uncertain, know that that only is right which has been uttered by the trustworthy; and know that trustworthiness means the absence of faults; he who is without faults will not utter an untruth.
gṛhapraveśaṁ prati yacca me bhavānuvāca rāmaprabhṛtīn nidarśanam |
na te pramāṇaṁ na hi dharmaniścayeṣvalaṁ pramāṇāya parikṣatavratāḥ || 9.67 (9.77)
67. ‘And as for what thou saidst to me in regard to my returning to my home, by alleging Rāma and others as examples, they are no authority, — for in determining duty, how canst thou quote as authorities those who have broken their vows?
tadevamapyeva ravirmahīṁ patedapi sthiratvaṁ himavān giristyajet |
adṛṣṭatattvo viṣayonmukheṁdriyaḥ śrayeya na tveva gṛhān pṛthagjanaḥ || 9.68 (9.78)
68. ‘Even the sun, therefore, may fall to the earth, even the mountain Himavat may lose its firmness; but never would I return to my home as a man of the world, with no knowledge of the truth and my senses only alert for external objects.
ahaṁ viśeyaṁ jvalitaṁ hutāśanaṁ na cākṛtārthaḥ praviśeyamālayam |
iti pratijñāṁ sa cakāra garvito yatheṣṭamutthāya ca nirmamo yayau || 9.69 (9.79)
69. ‘I would enter the blazing fire, but not my house with my purpose unfulfilled.’ Thus he proudly made his resolve, and rising up in accordance with it, full of disinterestedness, went his way.
tataḥ savāṣpau sacivadvijāvubhau niśamya tasya sthirameva niścayam |
viṣaṇṇavaktrāvanugamya duḥkhitau śanairagatyā purameva jagmatuḥ || 9.70 (9.80)
70. Then the minister and the Brāhman, both full of tears, having heard his firm determination, and having followed him awhile with despondent looks, and overcome with sorrow, slowly returned of necessity to the city.
tatsnehādatha nṛpateśca bhaktitastau sāpekṣaṁ pratiyayatuśca tasthatuśca |
durdharṣaṁ ravimiva dīptamātmabhāsā taṁ draṣṭuṁ na hi pathi śekaturna moktum || 9.71 (9.81)
71. Through their love for the prince and their devotion to the king, they returned, and often stopped looking back; Another reading gives ‘full of reproach’.29 they could neither behold him on the road nor yet lose the sight of him, — shining in his own splendour and beyond the reach of all others, like the sun.
tau jñātuṁ paramagatergatiṁ tu tasya pracchannāṁścarapuruṣāñchucīn vidhāya |
rājānaṁ priyasutalālasaṁ nu gatvā drakṣyāvaḥ kathamiti jagmatuḥ kathaṁcit || 9.72 (9.82)
72. Having placed faithful emissaries in disguise to find out the actions of him who was the supreme refuge of all, they went on with faltering steps, saying to each other, ‘How shall we approach the king and see him, who is longing for his dear son?’
iti śrībuddhacarite mahākāvye kumārānveṣaṇo nāma navamaḥ sargaḥ || 9 ||
[Such is the ninth chapter in the great poem Śri Buddhacarita,
called The Deputation to the Prince]
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last updated: October 2010