Catuttho Paricchedo, Aliṅgasabbanāmaṁ
Chapter Four, Genderless Pronouns

 

4-1: Aliṅgasabbanāmarūpāni - amha
4-1: Genderless Forms of the (Personal) Pronoun - amha

 

Atha aliṅgasabbanāmam-amha-saddo aliṅgatumhāmhasaddo (= tumha and amha) in the original; divided and rearranged here.01 vuccante
Now the genderless pronoun is illustrated with the word amha

 

Abstract (for all three genders): The forms that come for these pronouns are particularly complicated as they are declined on two stems which have alternative forms: amha/asma and maṁ/maya).02

 

singular:
 
plural:
 
case:
 
ahaṁ mayaṁ amhe nomimative - paṭhamā
maṁ mamaṁ amhe asme amhākaṁ asmākaṁ accusative - dutiyā
mayā amhehi ambhehi instrumental - tatiyā
mama mayhaṁ mamaṁ amhaṁ amhākaṁ asmākaṁ amhaṁ dative - catutthī
mayā amhehi ambhehi ablative - pañcamī
mama mayhaṁ mamaṁ amhaṁ amhākaṁ asmākaṁ amhaṁ genitive - chaṭṭhī
mayi amhesu locative - sattamī

 

Sentences (masculine):

 

Ahaṁ puriso pi puññaṁ karomi (nom. sing.)
I (masculine) These genderless pronoun sentences are particularly hard to translate as English works very different here from Pāḷi; I have tried therefore to indicate the meaning rather than translate it.03 do a meritorious deed

 

Mayaṁ purisā pana puññaṁ karoma (nom. plur.)
Amhe purisā pana puññaṁ karoma

We (masculine) do a meritorious deed

 

Mam purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti (acc. sing.) Notice that there are no vocative forms for these pronouns.04
Mamaṁ purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti

He makes (masculine) me do a meritorious deed

 

Amhe purise puññāni kārāpeti (acc. plur.)
Asme purise puññāni kārāpeti
Amhākaṁ purise puññāni kārāpeti
Asmākaṁ purise puññāni kārāpeti

He makes (masculine) me do meritorious deeds

 

Mayā purisena kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. sing.)
Action and result is experienced by (masculine) me

 

Amhehi purisehi kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. plur.)
Action and result is experienced by (masculine) men

 

Mayā purisena ekacco sucarati (inst. sing.)
Because of me, a man, some person lives happily

 

Amhehi purisehi ekacce sucaranti (inst. plur.)
Because of (masculine) us some people live happily

 

Mama purisassa dhanaṁ dadāti dhanavā (dat. sing.)
Mayhaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ dadāti dhanavā
Mamaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ dadāti dhanavā
Amhaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ dadāti dhanavā

The wealthy man gives wealth to (masculine) me

 

Amhākaṁ purisānaṁ phalaṁ dadāti phalavā (dat. plur.)
Asmākaṁ purisānaṁ phalaṁ dadāti phalavā
Amhaṁ purisānaṁ phalaṁ dadāti phalavā

The successful man gives a reward to (masculine) us

 

Mayā purisasmā apeti ekacco (abl. sing.)
Some depart from (masculine) me

 

Amhehi purisehi bhayāni uppajjanti (abl. plur.)
Fears arise from (masculine) us

 

Mama purisassa nāmagottādi (gen. sing.)
Mayhaṁ purisassa nāmagottādi
Mamaṁ purisassa nāmagottādi
Amhaṁ purisassa nāmagottādi

My (masculine) name and lineage and so on

 

Amhākaṁ purisānaṁ pariggaho hoti (gen. plur.)
Asmākaṁ purisānaṁ pariggaho hoti
Amhaṁ purisānaṁ pariggaho hoti

This is our (masculine) possession

 

Mayi purisasmiṁ pasīdati yo koci (loc. sing.)
There is some one who has faith in (masculine) me

 

Amhesu purisesu manaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ (loc. plur.)
The mind is well established in (masculine) us

 

Sentences (feminine):

 

Ahaṁ kaññā pana puññaṁ karomi (nom. sing.)
I (feminine) do a meritorious deed

 

Mayaṁ kaññāyo puññāni karoma (nom. plur.)
Amhe kaññāyo puññāni karoma

We (feminine) do a meritorious deed

 

Mam kaññaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti (acc. sing.)
Mamaṁ kaññaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti

He makes (feminine) me do a meritorious deed

 

Amhe kaññāyo puññaṁ kārāpeti (acc. plur.)
Asme kaññāyo puññaṁ kārāpeti
Amhākaṁ kaññāyo puññaṁ kārāpeti
Asmākaṁ kaññāyo puññaṁ kārāpeti

He makes (feminine) us do meritorious deeds

 

Mayā kaññāya odano paccate (agent. inst. sing.)
The rice is cooked by (feminine) me

 

Amhehi kaññāhi odano paccate (agent. inst. plur.)
The rice is cooked by (feminine) us

 

Mayā kaññāya sukhadukkhaṁ pāpuṇāti (inst. sing.)
Because of (feminine) me he attains hapinness and unhappiness

 

Amhehi kaññāhi sukhadukkhaṁ pāpuṇāti (inst. plur.)
Because of (feminine) us he attains hapinness and unhappiness

 

Mama kaññāya ābharaṇaṁ deti (dat. sing.)
Mayhaṁ kaññāya ābharaṇaṁ deti
Mamaṁ kaññāya ābharaṇaṁ deti
Amhaṁ kaññāya ābharaṇaṁ deti

He gives an ornament to (feminine) me

 

Amhākaṁ kaññānaṁ ābharaṇaṁ deti (dat. plur.)
Asmākaṁ kaññānaṁ ābharaṇaṁ deti
Amhaṁ kaññānaṁ ābharaṇaṁ deti

He gives an ornament to the (feminine) us

 

Mayā kaññāya ayaṁ kaññā hīṇā apeti (abl. sing.)
This low young girl departs from (feminine) me

 

Amhehi kaññāhi ayaṁ kaññā adhikā (abl. plur.)
This superior girl departs from (feminine) us

 

Mama kaññāya vatthābharaṇāni honti (gen. sing.)
Mayhaṁ kaññāya vatthābharaṇāni honti
Mamaṁ kaññāya vatthābharaṇāni honti
Amhaṁ kaññāya vatthābharaṇāni honti

These are (feminine) my clothes and ornaments

 

Amhākaṁ kaññānaṁ pariggaho hoti (gen. plur.)
Asmākaṁ kaññānaṁ pariggaho hoti
Amhaṁ kaññānaṁ pariggaho hoti

This is (feminine) our possession

 

Mayi kaññāyaṁ me manaṁ na patiṭṭhitaṁ (loc. sing.)
My mind is not well established in (feminine) me

 

Amhesu kaññāsu me manaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ (loc. plur.)
My mind is well established in (feminine) us

 

Sentences (neuter):

 

Ahaṁ cittaṁ pana ārammaṇaṁ vijānāhi (nom. sing.)
I, a heart, know an object

 

Mayaṁ cittāni ārammaṇaṁ vijānātha (nom. plur.)
Amhe cittāni ārammaṇaṁ vijānātha

We hearts know an object

 

Mam cittaṁ saññam-esanti ekacce (acc. sing.)
Mamaṁ cittaṁ saññam-esanti ekacce

Some people seek perception in my heart Notice that there are no vocative forms for these pronouns.05

 

Amhe cittāni saññam-esanti keci (acc. plur.)
Asme cittāni saññam-esanti keci
Amhākaṁ cittāni saññam-esanti keci
Asmākaṁ cittāni saññam-esanti keci

Some seek perception in our hearts

 

Mayā cittena kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. sing.)
Action and result is experienced by my heart

 

Amhehi cittehi kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. plur.)
Action and result is experienced by our hearts

 

Mayā cittena Buddhaṁ sarati sappuriso (inst. sing.)
Because of my heart the good man remembers the Buddha

 

Amhehi cittehi Buddhaṁ sarati saddho (inst. plur.)
Because of our hearts the faithful man remembers the Buddha

 

Mama cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci (dat. sing.)
Mayhaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci
Mamaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci
Amhaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci

Some person gives advice to my heart

 

Amhākaṁ cittānaṁ ovādaṁ denti keci (dat. plur.)
Asmākaṁ cittānaṁ ovādaṁ denti keci
Amhaṁ cittānaṁ ovādaṁ denti keci

Some people give advice to our hearts

 

Mayā cittasmā pana bhayaṁ uppajjati (abl. sing.)
Fear arises from my heart

 

Amhehi cittehi bhayāni uppajjanti (abl. plur.)
Fears arise from our hearts

 

Mama cittassa parivitakko udapādi (gen. sing.)
Mayhaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi
Mamaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi
Amhaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi

Thought arises in my heart

 

Amhākaṁ cittānaṁ parivitakko hoti (gen. plur.)
Asmākaṁ cittānaṁ parivitakko hoti
Amhaṁ cittānaṁ parivitakko hoti

Thought arises in our hearts

 

Mayi citte pana kusalacittaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ (loc. sing.)
Wholesome thought is well established in my heart

 

Amhesu cittesu kusalacittāni patiṭṭhitāni (loc. plur.)
Wholesome thoughts are well established in our hearts

 

Iti Paṭhamo Pāṭho
Such is the First Lesson