[I. The First Teachings]

[Dhammacakkappavattanasuttaṁ]
[9. The Discourse Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling] Cf. SN 56, Saccasaṁyuttaṁ, 11. Jā Nid: paññatte Varabuddhāsane nisinno Uttarāsāḷhanakkhattayoge vattamāne aṭṭhārasahi Brahmakoṭīhi parivuto Pañcavaggiye There āmantetvā Dhammacakkappavattanasuttantaṁ desesi; sitting on the best of Buddha seats that had been prepared, at the conjunction of the Uttarāsāḷha constellation, surrounded by 180,000,000 Brahmās, after addressing the Group-of-Five elders, he taught the Discourse Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling.01

Atha kho Bhagavā pañcavaggiye bhikkhū āmantesi:
Then the Gracious One addressed the group-of-five monks, saying:

“Dveme bhikkhave antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā,
“There are these two extremes, monks, that one who has gone forth ought not to associate with,

yo cāyaṁ: kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo,
which is this: devotion and clinging to the pleasure in sense pleasures,

hīno, gammo, pothujjaniko, anariyo, anatthasaṁhito;
which is low, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, and not connected with the goal;

yo cāyaṁ: attakilamathānuyogo,
and this: devotion to self-mortification,

dukkho, anariyo, anatthasaṁhito.
which is painful, ignoble, and not connected with the goal.

Ete te bhikkhave ubho ante anupagamma, majjhimā paṭipadā
Not having approached either of these two extremes, monks, the middle practice

Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati.
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Emancipation.

Katamā ca sā bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā,
Now what is this middle practice, monks,

Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
that was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, Comm: paññācakkhuṁ sandhāyāha; said in reference to the eye of wisdom.02 produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati?
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Emancipation?

Ayam-eva Ariyo Aṭṭhaṅgiko Maggo, seyyathīdaṁ:
It is this Eightfold Noble Path, as follows:

sammādiṭṭhi
right view

sammāsaṅkappo
right thought

sammāvācā
right speech

sammākammanto
right action

sammā-ājīvo
right livelihood

sammāvāyāmo
right endeavour

sammāsati
right mindfulness

sammāsamādhi.
right concentration. The Eightfold Noble Path is sometimes organised into three sections or groups: virtue (sīla): right speech, action and livelihood; mastery of mind (samādhi): right endeavour, mindfulness and concentration; and wisdom (paññā): right view and thought.03

 

Ayaṁ kho sā bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā,
This is the middle practice, monks,

Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī, ñāṇakaraṇī,
that was awakened to by the Realised One, which produces vision, produces knowledge,

upasamāya abhiññāya Sambodhāya Nibbānāya saṁvattati.
and which leads to peace, deep knowledge, Complete Awakening, and Emancipation.

[Cattāri Ariyasaccāni]
[The Four Noble Truths]

Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of suffering:

jāti pi dukkhā
birth is suffering

jarā pi dukkhā
also old age is suffering

vyādhi pi dukkho
also sickness is suffering

maraṇam-pi dukkhaṁ
also death is suffering

appiyehi sampayogo dukkho
being joined to what is not dear is suffering

piyehi vippayogo dukkho
being separated from what is dear is suffering

yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ
also not to obtain what one longs for is suffering

saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
in brief, the five constituent parts (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

 

Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the arising of suffering:

yā yaṁ taṇhā ponobhavikā,
it is that craving which leads to continuation in existence,

nandirāgasahagatā, tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathīdaṁ:
which is connected with enjoyment and passion, greatly enjoying this and that, as follows:

kāmataṇhā
craving for sense pleasures

bhavataṇhā
craving for continuation

vibhavataṇhā.
craving for discontinuation.

 

Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ:
Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering:

yo tassā yeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho -
it is the complete fading away and cessation without remainder of that craving -

cāgo, paṭinissaggo, mutti, anālayo.
liberation, letting go, release, and non-adherence.

 

Idaṁ kho pana bhikkhave,
Now this, monks,

dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ,
is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering,

ayam-eva Ariyo Aṭṭhaṅgiko Maggo, seyyathīdaṁ:
it is this Eightfold Noble Path, as follows:

sammādiṭṭhi
right view

sammāsaṅkappo
right thought

sammāvācā
right speech

sammākammanto
right action

sammā-ājīvo
right livelihood

sammāvāyāmo
right endeavour

sammāsati
right mindfulness

sammāsamādhi.
right concentration.

 

[Sacchikiriyā]
[Realisation]

“Idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” pariññeyyan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of suffering” refers (i.e. suffering itself) ought to be fully known The syntax of this section in Pāḷi is very roundabout and not a little awkward. The translation is no better, as to maintain consistency, we have to circumlocute to avoid saying (just below): This noble truth of the arising of suffering ought to be given up, which makes it sound as if the truth ought to be given up, rather than what causes the arising.04 -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” pariññātan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of suffering” refers has been fully known -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

“Idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” pahātabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” refers (i.e. craving) ought to be given up -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” pahīnan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the arising of suffering” refers has been given up,

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

“Idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” sacchikātabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” refers (i.e. Emancipation) ought to be experienced -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ” sacchikatan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering” refers has been experienced -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

“Idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccan”-ti -
“This is the noble truth of the practice going to the cessation of suffering” -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ” bhāvetabban-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering” refers (i.e. the practice itself) ought to be developed -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

Taṁ kho pan' “idaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ” bhāvitan-ti -
Now that to which “this is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering” refers has been developed -

me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
to me, monks, regarding these previously unheard-of things

cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose.

 

[Sambodhipaccaññanaṁ]
[Declaring the Awakening]

Yāva kīvañ-ca me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu
For as long as to me, monks, in regard to these four noble truths

- evaṁ tiparivaṭṭaṁ dvādasākāraṁ -
- turned like this, in three ways, twelvefold -

yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ na suvisuddhaṁ ahosi,
knowledge and insight as it really is was not quite clear,

neva tāvāhaṁ bhikkhave sadevake loke Samārake Sabrahmake,
for that long, monks, I did not declare to the world with its gods, Māra, and Brahmā,

sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya,
to this generation, with its ascetics and brāhmaṇas, princes and men,

anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ Abhisambuddho paccaññāsiṁ.
that I was a Full and Perfect Sambuddha with unsurpassed complete awakening.

Yato ca kho me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu
But when to me, monks, in regard to these four noble truths

- evaṁ tiparivaṭṭaṁ dvādasākāraṁ -
- turned like this, in three ways, twelvefold -

yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ suvisuddhaṁ ahosi,
knowledge and insight as it really is was quite clear

athāhaṁ bhikkhave sadevake loke Samārake Sabrahmake,
then, monks, I did declare to the world with its gods, Māra, and Brahmā,

sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya,
to this generation, with its ascetics and brāhmaṇas, princes and men,

anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ Abhisambuddho paccaññāsiṁ.
that I was a Full and Perfect Sambuddha with unsurpassed complete awakening.

Ñāṇañ-ca pana me dassanaṁ udapādi:
To me knowledge and insight arose:

Akuppā me cetovimutti
Sure is my liberation of mind

ayam-antimā jāti
this is my last birth

natthi dāni punabbhavo” ti.
now there is no continuation of existence.”

 

[Paṭhamāpatti]
[The First Attainment]

Idam-avoca Bhagavā,
The Gracious One said this,

attamanā pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū Bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandun-ti.
and the group-of-five monks were uplifted and greatly rejoiced in what was said by the Gracious One.

Imasmiñ-ca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṁ bhaññamāne, āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa
Moreover, as this sermon was being given, to the venerable Koṇḍañña

virajaṁ, vītamalaṁ, Dhammacakkhuṁ udapādi:
the dust-free, stainless, Vision-of-the-Dhamma arose: Comm: aṭṭhārasahi devatākoṭīhi saddhiṁ sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhitassa; together with 180,000,000 divinities he was established in the Fruit of Stream-Entry. Jā Nid and Mahāvastu agree with this number.05

“Yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ,
“Whatever has the nature of arising,

sabban-taṁ nirodhadhamman”-ti.
all that has the nature of ceasing.”

 

[Devabbhanumodanā]
[The Gods Rejoice]

Pavattite ca pana Bhagavatā Dhammacakke
Now when the Dhamma Wheel was set rolling by the Gracious One

Bhummā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Earth gods In the enumeration of the 31 Planes of Existence the Bhummā devā are not normally counted as a separate group, but are included in the realm of the Four Great Kings.06 let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Bhummānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Earth gods

Cātummahārājikā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the gods called the Four Great Kings let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Cātummahārājikānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the gods called the Four Great Kings

Tāvatiṁsā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Tāvatiṁsa gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Tāvatiṁsānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Tāvatiṁsa gods

Yāmā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Yāma gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Yāmānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Yāma gods

Tusitā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Tusita gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Tusitānaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Tusita gods

Nimmāṇaratī devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Nimmāṇarati gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Nimmāṇaratīnaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Nimmāṇarati gods

Paranimmitavasavattino devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Paranimmitavasavatti gods let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or by a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Paranimmitavasavattīnaṁ devānaṁ saddaṁ sutvā
Having heard the cry of the Paranimmitavasavatti gods

Brahmakāyikā devā saddam-anussāvesuṁ:
the Brahmakāyika gods All the gods so far belong to the Sensual World (Kāma Loka), but the Brahmakāyikā devā, of which there are 16 kinds (all listed separately in the Safeguard version of this discourse), belong to the Form World (Rūpa Loka).07 let loose a cry:

“Etaṁ Bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyaṁ Isipatane Migadāye,
o “Near Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana,

anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ,
the unsurpassed Dhamma Wheel has been set rolling by the Gracious One,

appativattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā
and it cannot be rolled back by an ascetic or a brāhmaṇa

devena vā Mārena vā Brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”-ti.
or by a god or by a Māra or by a Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

 

Iti ha tena khaṇena tena muhuttena,
Thus at that moment, at that second,

yāva Brahmalokā saddo abbhuggañchi,
that cry reached as far as the Brahmā worlds,

ayañ-ca dasasahassī lokadhātu saṅkampi, sampakampi, sampavedhi,
and this ten-thousand world-element moved, wavered, and shook,

appamāṇo ca uḷāro obhāso loke pātur-ahosi,
and great and measureless light became manifest in the world,

atikkamma devānaṁ devānubhāvaṁ.
transcending the godly power of the gods.

Atha kho Bhagavā imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
Then the Gracious One uttered this inspired utterance:

“Aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍañño,
“Koṇḍañña surely knows,

aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍañño” ti.
Koṇḍañña surely knows.”

Iti hidaṁ āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa
Thus to the venerable Koṇḍañña

Aññā Koṇḍañño tveva nāmaṁ ahosi.
came the name Aññā Koṇḍañña (Koṇḍañña, he-who-knows).