A New Collection of Sentences

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to Him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha


Paṭhamo Paricchedo, Pulliṅganāmaṁ The original work opened with the following Vaṁsaṭṭhā verse written by Ven. Devamitta: Niruttikāyo dadhipāragaṁ Jinaṁ Visuddhadhammañ-ca Gaṇaṁ Anuttaraṁ - Tidhā namitvā, Padamañjarī mayā karīyate bālakabuddhivuddhiyā ti. The Victorious (Buddha) who has crossed over the ocean of the body of linguistics, The Pure Dhamma, and the Supreme Chapter (of Monks) - Having honoured these three, the Collection of Sentences was written by me for the development of understanding in the student.01
Chapter One, Masculine Nouns


1-1: A-kārantapulliṅga - Buddha
1-1: Masculine Gender with -a at the end - Buddha


Atha a-kārantapulliṅgo Buddha-saddo vuccate:
Now the Masculine Gender with -a at the end
is illustrated Literally: spoken, but it means spoken (or written) in illustration (of the declension).02 with the declinable word SED (part): śabda, m. ... (in gram.) a declinable word or a word-termination, affix Pāṇ(inī) Sch(oliast) ...03 Buddha: This is the standard declension of the Masculine Gender in -a, that most nouns follow, e.g. Saṅgha, Dhamma, nara, purisa, hattha, loka, kāya, suriya, canda, gāma, magga, etc. etc.04




-o nomimative - paṭhamā
-a -ā vocative - (paṭhamā)
-aṁ -e accusative - dutiyā
-ena -ā -ehi -ebhi instrumental - tatiyā
-assa -āya -ānaṁ dative - catutthī
-ā -ato -asmā -amhā -ehi -ebhi ablative - pañcamī
-assa -ānaṁ genitive - chaṭṭhī
-e -asmiṁ -amhi -esu locative - sattamī




Buddho ... bodhāya Dhammaṁ deseti DN 25; III, p. 55.05 (nominative singular)
The Buddha ... teaches the Dhamma for (the attainment of) Awakening


Nibbānaṁ paramaṁ vadanti Buddhā Dhp. v. 184.06 (nominative plural)
Nibbāna is supreme say the Buddhas


Namo te, Buddha ... vippamuttosi sabbadhi SN 1. v. 28107 (vocative singular)
Namo te, Buddhā ... vippamuttosi sabbadhi

Reverence to you, Buddha, you who are free in every way!


Bho Buddhā! Tumhe pi kho maṁ pāletha (vocative plural)
Good Buddhas! Indeed you must protect me


Vijjācaraṇasampannaṁ Buddhaṁ vandāma Gotamaṁ! DN 32, v. 15 and passim.08 (accusative singular)
We should worship the Buddha Gotama who has understanding and good conduct!


Atīte Buddhe -e in the accusative, -asmā, -amhā in the ablative, and -asmiṁ, -amhi in the locative singular have arisen in imitation of the pronominal declension.09 parinibbute ... anussarissati DN 14; II p. 10.10 (accusative plural)
He will remember past Buddhas who attained complete emancipation


Yo ve Buddhena codito, Bhikkhusaṅghassa pekkhati MN 50, v. 6. Codito is from codeti, a causative verb, and therefore takes the agent in the instrumental case.11 (agentive instr. sing.) In the sentences the Instrumental case was divided by Ven. Devamitta into the agentive instrumental (which is formed when the verb is either passive or causative), and the true instrumentals. This is a useful pedagogic distinction to make, but as the form is the same in each and every case in the abstracts they have been combined and given simply as the instrumental case.12
Yo ve Buddhā codito, Bhikkhusaṅghassa pekkhati

I am he who, while the bhikkhu Saṅgha watched, was reproved by the Buddha,


Vaṇṇitaṁ buddhehi All instrumental and ablative declensions endings in -ehi, ūhi, etc, should also be understood as taking the forms -ebhi, ūbhi, etc. as in the Abstract. To save unneccesary repetition the variations have been omitted from the Sentences. 13 ... āraññiko hoti (agentive instrumental plural)
There is one who is a forest-dweller ... because it is praised by the Buddhas


Buddhena seṭṭho va samo va vijjati Vv. 1047 (ChS).14 (instrumental singular)
Buddhā seṭṭho va samo va vijjati

There is one better than or the same as the Buddha


Asamehi Buddhehi sīlādīhi samo ti BvA on Bv 38, p. 42.15 (instrumental plural)
Equal with the morality and so on of the unequalled Buddhas


Asokapupphamālāhaṁ Buddhassa upanāmayiṁ Vv. 687 (ChS).16 (dative singular)
Asokapupphamālāhaṁ Buddhāya This is the form for the dative in OIA, but it is used in Pāḷi only in the Masculine declension.17 upanāmayiṁ

I offered a garland of Asoka flowers to the Buddha


Buddhānaṁ añjaliṁ paggayha tiṭṭhanti Th.A 1, I p. 22.18 (dative plural)
They stood with their hands stretched out towards the Buddhas


Dvāsīti Buddhā gaṇhiṁ, dve sahassāni bhikkhuto (ablative singular)
Dvāsīti Buddhato gaṇhiṁ, dve sahassāni bhikkhuto Th. v. 1024.19
Dvāsīti Buddhasmā gaṇhiṁ, dve sahassāni bhikkhuto
Dvāsīti Buddhamhā gaṇhiṁ, dve sahassāni bhikkhuto

82,000 I took from the Buddha, 2,000 from the monks


Buddhehi Bhagavantehi pabhā niccharati (ablative plural)
Radiance is emitted from the Buddhas, the Gracious Ones


Brahmadatto... Buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati DN 1, near the beginning.20 (genitive singular)
Brahmadatto... Buddhāya vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati

Brahmadatta ... spoke in praise of the Buddha


Buddhānaṁ ... Dhammadesanā taṁ pakāsesi Ud. 5-3.21 (genitive plural)
He explained the Dhamma teaching of the Buddhas


Buddhe ca Dhamme ca abhippasannā DN 21; v. 13.22 (locative singular)
Buddhasmiṁ ca Dhamme ca abhippasannā (locative singular)
Buddhamhi ca Dhamme ca abhippasannā

Completely confident in the Buddha and the Dhamma


Buddhesu sagāravatā, Dhamme apaciti yathābhūtaṁ Th. v. 589.23 (locative plural)
Having respect towards the Buddhas, and revering the Dhamma as it is


Iti Paṭhamo Pāṭho
Such is the First Lesson