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Book XI: [Kāmavigarhaṇo]
[The Passions Spurned]
athaivamukto magadhādhipena suhṛnmukhena pratikūlamartham |
svastho 'vikāraḥ kulaśaucaśuddhaḥ śauddhodanirvākyamidaṁ jagāda || 11.1
1. Being thus addressed by the monarch of the Magadhas, in a hostile speech with a friendly face, self-possessed, unchanged, pure by family and personal purity, the son of Śuddhodana thus made answer:
nāścaryametadbhavato 'bhidhātuṁ jātasya haryaṁkakule viśāle |
yanmitrapakṣe tava mitrakāma syādvṛttireṣā pariśuddhavṛtteḥ || 11.2
2. ‘This is not to be called a strange thing for thee, born as thou art in the great family whose ensign is the lion So the Tibetan explains haryaṁka, sen·ges mcan·pai.01 — that by thee of pure conduct, O lover of thy friends, this line of conduct should be adopted towards him who stands as one of thy friends.
asatsu maitrī svakulānurūpā na tiṣṭhati śrīriva viklaveṣu |
pūrvaiḥ kṛtāṁ prītiparaṁparābhistāmeva saṁtastu vivardhayaṁti || 11.3
3. ‘Amongst the bad a friendship, worthy of their family, ceases to continue (and fades) like prosperity among the faint-hearted; it is only the good who keep increasing the old friendship of their ancestors by a new succession of friendly acts.
ye cārthakṛcchreṣu bhavaṁti loke samānakāryāḥ suhṛdāṁ manuṣyāḥ |
mitrāṇi tānīti paraimi buddhyā svasthasya vṛddhiṣviha ko hi na syāt || 11.4
4. ‘But those men who act unchangingly towards their friends in reverses of fortune, I esteem in my heart as true friends; who is not the friend of the prosperous man in his times of abundance?
evaṁ ca ye dravyamavāpya loke mitreṣu dharme ca niyojayaṁti |
avāptasārāṇi dhanāni teṣāṁ bhraṣṭāni nāṁte janayaṁti tāpam || 11.5
5. ‘So those who, having obtained riches in the world, employ them for the sake of their friends and religion, — their wealth has real solidity, and when it perishes it produces no pain at the end.
suhṛttayā cāryatayā ca rājan vibhāvya māmeva viniścayaste |
atrānuneṣyāmi suhṛttayaiva brūyāmahaṁ nottaramanyadatra || 11.6
6. ‘This thy determination concerning me, O king, is prompted by pure generosity and friendship; The Sanskrit of this line is corrupt and does not scan. The Tibetan renders it as follows: khyod·kyi (te) ṅes·pa (viniṣcayaḥ) gaṅ·zhig bdag·la dmigs·pa odi, ‘whatever a determination of thine imagines of me, to this (answering I would say)’. I would read vibhāvya māmeva. The translation given above is conjectural.02 I will meet thee courteously with simple friendship; I would not utter aught else in my reply.
ahaṁ jarāmṛtyubhayaṁ viditvā mumukṣayā dharmamimaṁ prapannaḥ |
baṁdhūnpriyānaśrumukhān vihāya prāgeva kāmānaśubhasya hetūn || 11.7
7. ‘I, having experienced the fear of old age and death, fly to this path of religion in my desire for liberation; leaving behind my dear kindred with tears in their faces, — still more then those pleasures which are the causes of evil.
nāśīviṣebhyo 'pi tathā bibhemi naivāśanibhyo gaganāccyutebhyaḥ |
na pāvakebhyo 'nilasaṁhitebhyo yathā bhayaṁ me viṣayebhya ebhyaḥ || 11.8
8. ‘I am not so afraid even of serpents nor of thunderbolts falling from heaven, nor of flames blown together by the wind, as I am afraid of these worldly objects.
kāmā hyanityāḥ kuśalārthacaurā riktāśca māyāsadṛśāśca loke |
āśāsyamānā api mohayaṁti cittaṁ nṛṇāṁ kiṁ punarātmasaṁsthāḥ || 11.9
9. ‘These transient pleasures, — the robbers of our happiness and our wealth, and which float empty and like illusions through the world, — infatuate men's minds even when they are only hoped for, — still more when they take up their abode in the soul.
kāmābhibhūtā hi na yāṁti śarma tripiṣṭape kiṁ vata martyaloke |
kāmaiḥ satṛṣṇasya hi nāsti tṛptiryatheṁdhanairvātasakhasya vahneḥ || 11.10
10. ‘The victims of pleasure attain not to happiness even in the heaven of the gods, still less in the world of mortals; he who is athirst is never satisfied with pleasures, as the fire, the friend of the wind, with fuel.
jagatyanartho na samo 'sti kāmairmohācca teṣveva janaḥ prasaktaḥ |
tattvaṁ viditvaivamanarthabhīruḥ prājñaḥ svayaṁ ko 'bhilaṣedanartham || 11.11
11. ‘There is no calamity in the world like pleasures, — people are devoted to them through delusion; when he once knows the truth and so fears evil, what wise man would of his own choice desire evil?
samudravastrāmapi gāmavāpya pāraṁ jigīṣaṁti mahārṇavasya |
lokasya kāmairna vitṛptirasti patadbhiraṁbhobhirivārṇavasya || 11.12
12. ‘When they have obtained all the earth girdled by the sea, kings wish to conquer the other side of the great ocean: mankind are never satiated with pleasures, as the ocean with the waters that fall into it.
devena vṛṣṭe 'pi hiraṇyavarṣe dvīpānsamudrāṁścaturo 'pi jitvā |
śakrasya cārdhāsanamapyavāpya māṁdhāturāsīdviṣayeṣvatṛptiḥ || 11.13
13. ‘When it had rained a golden shower from heaven, and when he had conquered the continents and the four oceans, and had even obtained the half of Śakra's throne, Divyāvadāna, pp. 213-224.03 Māndhātṛ was still unsatisfied with worldly objects.
bhuktvāpi rājyaṁ divi devatānāṁ śatakratau vṛtrabhayātpranaṣṭe |
darpānmahārṣīnapi vāhayitvā kāmeṣvatṛpto nahuṣaḥ papāta || 11.14
14. ‘Though he had enjoyed the kingdom of the gods in heaven, when Indra had concealed himself through fear of Vṛtra, and though in his pride he had made the great Ṛṣis bear his litter, Mahābh. V, 532.04 Nahuṣa fell, unsatisfied with pleasures.
aiḍaśca rājā tridivaṁ vigāhya nītvāpi devīṁ vaśamurvaśīṁ tām |
lobhādṛṣibhyaḥ kanakaṁ jihīrṣurjagāma nāśaṁ viṣayeṣvatṛptaḥ || 11.15
15. ‘King (Purūravas) the son of Iḍā, having penetrated into the furthest heaven, and brought the goddess Urvaśī into his power, — when he wished in his greed to take away gold from the Ṛṣis Mahābh. I, 3147.05 — being unsatisfied with pleasures, fell into destruction.
balermaheṁdraṁ nahuṣaṁ maheṁdrādiṁdraṁ punarye nahuṣādupeyuḥ |
svarge kṣitau vā viṣayeṣu teṣu ko viśvasedbhāgyakulākuleṣu || 11.16
16. ‘Who would put his trust in these worldly objects, whether in heaven or in earth, unsettled as to lot or family, — which passed from Bali to Indra, and from Indra to Nahuṣa, and then again from Nahuṣa back to Indra?
cīrāṁbarā mūlaphalāṁbubhakṣā jaṭā vahaṁto 'pi bhujaṁgadīrghāḥ |
yairanyakāryā munayo 'pi bhagnāḥ kaḥ kāmasaṁjñān mṛgayeta śatrūn || 11.17
17. ‘Who would seek these enemies bearing the name of pleasures, by whom even those sages have been overcome, who were devoted to other pursuits, whose only clothes were rags, whose food was roots, fruits, and water, and who wore their twisted locks as long as snakes?
ugrāyudhaścaugradhṛtāyudho 'pi yeṣāṁ kṛte mṛtyumavāpa bhīṣmāt |
ciṁtāpi teṣāmaśivā vadhāya tadvṛttināṁ kiṁ punaravratānām || 11.18
18. ‘Those pleasures for whose sake even Ugrāyudha, See Harivaṁsa, ch xx. He was armed with a discus.06 armed terribly as he was with his weapon, found death at Bhiṣma's hands, — is not the mere thought of them unlucky and fatal, — still more the thought of the irreligious whose lives are spent in their service?
āsvādamalpaṁ viṣayeṣu matvā saṁyojanotkarṣamatṛptimeva |
sadbhyaśca garhāṁ niyataṁ ca pāpaṁ kaḥ kāmasaṁjñaṁ viṣamāsasāda || 11.19
19. ‘Who that considers the paltry flavour of worldly objects, — the very height of union being only insatiety, — the blame of the virtuous, and the certain sin, — has ever drawn near this poison which is called pleasure?
kṛṣyādibhirdharmabhiranvitānāṁ kāmātmakānāṁ ca niśamya duḥkham |
svāsthyaṁ ca kāmeṣvakutūhalānāṁ kāmān vihātuṁ kṣamamātmavadbhiḥ || 11.20
20. ‘When they hear of the miseries of those who are intent on pleasure and are devoted to worldly pursuits, Dharmabhiḥ. (Cf. V, 5, 6).07 such as agriculture and the rest, and the self-content of those who are careless of pleasure, — it well befits the self-controlled to fling it away. I would read kāmāḥ.08
jñeyā vipatkāmini kāmasaṁpatsiddheṣu kāmeṣu madaṁ hyupaiti |
madādakāryaṁ kurute na kāryaṁ yena kṣato durgatimabhyupaiti || 11.21
21. ‘Success in pleasure is to be considered a misery in the man of pleasure, for he becomes intoxicated when his desired pleasures are attained; through intoxication he does what should not be done, not what should be done; and being wounded thereby he falls into a miserable end.
yatnena labdhāḥ parirakṣitāśca ye vipralabhya pratiyāṁti bhūyaḥ |
teṣvātmavān yācitakopameṣu kāmeṣu vidvāniha ko rameta || 11.22
22. ‘These pleasures which are gained and kept by toil, — which after deceiving leave you and return whence they came, — these pleasures which are but borrowed for a time, For yācitaka cf. Pāṇ. IV, 4, 21.09 what man of self-control, if he is wise, would delight in them?
anviṣya cādāya ca jātatarṣā yānatyajaṁtaḥ pariyāṁti duḥkham |
loke tṛṇolkāsadṛśeṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.23
23. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures which are like a torch of hay, — which excite thirst when you seek them and when you grasp them, and which they who abandon not keep only as misery? I would read paripānti.10
anātmavaṁto hṛdi yairvidaṣṭā vināśamarchaṁti na yāṁti śarma |
kruddhaugrasarpapratimeṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.24
24. ‘Those men of no self-control who are bitten by them in their hearts, fall into ruin and attain not bliss, — what man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which are like an angry, cruel serpent?
asthi kṣudhārttā iva sārameyā bhuktvāpi yānnaiva bhavaṁti tṛptāḥ |
jīrṇāsthikaṁkālasameṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.25
25. ‘Even if they enjoy them men are not satisfied, like dogs famishing with hunger over a bone, — what man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which are like a skeleton composed of dry bones?
ye rājacaurodakapāvakebhyaḥ sādhāraṇatvājjanayaṁti duḥkham |
teṣu praviddhāmiṣasaṁnibheṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.26
26. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures which are like flesh that has been flung away, and which produce misery by their being held only in common with kings, thieves, water, and fire? I.e. any one of these can seize them from us.11
yatra sthitānāmabhito vipattiḥ śatroḥ sakāśādapi bāṁdhavebhyaḥ |
hiṁsreṣu teṣvāyatanopameṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.27
27. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which, like the senses, Āyatana.12 are destructive, and which bring calamity on every hand to those who abide in them, from the side of friends even more than from open enemies?
girau vane cāpsu ca sāgare ca yadbhraṁśamarchaṁtyabhilaṁghamānāḥ |
teṣu drumaprāgraphalopameṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.28
28. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures, which are like the fruit that grows on the top of a tree, — which those who would leap up to reach fall down upon a mountain or into a forest, waters, or the ocean?
tīrthaiḥ prayatnairvividhairavāptāḥ kṣaṇena ye nāśamiha prayāṁti | 11.29
svapnopabhogapratimeṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt |
29. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures, which are like snatching up a hot coal, — men never attain happiness, however they pursue them, increase them, or guard them?
yānarcayitvāpi na yāṁti śarma vivardhayitvā paripālayitvā |
aṁgārakarṣapratimeṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.30
30. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures, which are like the enjoyments in a dream, — which are gained by their recipients after manifold pilgrimages and labours, and then perish in a moment?
vināśamīyuḥ kuravo yadarthaṁ vṛṣṇyaṁdhakā maithiladaṁḍakāśca |
śūlāsikāṣṭhapratimeṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.31
31. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures which are like a spear, The Chinese translation seems to take śūla as a stake for impaling criminals in ver. 864.13 sword, or club, — for the sake of which the Kurus, the Vṛṣṇis and the Andhakas, the Maithilas and the Daṇḍakas suffered destruction?
suṁdopasuṁdāvasurau yadarthamanyonyavairaprasṛtau vinaṣṭau |
sauhārdaviśleṣakareṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.32
32. ‘What man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures which dissolve friendships and for the sake of which the two Asuras Sunda and Upasunda perished, victims engaged in mutual enmity?
kāmāṁdhasaṁjñāḥ kṛpayā va ke ca kravyātsu nātmānamihotsṛjaṁti |
sapatnabhūteṣvaśiveṣu teṣu kāmeṣu kasyātmavato ratiḥ syāt || 11.33
33. ‘None, however their intellect is blinded with pleasure, give themselves up, as in compassion, to ravenous beasts; The text is corrupt. I would read kravyātsu nātmānam. The va in line 1 is for iva, a rare form, but allowed by Sanskrit lexicographers. Perhaps we should translate kāmāndhasaṁjña, ‘these men who are called "blinded with pleasure" ’.14 so what man of self-control could find satisfaction in those pleasures which are disastrous and constant enemies?
kāmāṁdhasaṁjñaḥ kṛpaṇaṁ karoti prāpnoti duḥkhaṁ vadhabaṁdhanādi |
kāmārthamāśākṛpaṇastapasvī mṛtyuśramaṁ cārhati jīvaloke || 11.34
34. ‘He whose intellect is blinded with pleasure does pitiable things; he incurs calamities, such as death, bonds, and the like; the wretch, who is the miserable slave of hope for the sake of pleasure, well deserves the pain of death even in the world of the living.
gītairhriyaṁte hi mṛgā vadhāya rūpārthamagnau śalabhāḥ pataṁti |
matsyo giratyāyasamāmiṣārthī tasmādanarthaṁ viṣayāḥ phalaṁti || 11.35
35. ‘Deer are lured to their destruction by songs, Cf. Kādambarī (Calc. ed.), p. 27, 1. 6 infra.15 insects for the sake of the brightness fly into the fire, the fish greedy for the flesh swallows the iron hook, — therefore worldly objects produce misery as their end.
kāmāstu bhogā iti yanmataṁ syādbhogyā na kecitparigaṇyamānāḥ |
vastrādayo dravyaguṇā hi loke duḥkhapratīkāra iti pradhāryāḥ || 11.36
36. ‘As for the common opinion, "pleasures are enjoyments," none of them when examined are worthy of being enjoyed; fine garments and the rest are only the accessories of things, — they are to be regarded as merely the remedies for pain.
iṣṭaṁ hi tarṣapraśamāya toyaṁ kṣunnāśahetoraśanaṁ tathaiva |
vātātapāṁbvāvaraṇāya veśma kaupīnaśītāvaraṇāya vāsaḥ || 11.37
37. ‘Water is desired for allaying thirst; food in the same way for removing hunger; a house for keeping off the wind, the heat of the sun, and the rain; and dress for keeping off the cold and to cover one's nakedness.
nidrāvighātāya tathaiva śayyā yānaṁ tathādhvaśramanāśanāya |
tathāsanaṁ sthānavinodanāya snānaṁ mṛjārogyabalāśrayāya || 11.38
38. ‘So too a bed is for removing drowsiness; a carriage for remedying the fatigue of a journey; a seat for alleviating the pain of standing; so bathing as a means for washing, health, and strength.
duḥkhapratīkāranimittabhūtāstasmātprajānāṁ viṣayā na bhogyāḥ |
aśnāmi bhogāniti ko 'bhyupeyātprājñaḥ pratīkāravidhau pravṛttān || 11.39
39. ‘External objects therefore are to human beings means for remedying pain, not in themselves sources of enjoyment; what wise man would allow that he enjoys those delights which are only used as remedial?
yaḥ pittadāhena vidahyamānaḥ śītakriyāṁ bhoga iti vyavasyet |
duḥkhapratīkāravidhau pravṛttaḥ kāmeṣu kuryātsa hi bhogasaṁjñām || 11.40
40. ‘He who, when burned with the heat of bilious fever, maintains that cold appliances are an enjoyment, when he is only engaged in alleviating pain, — he indeed might give the name of enjoyment to pleasures.
kāmeṣvanaikāṁtikatā ca yasmādato 'pi me teṣu na bhogasaṁjñā |
ya eva bhāvā hi sukhaṁ diśaṁti ta eva duḥkhaṁ punarāvahaṁti || 11.41
41. ‘Since variableness is found in all pleasures, I cannot apply to them the name of enjoyment; the very conditions which mark pleasure, bring also in its turn pain.
gurūṇi vāsāṁsyagurūṇi caiva sukhāya śīte hyasukhāya gharme |
caṁdrāṁśavaścaṁdanameva coṣṇe sukhāya duḥkhāya bhavaṁti śīte || 11.42
42. ‘Heavy garments and fragrant aloe-wood are pleasant in the cold, but an annoyance in the heat; I have adopted Professor Keilhorn's suggested reading sukhāya śite hyasukhāya gharme. [Ed: text prints sukhāya gīte hyasukhāya dharme, which makes no sense; Johnson's edition agrees with the text printed here.]16 and the moonbeams and sandal-wood are pleasant in the heat, but a pain in the cold.
dvaṁdvāni sarvasya yataḥ prasaktānyalābhalābhaprabhṛtīni loke |
ato 'pi naikāṁtasukho 'sti kaścinnaikāṁtaduḥkhaḥ puruṣaḥ prṭhivyām || 11.43
43. ‘Since the well-known opposite pairs, Cf. h sustoikhia [Ed: written in Greek letters in the original] of the Pythagoreans (Arist. Ethics, I, 6).17 such as gain and loss and the rest, are inseparably connected with everything in this world, — therefore no man is invariably happy on the earth nor invariably wretched.
dṛṣṭvā ca miśrāṁ sukhaduḥkatāṁ me rājyaṁ ca dāsyaṁ ca mataṁ samānam |
nityaṁ hasatyeva hi naiva rājā na cāpi saṁtapyata eva dāsaḥ || 11.44
44. ‘When I see how the nature of pleasure and pain are mixed, I consider royalty and slavery as the same; a king does not always smile, nor is a slave always in pain.
ājñā nṛpatve 'bhyadhiketi yasmātmahāṁti duḥkhānyata eva rājñaḥ |
āsaṁgakāṣṭhapratimo hi rājā lokasya hetoḥ parikhedameti || 11.45
45. ‘Since to be a king involves a wider range of command, therefore the pains of a king are great; for a king is like a peg, Cf. Isaiah xxii. 23, 24 [Ed: Hebrew characters are included, but are illegible in my edition of the text, and so cannot be transliterated here].18 — he endures trouble for the sake of the world.
rājye nṛpastyāgini vaṁkamitre viśvāsamāgacchati cedvipannaḥ |
athāpi viśraṁbhamupaiti neha kiṁ nāma saukhyaṁ cakitasya rājñaḥ || 11.46
46. ‘A king is unfortunate, if he places his trust in his royalty which is apt to desert and loves crooked turns; Professor Keilhorn would read raṁkamītre.19 and on the other hand, if he does not trust in it, then what can be the happiness of a timid king?
yadā ca jitvāpi mahīṁ samagrāṁ vāsāya dṛṣṭaṁ puramekameva |
tatrāpi caikaṁ bhavanaṁ niṣevyaṁ śramaḥ parārthe nanu rājabhāvaḥ || 11.47
47. ‘And since after even conquering the whole earth, one city only can serve as a dwelling-place, and even there only one house can be inhabited, is not royalty mere labour for others?
rājyo 'pi vāse yugamekameva kṣutsaṁnirodhāya tathānnamātrā |
śayyā tathaikāsanamekameva śeṣā viśeṣā nṛpatermadāya || 11.48
48. ‘And even in royal clothing one pair of garments is all he needs, and just enough food to keep off hunger; so only one bed, and only one seat; all a king's other distinctions are only for pride.
tuṣṭyarthametacca phalaṁ yadīṣṭamṛte 'pi rājyānmama tuṣṭirasti |
tuṣṭau ca satyāṁ puruṣasya loke sarve viśeṣā nanu nirviśeṣāḥ || 11.49
49. ‘And if all these fruits are desired for the sake of satisfaction, I can be satisfied without a kingdom; and if a man is once satisfied in this world, are not all distinctions indistinguishable?
tannāsti kāmān prati saṁpratāryaḥ kṣeme śivaṁ mārgamanuprapannaḥ |
smṛtvā suhṛttvaṁ tu punaḥ punarmāṁ brūhi pratijñāṁ khalu pālayaṁti || 11.50
50. ‘He then who has attained the auspicious road to happiness is not to be deceived in regard to pleasures; remembering thy professed friendship, tell me again and again, do they keep their promise?
na hyasmyamarṣeṇa vanapraviṣṭo na śatrubāṇairavadhūtamauliḥ |
kṛtaspṛho nāpi phalādhikebhyo gṛhṇāmi naitadvacanaṁ yataste || 11.51
51. ‘I have not repaired to the forest through anger, nor because my diadem has been dashed down by an enemy's arrows; nor have I set my desires on loftier objects, Sc. as rule in heaven, &c.20 that I thus refuse thy proposal.
yo daṁdaśūkaṁ kupitaṁ bhujaṁgaṁ muktvā vyavasyeddhi punargrahītum |
dāhātmikāṁ vā jvalitāṁ tṛṇaulkāṁ saṁtyajya kāmānsa punarbhajeta || 11.52
52. ‘Only he who, having once let go a malignant incensed serpent, or a blazing hay-torch all on fire, would strive again to seize it, would ever seek pleasures again after having once abandoned them.
aṁdhāya yaśca spṛhayedanaṁdho baddhāya mukto vidhanāya vāḍhyaḥ |
unmattacittāya ca kalyacittaḥ spṛhāṁ sa kuryādviṣayātmakāya || 11.53
53. ‘Only he who, though seeing, would envy the blind, though free the bound, though wealthy the destitute, though sound in his reason the maniac, — only he, I say, would envy one who is devoted to worldly objects.
bhikṣopabhogī vara nānukaṁpyaḥ kṛtī jarāmṛtyubhayaṁ titīrṣuḥ |
ihottamaṁ śāṁtisukhaṁ ca yasya paratra duḥkhāni ca saṁvṛtāni || 11.54
54. ‘He who lives on alms, my good friend, is not to be pitied, having gained his end and being set on escaping the fear of old age and death; he has here the best happiness, perfect calm, and hereafter all pains are for him abolished.
lakṣmyāṁ mahatyāmapi vartamānastṛṣṇābhibhūtastvanukaṁpitavyaḥ |
prāpnoti yaḥ śāṁtisukhaṁ na ceha paratra duḥkhaṁ pratigṛhyate ca || 11.55
55. ‘But he is to be pitied who is overpowered by thirst though set in the midst of great wealth, — who attains not the happiness of calm here, while pain has to be experienced hereafter.
evaṁ tu vaktuṁ bhavato 'nurūpaṁ sattvasya vṛttasya kulasya caiva |
mamāpi voḍhuṁ sadṛśaṁ pratijñāṁ sattvasya vṛttasya kulasya caiva || 11.56
56. ‘Thus to speak to me is well worthy of thy character, thy mode of life, and thy family; and to carry out my resolve is also befitting my character, my mode of life, and my family.
ahaṁ hi saṁsārarasena viddho viniḥsṛtaḥ śāṁtamavāptukāmaḥ |
neccheyamāptuṁ tridive 'pi rājyaṁ nirāmayaṁ kiṁ vata mānuṣeṣu || 11.57
57. ‘I have been wounded by the enjoyment of the world, and I have come out longing to obtain peace; I would not accept an empire free from all ill even in the third heaven, how much less amongst men?
trivargasevāṁ nṛpa yattu kṛtsnataḥ paro manuṣyārtha iti tvamāttha mām |
anartha ityāttha mamārthadarśanaṁ kṣayī trivargo hi na cāpi tarpakaḥ || 11.58
58. ‘But as for what thou saidst to me, O king, that the universal pursuit of the three objects is the supreme end of man, — and I would read anartha ity āttha (for ity artha).21 thou saidst that what I regard as the desirable is misery, — thy three objects are perishable and also unsatisfying.
pade tu yasminna jarā na bhīrutā na janma naivoparamo na vādhayaḥ |
tameva manye puruṣārthamuttamaṁ na vidyate yatra punaḥ punaḥ kriyā || 11.59
59. ‘But that world in which there is no old age nor fear, no birth, nor death, nor anxieties, Ādhayaḥ.22 that alone I consider the highest end of man, where there is no ever-renewed action.
yadapyavocaḥ paripālyatāṁ jarā navaṁ vayo gacchati vikriyāmiti |
aniścayo 'yaṁ capalaṁ hi dṛśyate jarāpyadhīrā dhṛtimacca yauvanam || 11.60
60. ‘And as for what thou saidst "wait till old age comes, for youth is ever subject to change;" — this want of decision is itself uncertain; for age too can be irresolute and youth can be firm.
svakarmadakṣaśca yadā tu ko jagadvayaḥsu sarveṣu ca saṁvikarṣati |
vināśakāle kathamavyavasthite jarā pratīkṣyā viduṣā śamepsunā || 11.61
61. ‘But since Fate Ko, ‘who?’ seems to be used here for ‘Fate’. Professor Keilhorn would read — Yadāṁtako jagad vayaḥsu sarveṣu vaśaṁ vikarṣati.23 is so well skilled in its art as to draw the world in all its various ages into its power, — how shall the wise man, who desires tranquillity, wait for old age, when he knows not when the time of death will be?
jarāyudho vyādhivikīrṇasāyako yadāṁtako vyādha ivāśritaḥ sthitaḥ |
prajāmṛgān bhāgyavanāśritāṁstudan vayaḥprakarṣaṁ prati ko manorathaḥ || 11.62
62. ‘When death stands ready like a hunter, with old age as his weapon, and diseases scattered about as his arrows, smiting down living creatures who fly like deer to the forest of destiny, what desire can there be in any one for length of life?
suto yuvā vā sthaviro 'thavā śiśustathā tvarāvāniha kartumarhati |
yathā bhaveddharmavataḥ kṛpātmanaḥ pravṛttiriṣṭā vinivṛttireva vā || 11.63
63. ‘It well befits the youthful son or the old man or the child so to act with all promptitude that they may choose the action of the religious man whose soul is all mercy, — nay, better still, his inactivity.
yadāttha vā dīptaphalāṁ kulocitāṁ kuruṣva dharmāya makhakriyāmiti |
namo makhebhyo na hi kāmaye sukhaṁ parasya duḥkhakriyayāpadiśyate || 11.64
64. ‘And as for what thou saidst, "be diligent in sacrifices for religion, such as are worthy of thy race and bring a glorious fruit," — honour to such sacrifices! I desire not that fruit which is sought by causing pain to others! Yad iṣyate is the true reading.24
paraṁ hi haṁtuṁ vivaśaṁ phalepsayā na yuktarūpaṁ karuṇātmanaḥ sataḥ |
kratoḥ phalaṁ yadyapi śāśvataṁ bhavet tathāpi kṛtvā kimupakṣayātmakam || 11.65
65. ‘To kill a helpless victim through a wish for future reward, — it would be an unseemly action for a merciful-hearted good man, even if the reward of the sacrifice were eternal; but what if, after all, it is subject to decay?
bhavecca dharmo yadi nāparo vidhirvratena śīlena manaḥśamena vā |
tathāpi naivārhati sevituṁ kratuṁ viśasya yasmin paramucyate phalam || 11.66
66. ‘And even if true religion did not consist in quite another rule of conduct, by self-restraint, moral practice and a total absence of passion, — still it would not be seemly to follow the rule of sacrifice, where the highest reward is described as attained only by slaughter.
ihāpi tāvatpuruṣasya tiṣṭhataḥ pravartate yatparahiṁsayā sukham |
tadapyaniṣṭaṁ saghṛṇasya dhīmato bhavāṁtare kiṁ vata yanna dṛśyate || 11.67
67. ‘Even that happiness which comes to a man, while he stays in this world, through the injury of another, is hateful to the wise compassionate heart; how much more if it be something beyond our sight in another life?
na ca pratāryo 'smi phalapravṛttaye bhaveṣu rājan ramate na me manaḥ |
latā ivāṁbhodharavṛṣṭitāḍitāḥ pravṛttayaḥ sarvagatā hi caṁcalā || 11.68
68. ‘I am not to be lured into a course of action for future reward, — my mind does not delight, O king, in future births; these actions are uncertain and wavering in their direction, like plants beaten by the rain from a cloud.
ihāgataścāhamito didṛkṣayā munerarāḍasya vimokṣavādinaḥ |
prayāmi cādyaiva nṛpāstu te śivaṁ vacaḥ kṣamethāḥ śamatattvaniṣṭhuram || 11.69
69. ‘I have come here with a wish to see next the seer Arāḍa who proclaims liberation; I start this very day, — happiness be to thee, O king; forgive my words which may seem harsh through their absolute freedom from passion. I read śamatattva.25
atheṁdravaddivyava śaśvadarkavadguṇairava śreya ihāva gāmava |
avāyurāryairava satsutān ava śriyaśca rājannava dharmamātmanaḥ || 11.70
70. This verse is obscure, — the division of the clauses is uncertain, the Chinese translation giving only six; but ava seems to occur eight times. The Tibetan has its equivalent sruṅs nine times.26‘Now therefore do thou guard (the world) like Indra in heaven; guard it continually like the sun by thy excellencies; guard its best happiness here; guard the earth; guard life by the noble; So the Tibetan.27 guard the sons of the good; guard thy royal powers, O king; and guard thine own religion.
himāriketūdbhavasaṁplavāṁtare yathā dvijo yāti vimokṣayaṁstanum |
himāriśatruṁ kṣayaśatrughātinastathāṁtare yāhi vimocayanmanaḥ || 11.71
71. ‘As in the midst of a sudden catastrophe arising from the flame of (fire), the enemy of cold, a bird, to deliver its body, betakes itself to the enemy of fire (water), — so do thou, when occasion calls, betake thyself, to deliver thy mind, to those who will destroy the enemies of thy home.’ This is a very hard verse, but the obscure Chinese translation helps to explain it, vv. 912 - 915. I read in c himāriśatrum, i.e. water, as the enemy of the enemy of cold (fire). The bird flies to water to stop the effects of fire; as the king is to destroy his enemies by means of their enemies, cf. Manu VII, 158. Here, however, it seems to mean also that he is to destroy his passions by their opposites; the home (kṣaya) is the summum bonum, nirvāṇa. — I read samplava for sambhava, as the two words are confused in XII, 24 and 28.28
nṛpo 'bravītsāṁjalirāgataspṛho yatheṣṭamāpnoti bhavānavighnataḥ |
avāpya kāle kṛtakṛtyatāmimāṁ mamāpi kāryo bhavatā tvanugrahaḥ || 11.72
72. The king himself, folding his hands, with a sudden longing come upon him, replied, ‘Thou art obtaining thy desire without hindrance; when thou hast at last accomplished all that thou hast to do, thou shalt show hereafter thy favour towards me.’
sthiraṁ pratijñāya tatheti pārthive tataḥ sa vaiśvaṁtaramāśramaṁ yayau |
parivrajaṁtaṁ samudīkṣya vismito nṛpo 'pi ca prāpurimaṁ giriṁ vrajan || 11.73
73. Having given his firm promise to the monarch, he proceeded to the Vaiśvantara hermitage; and, after watching him with astonishment, as he wandered on in his course, the king and Ca seems used in a very artificial manner with the elipsis of the substantive which should follow it; cf. Amarakoṣa III, 4, 1, 6 (we might also read prāpad).29 his courtiers returned to the mountain (of Rājagiri).
iti śrībuddhacarite mahākāvye 'śvaghoṣakṛte kāmavigarhaṇo nāmaikādaśaḥ sargaḥ || 11 ||
[Such is the eleventh chapter in the great poem Śri Buddhacarita,
written by Aśvaghosa, called The Passions Spurned]
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last updated: August 2005