1-3: A-kārantapulliṅga - Rāja
1-3: Masculine Gender with -a at the end - Rāja

 

A-kārantapulliṅgo rāja-saddo vuccate
The Masculine Gender with -a at the end
is illustrated with the declinable word Rāja: This form is given as Rājan in the modern grammars, but the Pāḷi grammarians normally give it as Rāja.01

 

Abstract:

 

singular:
 
plural:
 
case:
 
-āno nomimative - paṭhamā
-ā -a -āno vocative - (paṭhamā)
-ānaṁ -aṁ -āno accusative - dutiyā
-ā -ena -ehi -ebhi -ūhi -ūbhi instrumental - tatiyā
-o -ino -ussa -ānaṁ -ūnaṁ -aṁ dative - catutthī
-ā -asmā -amhā -to -ehi -ebhi -ūhi -ūbhi ablative - pañcamī
-o -ino -ussa -ānaṁ -ūnaṁ -aṁ genitive - chaṭṭhī
-e -ini -asmiṁ -amhi -esu -usu locative - sattamī

 

Sentences:

 

Rājā aññataraṁ purisaṁ āmantesi Ud. 6-4.02 (nom. sing.)
The King addressed a certain man

 

Te bhoge Rājāno vā haranti MN 13; I, p. 86.03 (nom. plur.)
Or Kings take their riches away

 

Daliddo puriso, Rāja, assaddho hoti SN 1. v. 419.04 (voc. sing.)
Daliddo puriso, Rājā, assaddho hoti

The man who is poor, King, without faith

 

Bho Rājāno! Mahājanaṁ pāletha (voc. plur.)
Good Kings! Protect the people

 

Brāhmaṇo Rājānaṁ Mahāvijitaṁ etad-avoca DN 5; I. p. 135.05 (acc. sing.)
Brāhmaṇo Rājaṁ Mahāvijitaṁ etad-avoca

The brāhmaṇa said this to King Great Victory

 

Ete caññe ca Rājāno DN 20, v. 32.06 (acc. plur.)
These and also other Kings

 

Yūpo Raññā Mahāpanādena kārāpito DN 26; III. p. 76. Forms like raññā can only be properly explained as being originally rāj + inā, with loss of the -i- vowel followed by assimilation: rāj-inā >> rāj- >> rāññā >> raññā (same principle applies to rañño below). For a different explanation see Geiger, A Pāli grammar § 92.07 (agent. inst. sing.)
Yūpo Raññena Mahāpanādena kārāpito

The sacrificial post was made by King Mahāpanāda

 

Rājehi kārāpitā mahāvihārā (agent. inst. plur.)
Rājūhi Rājūhi and Rājusu below, which were given as the normal forms in the original, show assimilation to the -ar declension. 08 kārāpitā mahāvihārā

The Great Monasteries were made by the Kings

 

Raññā mahājano sukhaṁ carati (inst. sing.)
Rājena mahājano sukhaṁ carati

Because of the King the people live happily

 

Bhagavā ākiṇṇo viharati ... Rājehi (inst. plur.)
Bhagavā ākiṇṇo viharati ... Rājūhi Ud. 4-5, near the beginning.09

The Gracious one was living surrounded ... by Kings

 

Rājino This form is probably the original.10 paṇṇākāraṁ deti mahājano (dat. sing.)
Rañño paṇṇākāraṁ deti mahājano
Rājussa paṇṇākāraṁ deti mahājano

The people give a present to the King

 

Rājā va hoti Rājānaṁ, Brahmā va brāhmaṇānaṁ (dat. plur.)
Rājā va hoti Raññaṁ, Brahmā va brāhmaṇānaṁ DN 19; II, p. 250.11
Rājā va hoti Rājūnaṁ, Brahmā va brāhmaṇānaṁ

He was like a King to Kings, a Brahmā to the brāhmaṇas

 

Raññā mahabbhayaṁ uppajjati (abl. sing.)
Raññasmā mahabbhayaṁ uppajjati
Raññamhā mahabbhayaṁ uppajjati
Raññato mahabbhayaṁ uppajjati

From the King great fear arises

 

Rājehi mahabbhayāni uppajjanti (abl. plur.)
Rājūhi mahabbhayāni uppajjanti

From the Kings great fear arises

 

Sabbā disā anupariyanti pacārā tassa rājino DN 32 v. 38.12 (gen. sing.)
Sabbā disā anupariyanti pacārā tassa rañño
Sabbā disā anupariyanti pacārā tassa rājussa

The King's messengers go round in all directions

 

Ko ... imesaṁ dvinnaṁ Rājānaṁ mahaddhanataro? (gen. plur.)
Ko ... imesaṁ dvinnaṁ Rāññaṁ mahaddhanataro?
Ko ... imesaṁ dvinnaṁ Rājūnaṁ mahaddhanataro? Ud. 2-2, near the beginning. In Sanskrit there is a separate dual case which has been lost in Pāḷi, where the dual has been assimilated to the plural.13

Which of these two Kings has the greatest wealth?

 

Cattāro... abbhutā dhammā Raññe Cakkavattimhi DN 19; II p. 232.14 (loc. sing.)
Cattāro... abbhutā dhammā Rajini Cakkavattimhi
Cattāro... abbhutā dhammā Rajasmiṁ Cakkavattimhi
Cattāro... abbhutā dhammā Rajamhi Cakkavattimhi

There are four wonderful qualities in the Universal King

 

Rājesu mahājanā pana pasīdanti (loc. plur.)
Rājusu mahājanā pana pasīdanti

Yet the people have confidence in the Kings

 

Iti Tatiyo Pāṭho
Such is the Third Lesson