Book XII: [Arāḍadarśano]
[Visit to Arāḍa]

tataḥ śamavihārasya munerikṣvākucaṁdramāḥ |
arāḍasyāśramaṁ bheje vapuṣā pūrayanniva || 12.1

1. Then the moon of the Ikṣvāku race turned towards the hermitage of the sage Arāḍa Arāḍa holds an early form of the Sāṁkhya doctrine.01 of tranquil life, — as it were, doing honour to it by his beauty.

sa kālāmasagotreṇa tenālokyaiva dūrataḥ |
uccaiḥ svāgatamityuktaḥ samīpamupajagmivān || 12.2

2. He drew near, on being addressed in a loud voice ‘Welcome’ by the kinsman of Kālāma, as he saw him from afar.

tāvubhau nyāyataḥ pṛṣṭvā dhātusāmyaṁ parasparam |
dāravyormedhyayorvṛṣyoḥ śucau deśe niṣīdatuḥ || 12.3

3. They, having mutually asked after each other's health as was fitting, sat down in a clean place on two pure wooden seats.

tamāsīnaṁ nṛpasutaṁ so 'bravīnmunisattamaḥ |
bahumānaviśālābhyāṁ darśanābhyāṁ pibanniva [Ed: Written pivanniva in the text.]02 || 12.4

4. The best of sages, having seen the prince seated, and as it were drinking in the sight of him with eyes opened wide in reverence, thus addressed him:

viditaṁ me yathā saumya niṣkrāṁto bhavanādasi |
chittvā snehamayaṁ pāśaṁ pāśaṁ dṛpta iva dvipaḥ || 12.5

5. ‘I know, gentle youth, how thou hast come forth from thy home, having severed the bond of affection, as a wild elephant its cord.

sarvathā dhṛtimaccaiva prājñaṁ caiva manastava |
yastvaṁ prāptaḥ śriyaṁ tyaktvā latāṁ viṣaphalāmiva || 12.6

6. ‘In every way thy mind is stedfast and wise, who hast come here after abandoning royal luxury like a creeper-plant with poisonous fruit.

nāścaryaṁ jīrṇavayaso yajjagmuḥ pārthivā vanam |
apatyebhyaḥ śriyaṁ dattvā bhuktocchiṣṭāmiva srajam || 12.7

7. ‘It is no marvel that kings have retired to the forest who have grown old in years, having given up their glory to their children, like a garland left behind after being used.

idaṁ me matamāścaryaṁ nave vayasi yadbhavān |
abhuktveva śriyaṁ prāptaḥ sthito viṣayagocare || 12.8

8. ‘But this is to me indeed a marvel that thou art come hither in life's fresh prime, set in the open field of the world's enjoyments, ere thou hast as yet tasted of their happiness.

tadvijñātumimaṁ dharmaṁ paramaṁ bhājanaṁ bhavān |
jñānapūrvamadhiṣṭhāya śīghraṁ duḥkhārṇavaṁ tara || 12.9

9. ‘Verily thou art a worthy vessel to receive this highest religion; having mastered it with full knowledge, cross at once over the sea of misery.

śiṣye yadyapi vijñāte śāstraṁ kālena vartate |
gāṁbhīryādvyavasāyācca suparīkṣyo bhavān mama || 12.10

10. ‘Though the doctrine is generally efficient only after a time, when the student has been thoroughly tested, thou art easy for me to examine from thy depth of character and determination.’

iti vākyamarāḍasya vijñāya sa narādhipaḥ |
babhūva paramaprītaḥ provācottarameva ca || 12.11

11. The prince, having heard these words of Arāḍa, was filled with great pleasure and thus made reply:

viraktasyāpi yadidaṁ saumukhyaṁ bhavataḥ param |
akṛtārtho 'pyanenāsmi kṛtārtha iva saṁprati || 12.12

12. ‘This extreme kindliness which thou showest to me, calmly passionless as thou art, makes me, imperfect as I am, seem even already to have attained perfection.

didṛkṣuriva hi jyotiryiyāsuriva daiśikam |
tvaddarśanādahaṁ manye titīrṣuriva ca plavam || 12.13

13. ‘I feel at the sight of thee like one longing to see who finds a light, — like one wishing to journey, a guide, — or like one wishing to cross, a boat.

tasmādarhasi tadvaktuṁ vaktavyaṁ yadi manyase |
jarāmaraṇarogebhyo yathāyaṁ parimucyate || 12.14

14. ‘Wilt thou therefore deign to tell me that secret, if thou thinkest it should be told, whereby thy servant may be delivered from old age, death, and disease.’

ityarāḍaḥ kumārasya māhātmyādeva coditaḥ |
saṁkṣiptaṁ kathayāṁ cakre svasya śāstrasya niścayam || 12.15

15. Arāḍa, thus impelled by the noble nature of the prince, declared in a concise form the tenets of his doctrine:

śrūyatāmayamasmākaṁ siddhāṁtaḥ śṛṇvatāṁ vara |
yathā bhavati saṁsāro yathā vai parivartate || 12.16

16. ‘O best of hearers, hear this our firmly-settled theory, how our mortal existence arises and how it revolves.

prakṛtiśca vikāraśca janma mṛtyurjaraiva ca |
tattāvatsattvamityuktaṁ sthirasattva parehi naḥ || 12.17

17. “The evolvent" and "the evolute," birth, old age, and death, — know that this has been called the reality by us; do thou receive our words, O thou who art stedfast in thy nature.

tatra tu prakṛtirnāma viddhi prakṛtikovida |
paṁca bhūtānyahaṁkāraṁ buddhimavyaktameva ca || 12.18

18. ‘But know, O thou who art deep in the search into the nature of things, that the five elements, These are the tanmātrāṇi or subtile elements.03 egoism, intellect, and "the unmanifested" are the "evolvents;"

vikāra iti buddhiṁ tu viṣayāniṁdriyāṇi ca |
pāṇipādaṁ ca vādaṁ ca pāyūpasthaṁ tathā manaḥ || 12.19

19. ‘But know that the "evolutes" consist of intellect, external objects, Viṣayān, corresponding to the gross elelments. The intellect buddhi is both an evolver and an evolute.04 the senses, and the hands, feet, voice, anus, and generative organ, and also the mind.

asya kṣetrasya vijñānāt kṣetrajña iti saṁjñi ca |
kṣetrajña iti cātmānaṁ kathayaṁtyātmaciṁtakāḥ || 12.20

20. ‘There is also a something which bears the name kṣetrajña, from its knowledge of this "field" (kṣetra or the body); and those who investigate the soul call the soul kṣetrajña.

saśiṣyaḥ kapilaśceha pratibuddha iti smṛtiḥ |
saputraḥ pratibuddhaśca prajāpatirihocyate || 12.21

21. ‘Kapila with his disciple became the illuminated, — such is the tradition; and he, as the illuminated, with his son is now called here Prajāpati.

jāyate jīryate caiva budhyate mriyate ca yat |
tadvyaktamiti vijñeyamavyaktaṁ tu viparyayāt || 12.22

22. ‘That which is born and grows old and is bound and dies, — is to be known as "the manifested," and "the unmanifested" is to be distinguished by its contrariety.

ajñānaṁ karma tṛṣṇā ca jñeyāḥ saṁsārahetavaḥ |
sthito 'smiṁstritaye yastu tatsattvaṁ nābhivartate || 12.23

23. ‘Ignorance, the merit or demerit of former actions, and desire are to be known as the causes of mundane existence; he who abides in the midst of this triad does not attain to the truth of things, —

vipratyayādahaṁkārātsaṁdehādabhisaṁplavāt |
aviśeṣānupāyābhyāṁ saṁgādabhyavapātataḥ || 12.24

24. ‘From mistake, Should we read viparyayād? Cf. Sāṁkhya, aphor. III. 37.05 egoism, confusion, fluctuation, indiscrimination, false means, inordinate attachment, and gravitation.

tatra vipratyayo nāma viparītaṁ pravartate |
anyathā kurute kāryaṁ maṁtavyaṁ manyate 'nyathā || 12.25

25. ‘Now "mistake" acts in a contrary manner, it does wrongly what it should do, and what it should think it thinks wrongly.

bravīmyahamahaṁ vedmi gacchāmyahamahaṁ sthitaḥ |
itīhaivamahaṁkārastvanahaṁkāra vartate || 12.26

26. “I say," "I know," "I go," "I am firmly fixed," it is thus that "egoism" shows itself here, O thou who art free from all egoism.

yastu bhāvena saṁdigdhānekībhāvena paśyati |
mṛtpiṁḍavadasaṁdeha saṁdehaḥ sa ihocyate || 12.27

27. ‘That state of mind is called "confusion," O thou who art all unconfused, which views under one nature, massed like a lump of clay, objects that thus become confused in their nature.

ya evāhaṁ sa evedaṁ mano buddhiśca karma ca |
yaścaivaṁ sa gaṇaḥ so 'hamiti yaḥ so 'bhisaṁplavaḥ || 12.28

28. ‘That state of mind which says that this mind, intellect, and these actions are the same as "I," and that which says that all this aggregate is the same as "I," — is called "fluctuation."

aviśeṣaṁ viśeṣajña pratibuddhāprabuddhayoḥ |
prakṛtīnāṁ ca yo veda so 'viśeṣa iti smṛtaḥ || 12.29

29. ‘That state of mind is called "indiscrimination," O thou who art discriminating, which thinks there is no difference between the illuminated and the unwise, and between the different evolvents.

namaskāravaṣaṭkārau prokṣaṇābhyukṣaṇādayaḥ |
anupāya iti prājñairupāyajña praveditaḥ || 12.30

30. ‘Uttering "namas" and "vaṣaṭ," sprinkling water upon sacrifices, &c. with or without the recital of Vedic hymns, and such like rites, — these are declared by the wise to be "false means," O thou who art well skilled in true means.

sajjate yena durmedhā manovākkarmabuddhibhiḥ |
viṣayeṣvanabhiṣvaṁga so 'bhiṣvaṁga iti smṛtaḥ || 12.31

31. ‘That is called "inordinate attachment," by which the fool is entangled in external objects through his mind, speech, actions, and thoughts, O thou who hast shaken thyself free from all attachments.

mamedamahamasyeti yadduḥkhamabhimanyate |
vijñeyo 'bhyavapātaḥ sa saṁsāre yena pātyate || 12.32

32. ‘The misery which a man imagines by the ideas "This is mine," "I am connected with this," is to be recognised as "gravitation," — by this a man is borne downwards into new births.

ityavidyā hi vidvāṁsaḥ paṁcaparvā samīhate |
tamo mohaṁ mahāmohaṁ tāmisradvayameva ca || 12.33

33. ‘Thus Ignorance, O ye wise, being fivefold in its character, energises towards torpor, delusion, the great delusion, and the two kinds of darkness. Cf. Sāṁkhyakārikā, 48.06

tatrālasyaṁ tamo viddhi mohaṁ mṛtyuṁ ca janma ca |
mahāmohastvasaṁmoha kāma ityavagamyatām || 12.34

34. ‘Know, that among these indolence is "torpor," death and birth are "delusion," and be it clearly understood, O undeluded one, that desire is the "great delusion."

yasmādatra ca bhūtāni pramuhyaṁti mahāṁtyapi |
tasmādeṣa mahābāho mahāmoha iti smṛtaḥ || 12.35

35. ‘Since by it even the higher beings are deluded, therefore, O hero, is this called the "great delusion."

tāmisramiti cākrodha krodhamevādhikurvate |
viṣādaṁ cāṁdhatāmisramaviṣāda pracakṣate || 12.36

36. ‘They define anger, O thou angerless one, as "darkness;" and despondency, O undesponding, they pronounce to be the "blind darkness."

anayāvidyayā bālaḥ saṁyuktaḥ paṁcaparvayā |
saṁsāre duḥkhabhūyiṣṭhe janmasvabhiniṣicyate || 12.37

37. ‘The child, entangled in this fivefold ignorance, is effused in his different births in a world abounding with misery.

draṣṭā śrotā ca maṁtā ca kāryaṁ karaṇameva ca |
ahamityevamāgamya saṁsāre parivartate || 12.38

38. ‘He wanders about in the world of embodied existence, thinking that I am the seer, and the hearer, and the thinker, — the effect and the cause.

ityebhirhetubhirdhīman tamaḥsrotaḥ pravartate |
hetvabhāve phalābhāva iti vijñātumarhasi || 12.39

39. ‘Through these causes, Cf. ver. 23.07 O wise prince, the stream of "torpor" is set in motion; be pleased to consider that in the absence of the cause there is the absence of the effect.

tatra samyagmatirvidyānmokṣakāma catuṣṭayam |
pratibuddhāprabuddhau ca vyaktamavyaktameva ca || 12.40

40. ‘Let the wise man who has right views know these four things, O thou who desirest liberation, — the illuminated and the unilluminated, the manifested and the unmanifested.

yathāvadetadvijñāya kṣetrajño hi catuṣṭayam |
ārjavaṁ javatāṁ hitvā prāpnoti padamakṣaram || 12.41

41. ‘The soul, having once learned to distinguish these four properly, having abandoned all (ideas of) straightness or quickness, It rises above all relative ideas? The text may be corrupt.08 attains to the immortal sphere.

ityarthaṁ brāhmaṇā loke paramabrahmavādinaḥ |
brahmacaryaṁ caraṁtīha brāhmaṇān vāsayaṁti ca || 12.42

42. ‘For this reason the Brāhmans in the world, discoursing on the supreme Brahman, practise here a rigorous course of sacred study and let other Brāhmans live with them to follow it also.’

iti vākyamidaṁ śrutvā munestasya nṛpātmajaḥ |
abhyupāyaṁ ca papraccha padameva ca naiṣṭhikam || 12.43

43. The prince, having heard this discourse from the seer, asked concerning the means and the final state.

brahmacaryamidaṁ caryaṁ yathā yāvacca yatra ca |
dharmasyāsya ca paryaṁtaṁ bhavān vyākhyātumarhati || 12.44

44. ‘Wilt thou please to explain to me how, how far, and where this life of sacred study is to be led, and the limit of this course of life?’ Dharma.09

ityarāḍo yathāśāstraṁ vispaṣṭārthaṁ samāsataḥ |
tamevānyena kalpena dharmamasmai vyabhāṣata || 12.45

45. Then Arāḍa, according to his doctrine, declared to him in another way that course of life clearly and succinctly.

ayamādau gṛhānmuktvā bhaikṣākaṁ liṁgamāśritaḥ |
samudācāravistīrṇaṁ śīlamādāya vartate || 12.46

46. ‘The devotee, in the beginning, having left his house, and assumed the signs of the mendicant, goes on, following a rule of conduct which extends to the whole life.

saṁtoṣaṁ paramāsthāya yena tena yatastataḥ |
viviktaṁ sevate vāsaṁ nirdvaṁdvaḥ śāstravitkṛtī || 12.47

47. ‘Cultivating absolute content with any alms from any person, he carries out his lonely life, indifferent to all feelings, meditating on the holy books, and satisfied in himself.

tato rāgādbhayaṁ dṛṣṭvā vairāgyācca paraṁ śivam |
nigṛhṇanniṁdriyagrāmaṁ yatate manasaḥ śrame || 12.48

48. ‘Then having seen how fear arises from passion and the highest happiness from the absence of passion, he strives, by restraining all the senses, to attain to tranquillity of mind.

atho viviktaṁ kāmebhyo vyāpādādibhya eva ca |
vivekajamavāpnoti pūrvadhyānaṁ vitarkavat || 12.49

49. ‘Then he reaches the first stage of contemplation, which is separated from desires, evil intentions and the like, and arises from discrimination and which involves reasoning. Cf. Yoga-sūtras I, 42.10

tacca dhyānaṁ sukhaṁ prāpya tattadeva vitarkayan |
apūrvasukhalābhena hriyate bāliśo janaḥ || 12.50

50. ‘And having obtained this ecstatic contemplation, and reasoning on various objects, the childish mind is carried away by the possession of the new unknown ecstasy.

śamenaivaṁvidhenāyaṁ kāmadveṣavigarhiṇā |
brahmalokamavāpnoti paritoṣeṇa vaṁcitaḥ || 12.51

51. ‘With a tranquillity of this kind, which disdains desire or dislike, he reaches the world of Brahman, deceived by the delight.

jñātvā vidvān vitarkāṁstu manaḥsaṁkṣobhakārakān |
tadviyuktamavāpnoti dhyānaṁ prītisukhānvitam || 12.52

52. ‘But the wise man, knowing that these reasonings bewilder the mind, reaches a (second) stage of contemplation separate from this, which has its own pleasure and ecstasy.

hriyamāṇastayā prītyā yo viśeṣaṁ na paśyati |
sthānaṁ bhāsvaramāpnoti deveṣvābhāsureṣvapi || 12.53

53. ‘And he who, carried away by this pleasure, sees no further distinction, obtains a dwelling full of light, even amongst the Ābhāsura deities.

yastu prītisukhāttasmādvivecayati mānasam |
tṛtīyaṁ labhate dhyānaṁ sukhaṁ prītivivarjitam || 12.54

54. ‘But he who separates his mind from this pleasure and ecstasy, reaches the third stage of contemplation ecstatic but without pleasure.

tatra kecidvyavasyaṁti mokṣa ityapi māninaḥ |
sukhaduḥkhaparityāgādavyāpārācca cetasaḥ || 12.55 (57)

55. ‘Upon this stage some teachers make their stand, thinking that it is indeed liberation, since pleasure and pain have been left behind and there is no exercise of the intellect.

yastu tasminsukhe magno na viśeṣāya yatnavān |
śubhakṛtsnaiḥ sa sāmānyaṁ sukhaṁ prāpnoti daivataiḥ || 12.56 (55)

56. ‘But he who, immersed in this ecstasy, strives not for a further distinction, obtains an ecstasy in common with the Śubhakṛtsna deities.

tādṛśaṁ sukhamāsādya yo na rajyannupekṣate |
caturthaṁ dhyānamāpnoti sukhaduḥkhavivarjitam || 12.57 (56)

57. ‘But he who, having attained such a bliss desires it not but despises it, obtains the fourth stage of contemplation which is separate from all pleasure or pain.

asya dhyānasya tu phalaṁ samaṁ devairvṛhatphalaiḥ |
kathayaṁti vṛhatphalaṁ vṛhatprajñāparīkṣakāḥ || 12.58

58. ‘The fruit of this contemplation which is on an equality with the Vṛhatphala deities, those who investigate the great wisdom call the Vṛhatphala. The great fruit.11

samādhervyutthitastasmāddṛṣṭvā doṣāṁścharīriṇām |
jñānamārohati prājñaḥ śarīravinivṛttaye || 12.59

59. ‘But rising beyond this contemplation, having seen the imperfections of all embodied souls, the wise man climbs to a yet higher wisdom in order to abolish all body.

tatastaddhyānamutsṛjya viśeṣe kṛtaniścayaḥ |
kāmebhya iva satprājño rūpādapi virajyate || 12.60

60. ‘Then, having abandoned this contemplation, being resolved to find a further distinction, he becomes as disgusted with form itself as he who knows the real is with pleasures.

śarīre khāni yānyasya tānyādau parikalpayan |
ghaneṣvapi tato dravyeṣvākāśamadhimucyate || 12.61

61. ‘First he makes use of all the apertures of his body; and next he exerts his will to experience a feeling of void space even in the solid parts. An obscure verse; cf. Pāli Dict.12

ākāśasamamātmānaṁ saṁkṣipya tvaparo budhaḥ |
tadaivānaṁtataḥ paśyan viśeṣamadhigacchati || 12.62

62. ‘But another wise man, having contracted his soul which is by nature extended everywhere like the ether, Cf. Bhāṣāpariccheda, śloka (verse) 25.13 — as he gazes ever further on, detects a yet higher distinction.

adhyātmakuśaleṣvanyo nivartyātmānamātmanā |
kiṁcinnāstīti saṁpaśyannākiṁcanya iti smṛtaḥ || 12.63

63. ‘Another one of those who are profoundly versed in the supreme Self, having abolished himself by himself, sees that nothing exists and is called a Nihilist. Ākiṇcaya.14

tato muṁjādiṣīkeva śakuniḥ paṁjarādiva |
kṣetrajño niḥsṛto dehānmukta ityabhidhīyate || 12.64

64. ‘Then like the Muñja-reed's stalk Cf. Kaṭha Up. VI, 17.15 from its sheath or the bird from its cage, the soul, escaped from the body, is declared to be "liberated."

etattatparamaṁ brahma nirliṁgaṁ dhruvamakṣaram |
yanmokṣa iti tattvajñāḥ kathayaṁti manīṣiṇaḥ || 12.65

65. ‘This is that supreme Brahman, constant, eternal, and without distinctive signs; which the wise who know reality declare to be liberation.

ityupāyaśca mokṣaśca mayā saṁdarśitastava |
yadi jñātaṁ yadi ruci yathāvatpratipadyatām || 12.66

66. ‘Thus have I shown to thee the means and liberation; if thou hast understood and approved it, then act accordingly.

jaigīṣavyo 'tha janako vṛddhaścaiva parāśaraḥ |
imaṁ paṁthānamāsādya muktā hyanye ca mokṣiṇaḥ || 12.67

67. ‘Jaigīṣavya Mahābh. IX, § 50; Tattvakaumudī, § 5.16 and Janaka, and the aged Parāsara, by following this path, were liberated, and so were others who sought liberation.’

iti tasya sa tadvākyaṁ gṛhītvā na vicārya ca |
pūrvahetubalaprāptaḥ pratyuttaramuvāca saḥ || 12.68

68. The prince having not accepted his words but having pondered them, filled with the force of his former arguments, thus made answer:

śrutaṁ jñānamidaṁ sūkṣmaṁ parataḥ parataḥ śivam |
kṣetreṣvasyāparityāgādavaimyetadanaiṣṭhikam || 12.69

69. ‘I have heard this thy doctrine, subtil and pre-eminently auspicious, but I hold that it cannot be final, because it does not teach us how to abandon this soul itself in the various bodies.

vikāraprakṛtibhyo hi kṣetrajñaṁ muktamapyaham |
manye prasavadharmāṇaṁ vījadharmāṇameva ca || 12.70

70. ‘For I consider that the embodied soul, though freed from the evolutes and the evolvents, is still subject to the condition of birth and has the condition of a seed. This is expanded in the Chinese, vv. 984, 985.17

viśuddho yadyapi hyātmā nirmukta iti kalpyate | [Ed: Johnson has 2 extra verses inserted at this point, so that the 3 verses together read: viśuddho yadyapi hyātmā nirmukta iti kalpyate | bhūyaḥ pratyayasadbhāvādamuktaḥ sa bhaviṣyati || 12.71 ṛtubhūmyaṁbuvirahādyathā bījaṁ na rohati | rohati pratyayaistaistaistadvatso 'pi mato mama || 12.72 yatkarmājñānatṛṣṇānāṁ tyāgānmokṣaśca kalpyate | atyantastatparityāgaḥ satyātmani na vidyate || 12.73.18a He gives the translation of the 3 verses like this: 71. ‘For though the soul by reason of its purity is conceived as being liberated, it will again become bound from the continued existence of the causal conditions. 72. Just as a seed does not grow from want of the proper season, soil or water, but does grow when these causal condtions are present, such I deem to be the case of the soul. 73. And as for the statement that liberation is deemed to come by severence from the power of the act, from ignorance and from desire, there is no complete severence from them so long as the soul persists’. The rest of the verse numbers in this chapter in Johnson's edition are affected by this, and are placed in brackets in this edition henceforth.]18b (ab = 12.71ab)
atyaṁtastatparityāgaḥ satyātmani na vidyate || 12.71 (cd = 12.73cd)

71. ‘Even though the pure soul is declared to be "liberated," yet as long as the soul remains there can be no absolute abandonment of it.

hitvā hitvā trayamidaṁ viśeṣastūpalabhyate |
ātmanastu sthitiryatra tatra sūkṣmamidaṁ trayam || 12. 72 (12.74)

72. ‘If we abandon successively all this triad, yet "distinction" is still perceived; as long as the soul itself continues, there this triad continues in a subtil form.

sūkṣmatvāccaiva doṣāṇāmavyāpārācca cetasaḥ |
dīrghatvādāyuṣaścaiva mokṣastu parikalpyate || 12.73 (12.75)

73. ‘It is held (by some) that this is liberation, because the "imperfections" are so attenuated, and the thinking power is inactive, and the term of existence is so prolonged;

ahaṁkāraparityāgo yaścaiṣa parikalpyate |
satyātmani parityāgo nāhaṁkārasya vidyate || 12.74 (12.76)

74. ‘But as for this supposed abandonment of the principle of egoism, — as long as the soul continues, there is no real abandonment of egoism.

saṁkhyādibhiramuktaśca nirguṇo na bhavatyayam |
tasmādasati nairguṇye nāsya mokṣo 'bhidhīyate || 12.75 (12.77)

75. ‘The soul does not become free from qualities as long as it is not released from number and the rest; therefore, as long as there is no freedom from qualities, there is no liberation declared for it.

guṇino hi guṇānāṁ ca vyatireko na vidyate |
rūpoṣṇābhyāṁ virahito na hyagnirupalabhyate || 12.76 (12.78)

76. ‘There is no real separation of the qualities and their subject; for fire cannot be conceived, apart from its form and heat.

prāgdehānna bhaveddehī prāgguṇebhyastathā guṇī |
kasmādādau vimuktaḥ sañśarīrī badhyate punaḥ || 12.77 (12.79)

77. ‘Before the body there will be nothing embodied, so before the qualities there will be no subject; how, if it was originally free, could the soul ever become bound? I read kasmāt for tasmāt.19

kṣetrajño viśarīraśca jño vā syādajña eva vā |
yadi jño jñeyamasyāsti jñeye sati na mucyate || 12.78 (12.80)

78. ‘The body-knower (the soul) which is unembodied, must be either knowing or unknowing; if it is knowing, there must be some object to be known, and if there is this object, it is not liberated.

athājña iti siddho vaḥ kalpitena kimātmanā |
vināpi hyātmanājñānaṁ prasiddhaṁ kāṣṭhakuḍyavat || 12.79 (12.81)

79. ‘Or if the soul is declared to be unknowing, then of what use to you is this imagined soul? Even without such a soul, the existence of the absence of knowledge is notorious as, for instance, in a log of wood or a wall.

parataḥ paratastyāgo yasmāttu guṇavān smṛtaḥ |
tasmātsarvaparityāgānmanye kṛtsnāṁ kṛtārthatām || 12.80 (12.82)

80. ‘And since each successive abandonment is held to be still accompanied by qualities, I maintain that the absolute attainment of our end can only be found in the abandonment of everything.’

iti dharmamarāḍasya viditvā na tutoṣa saḥ |
akṛtsnamiti vijñāya tataḥ pratijagāma ha || 12.81 (12.83)

81. Thus did he remain unsatisfied after he had heard the doctrine of Arāḍa; then having decided it to be incomplete, he turned away.

viśeṣamatha śuśrūṣurudrakasyāśramaṁ yayau |
ātmagrāhācca tasyāpi jagṛhe na sa darśanam || 12.82 (12.84)

82. Seeking to know the true distinction, he went to the hermitage of Udraka, Cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 386 n. It is written Rudraka in XV, 89.20 but he gained no clear understanding from his treatment of the soul.

saṁjñāsaṁjñitvayordoṣaṁ jñātvā hi munirudrakaḥ |
ākiṁcinyātparaṁ lebhe saṁjñāsaṁjñātmikāṁ gatim || 12.83 (12.85)

83. For the sage Udraka, having learned the inherent imperfections of the name and the thing named, took refuge in a theory beyond Nihilism, which maintained a name and a non-name.

yasmāccālaṁbane sūkṣme saṁjñāsaṁjñe tataḥ param |
nāsaṁjñī naiva saṁjñīti tasmāttatra gataspṛhaḥ || 12.84 (12.86)

84. And since even a name and a non-name were substrata, however subtil, he went even further still and found his restlessness set at rest in the idea that there is no named and no un-named;

yataśca buddhistatraiva sthitānyatrāpracāriṇī |
sūkṣmāpādi tatastatra nāsaṁjñitvaṁ na saṁjñitā || 12.85 (12.87)

85. And because the intellect rested there, not proceeding any further, — it became very subtil, and there was no such thing as un-named nor as named.

yasmācca tamapi prāpya punarāvartate jagat |
bodhisattvaḥ paraṁ prepsustasmādudrakamatyajat || 12.86 (12.88)

86. But because, even when it has reached this goal it yet returns again to the world, therefore the Bodhisattva, seeking something beyond, left Udraka.

tato hitvāśramaṁ tasya śreyo 'rthī kṛtaniścayaḥ |
bheje gayasya rājarṣernagarīsaṁjñamāśramam || 12.87 (12.89)

87. Having quitted his hermitage, fully resolved in his purpose, and seeking final bliss, he next visited the hermitage, called a city, of the royal sage Gaya.

atha nairaṁjanātīre śucau śuciparākramaḥ |
cakāra vāsamekāṁtavihārābhivratī muniḥ || 12.88 (12. 90)

88. Then on the pure bank of the Nairañjanā the saint whose every effort was pure fixed his dwelling, bent as he was on a lonely habitation.

[Ed: Johnson's edition inserts this verse here, along with the translation. The numbering in Johnson's edition is again affected by this change.]21<xxx> tatpūrvaṁ paṁceṁdriyavaśoddhatān |
tapaḥ <xx> vratino bhikṣūn paṁca niraikṣata || (12.91)

(Then he saw five mendicants who had come there before him; they had taken vows on themselves and practised austerities, vaunting themselves of control of the five senses.)

paṁcopatasthurdṛṣṭvātra bhikṣavastaṁ mumukṣavaḥ |
puṇyārjitadhanārogyamiṁdriyārthā iveśvaram || 12.89 (12.92)

89. Five mendicants, desiring liberation, came up to him when they beheld him there, just as the objects of the senses come up to a percipient who has gained wealth and health by his previous merit.

saṁpūjyamānastaiḥ prahvairvinayānatamūrtibhiḥ |
tadvaṁśasthāyibhiḥ śiṣyairlolairmana iveṁdriyaiḥ || 12.90 (12.93)

90. Being honoured by these disciples who were dwelling in that family, as they bowed reverently with their bodies bent low in humility, as the mind is honoured by the restless senses,

mṛtyujanmāṁtakaraṇe syādupāyo 'yamityatha |
duṣkarāṇi samārebhe tapāṁsyanaśanena saḥ || 12.91 (12.94)

91. And thinking, ‘this may be the means of abolishing birth and death,’ he at once commenced a series of difficult austerities by fasting.

upavāsavidhīn nekān kurvan naradurācarān |
varṣāṇi ṣaṭkarmaprepsurakarotkārśyamātmanaḥ || 12.92 (12.95)

92. For six years, vainly trying to attain merit, This is the Tibetan reading [las·ni thob·bzhed lo drug·tu, ‘wishing to obtain (the fruits of good) works, during six years’. H.W.]22 he practised self-mortification, performing many rules of abstinence, hard for a man to carry out.

annakāleṣu caikaikaiḥ sakolatilataṁḍulaiḥ |
apārapārasaṁsārapāraṁ prepsurapārayat || 12.93 (12.96)

93. At the hours for eating, he, longing to cross the world whose farther shore is so difficult to reach, broke his vow with single jujube fruits, sesame seeds, and rice.

dehādapacayastena tapasā tasya yaḥ kṛtaḥ |
sa evopacayo bhūyastejasāsya kṛto 'bhavat || 12.94 (12.97)

94. But the emaciation which was produced in his body by that asceticism, became positive fatness through the splendour which invested him.

kṛśo 'pyakṛśakīrtiśrīrhlādaṁ cakre 'nyacakṣuṣam |
kumudānāmiva śaracchuklapakṣādicaṁdramāḥ || 12.95 (12.98)

95. Though thin, yet with his glory and his beauty unimpaired, he caused gladness to other eyes, as the autumnal moon in the beginning of her bright fortnight gladdens the lotuses.

tvagasthiśeṣo niḥśeṣairmedaḥpiśitaśoṇitaiḥ |
kṣīṇo 'pyakṣīṇagāṁbhīryaḥ samudra iva sa vyabhāt || 12.96 (12.99)

96. Having only skin and bone remaining, with his fat, flesh and blood entirely wasted, yet, though diminished, he still shone with undiminished grandeur like the ocean.

atha kaṣṭatapaḥspaṣṭavyarthakliṣṭatanurmuniḥ |
bhavabhīrurimāṁ cakre buddhiṁ buddhatvakāṁkṣayā || 12.97 (12.100)

97. Then the seer, having his body evidently emaciated to no purpose in a cruel self-mortification; — dreading continued existence, thus reflected in his longing to become a Buddha:

nāyaṁ dharmo virāgāya na bodhāya na muktaye |
jaṁbumūle mayā prāpto yastadā sa vidhirdhruvaḥ || 12.98 (12.101)

98. ‘This is not the way to passionlessness, nor to perfect knowledge, nor to liberation; that was certainly the true way which I found at the root of the Jambu The rose apple, see V, 8.23 tree.

na cāsau durbalenāptuṁ śakyamityāgatādaraḥ |
śarīrabalavṛddhyarthamidaṁ bhūyo 'nvaciṁtayat || 12.99 (12.102)

99. ‘But that cannot be attained by one who has lost his strength’, — so resuming his care for his body, he next pondered thus, how best to increase his bodily vigour:

kṣutpipāsāśramaklāṁtaḥ śramādasvasthamānasaḥ |
prāpnuyānmanasāvāpyaṁ phalaṁ kathamanirvṛtaḥ || 12.100 (12.103)

100. ‘Wearied with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, with his mind no longer self-possessed through fatigue, how should one who is not absolutely calm reach the end which is to be attained by his mind?

nirvṛtiḥ prāpyate samyaksatateṁdriyatarpaṇāt |
saṁtarpiteṁdriyatayā manaḥsvāsthyamavāpyate || 12.101 (12.104)

101. ‘True calm is properly obtained by the constant satisfaction of the senses; the mind's self-possession is only obtained by the senses being perfectly satisfied.

svasthaprasannamanasaḥ samādhirupapadyate |
samādhiyuktacittasya dhyānayogaḥ pravartate || 12.102 (12.105)

102. ‘True meditation is produced in him whose mind is self-possessed and at rest, — to him whose thoughts are engaged in meditation the exercise of perfect contemplation begins at once.

dhyānapravartanāddharmāḥ prāpyaṁte yairavāpyate |
durlabhaṁ śāṁtamajaraṁ paraṁ tadamṛtaṁ padam || 12.103 (12.106)

103. ‘By contemplation are obtained those conditions Dharmāḥ.24 through which is eventually gained that supreme calm, undecaying, immortal state, which is so hard to be reached.’

tasmādāhāramūlo 'yamupāya itiniścayaḥ |
asūrikaraṇe dhīraḥ kṛtvāmitamatirmatim || 12.104 (12.107)

104. Having thus resolved, ‘this means is based upon eating food,’ the wise seer of unbounded wisdom, having made up his mind to accept the continuance of life,

snāto nairaṁjanātīrāduttatāra śanaiḥ kṛśaḥ |
bhaktyāvanataśākhāgrairdattahastastaṭadrumaiḥ || 12.105 (12.108)

105. And having bathed, thin as he was, slowly came up the bank of the Nairañjanā, supported as by a hand by the trees on the shore, which bent down the ends of their branches in adoration.

atha gopādhipasutā daivatairabhicoditā |
udbhūtahṛdayānaṁdā tatra naṁdabalāgamat || 12.106 (12.109)

106. Now at that time Nandabalā, the daughter of the leader of the herdsmen, impelled by the gods, with a sudden joy risen in her heart, had just come near,

sitaśaṁkhojjvalabhujā nīlakaṁbalavāsinī |
sapheṇamālānīlāṁburyamuneva saridvarā || 12.107 (12.110)

107. Her arm gay with a white shell, and wearing a dark blue woollen cloth, like the river Yamunā, with its dark blue water and its wreath of foam.

sā śraddhāvardhitaprītirvikasallocanotpalā |
śirasā praṇipatyainaṁ grāhayāmāsa pāyasam || 12.108 (12.111)

108. She, having her joy increased by her faith, with her lotus-like eyes opened wide, bowed down before him and persuaded him to take some milk.

kṛtvā tadupabhogena prāptajanmaphalāṁ sa tām |
bodhiprāptau samartho 'bhūtsaṁtarpitaṣaḍiṁdriyaḥ || 12.109 (12.112)

109. By partaking that food having made her obtain the full reward of her birth, he himself became capable of gaining the highest knowledge, all his six senses being now satisfied,

paryāptāpyānamūrtaśca sārdhaṁ suyaśasā muniḥ |
kāṁtidhairyaikabhāraikaḥ śaśāṁkārṇavavalbabhau || 12.110 (12.113)

110. The seer, having his body now fully robust, together with his glorious fame, one beauty and one majesty being equally spread in both, shone like the ocean and the moon. Fame is often compared for its brightness to the moon.25

āvṛtta iti vijñāya taṁ jahuḥ paṁcabhikṣavaḥ |
manīṣiṇamivātmānaṁ nirmuktaṁ paṁcadhātavaḥ || 12.111 (12.114)

111. Thinking that he had returned to the world the five mendicants left him, as the five elements leave the wise soul when it is liberated.

vyavasāyadvitīyo 'tha śādvalāstīrṇabhūtalam |
so 'śvatthamūlaṁ prayayau bodhāya kṛtaniścayaḥ || 12.112 (12.115)

112. Accompanied only by his own resolve, having fixed his mind on the attainment of perfect knowledge, he went to the root of an Aśvattha tree, Ficus religiosa or pipul tree.26 where the surface of the ground was covered with young grass.

tatastadānīṁ gajarājavikramaḥ padasvanenānupamena bodhitaḥ |
mahāmunerāgatabodhiniścayo jagāda kālo bhujagottamaḥ stutim || 12.113 (12.116)

113. Then Kāla, He is the Nāga king, Jātaka I, 72.27 the best of serpents, whose majesty was like the lord of elephants, having been awakened by the unparalleled sound of his feet, uttered this praise of the great sage, being sure that he was on the point of attaining perfect knowledge:

yathā mune tvaccaraṇāvapīḍitā muhurmuhurniṣṭanatīva medinī |
yathā ca te rājati sūryavatprabhā dhruvaṁ tvamiṣṭaṁ phalamadya bhokṣyase || 12.114 (12.117)

114. ‘Inasmuch as the earth, pressed down by thy feet, O sage, resounds repeatedly, and inasmuch as thy splendour shines forth like the sun, thou shalt assuredly to-day enjoy the desired fruit.

yathā bhramaṁtyo divi vāyapaṁktayaḥ pradakṣiṇaṁ tvāṁ kamalākṣa kurvate |
yathā ca saumyā divi vāṁti vāyavastvamadya buddho niyataṁ bhaviṣyasi || 12.115 (12.118)

115. ‘Inasmuch as lines of birds fluttering in the sky offer thee reverential salutation, O lotus-eyed one, and inasmuch as gentle breezes blow in the sky, thou shalt certainly to-day become the Buddha.’

tato bhujaṁgapravareṇa saṁstutastṛṇānyupādāya śucīni lāvakāt |
kṛtapratijño niṣasāda bodhaye mahātarormūlamupāśritaḥ śuceḥ || 12.116 (12.119)

116. Being thus praised by the best of serpents, and having taken some pure grass from a grasscutter, he, having made his resolution, sat down to obtain perfect knowledge at the foot of the great holy tree.

tataḥ sa paryaṁkamakaṁpyamuttamaṁ babaṁdha suptoragabhogapiṁḍitam |
bhinadmi tāvadbhuvi naitadāsanaṁ na yāmi tāvatkṛtakṛtyatāmiti || 12.117 (12.120)

117. Then he sat down on his hams in a posture, immovably firm and with his limbs gathered into a mass like a sleeping serpent's hood, exclaiming, ‘I will not rise from this position on the earth until For tāvat read yāvat.28 I have obtained my utmost aim.’

tato yayurmudamatulāṁ divaukaso vavāsire na mṛgaganā na pakṣiṇaḥ |
na sasvanurvanataravo 'nilāhatāḥ kṛtāsane bhagavati niścalātmani || 12.118 (12.121)

118. Then the dwellers in heaven burst into unequalled joy; the herds of beasts and the birds uttered no cry; the trees moved by the wind made no sound, when the holy one took his seat firm in his resolve.

iti śrībuddhacarite mahākāvye 'śvaghoṣakṛte 'rāḍadarśano nāma dvādaśaḥ sargaḥ || 12 ||
[Such is the twelth chapter in the great poem Śri Buddhacarita,
written by Aśvaghosa, called Visit to Arāḍa]