1-17: O-kārantapulliṅgo - go
1-17: Masculine Gender with -o at the end - go


O-kāranta pulliṅgo go-saddo vuccate
The Masculine Gender with -o at the end
is illustrated with the declinable word go There is only one noun in this class. There are three stems on which the forms are being declined, which accounts for the multiplicity of forms in this declension. The historical stem is gāva, which gives rise to go and all the other forms in gāv-. On a new stem, gava, all the forms in gav- have been formed. And the following are being declined on the stem goṇa: goṇo, goṇaṁ, goṇe, and goṇānaṁ.01




-o -o nomimative - paṭhamā
-o -o vocative - (paṭhamā)
-uṁ -aṁ -o -e accusative - dutiyā
-ena -ohi -obhi -ehi -ebhi instrumental - tatiyā
-assa -aṁ -ānaṁ dative - catutthī
-ā -asmā -amhā -ohi -obhi -ehi -ebhi ablative - pañcamī
-assa -ānaṁ -aṁ -ānaṁ genitive - chaṭṭhī
-e -asmiṁ -amhi -osu -esu locative - sattamī




Go usabho ujuṁ gacchati (nom. sing.)
Gavo usabho ujuṁ gacchati
Goṇo usabho ujuṁ gacchati

The bull went straight ahead


Gāvo usabhā ujuṁ gacchanti (nom. plur.)
The bulls went straight ahead


Bho go usabhā! Ujuṁ gacchāhi (voc. sing.)
Bho gavo usabhā! Ujuṁ gacchāhi
Bho goṇo usabhā! Ujuṁ gacchāhi

Good bull! You must go straight ahead


Bho gāvo usabhā! Ujuṁ gacchatha (voc. sing.)
Good bulls! You must go straight ahead


Gāvuṁ vajaṁ rundhati gopālo (acc. sing.)
Gāvaṁ vajaṁ rundhati gopālo
Gavaṁ vajaṁ rundhati gopālo
Goṇaṁ vajaṁ rundhati gopālo

The cow-herder rounded the cow up in the cow pen


Gāvo vaje rundhanti gopālā (acc. plur.)
Goṇe vaje rundhanti gopālā

The cow-herders rounded the cows up in the cow pens


Gāvena sakaṭo ānīyate (agent. inst. sing.)
Gavena sakaṭo ānīyate

The cart was drawn by the cow


Gohi sakaṭā ānīyante (agent. inst. plur.)
Gāvehi sakaṭā ānīyante
Gavehi sakaṭā ānīyante

The carts were drawn by the cows


Gāvena gomiko jīvikaṁ kappeti (inst. sing.)
Gavena gomiko jīvikaṁ kappeti

Because of the cow the rancher earned a living


Gohi gomikā jīvikaṁ kappenti (inst. plur.)
Gāvehi gomikā jīvikaṁ kappenti
Gavehi gomikā jīvikaṁ kappenti

Because of the cows the ranchers earned a living


Gāvassa tiṇaṁ dadāti gopālo (dat. sing.)
Gavassa tiṇaṁ dadāti gopālo

The cow-herder gives grass to the cow


Gonaṁ tiṇaṁ dadanti gopālā (dat. plur.)
Gavaṁ tiṇaṁ dadanti gopālā
Gunnaṁ tiṇaṁ dadanti gopālā
Goṇānaṁ tiṇaṁ dadanti gopālā

The cow-hearder gives grass to the cows


Gāvā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati (abl. sing.)
Gavā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati
Gāvasmā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati
Gavasmā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati
Gāvamhā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati
Gavamhā usabhasmā bhayaṁ upjajjati

From the bull fear arises


Gohi usabhehi bhayāni jāyanti (abl. plur.)
Gāvehi usabhehi bhayāni jāyanti
Gavehi usabhehi bhayāni jāyanti

From the bulls fear arises


Gāvassa usabhassa dhavalo guṇo (gen. sing.)
Gavassa usabhassa dhavalo guṇo

The bull is white in colour


Gonaṁ usabhānaṁ guṇā pamāṇaṁ (gen. plur.)
Gavaṁ usabhānaṁ guṇā pamāṇaṁ
Gunnaṁ usabhānaṁ guṇā pamāṇaṁ
Goṇānaṁ usabhassa guṇo pamāṇaṁ

The bulls are a good size


Gāve usabhe gomiko pasīdati (loc. sing.)
Gave usabhe gomiko pasīdati
Gāvasmiṁ usabhe gomiko pasīdati
Gavasmiṁ usabhe gomiko pasīdati
Gāvamhi usabhe gomiko pasīdati
Gavamhi usabhe gomiko pasīdati

The rancher has confidence in the bull


Gosu usabhesu gomikā pasīdanti (loc. plur.)
Gāvesu usabhesu gomikā pasīdanti
Gavesu usabhesu gomikā pasīdanti

The ranchers have confidence in the bulls


Iti Sattadasamo Pāṭho
Such is the Seventeenth Lesson

Iti Navapadamañjariyā Pulliṅganāmānaṁ
Such are the Masculine Nouns in the New Collection of Sentences

Paṭhamo Paricchedo Samatto
The First Chapter is Complete