4-2: Aliṅgasabbanāmarūpāni - tumha
4-2: Genderless Forms of the (Personal) Pronoun - tumha

 

Aliṅgatumhasaddo vuccante
The genderless pronoun is illustrated with the word tumha

 

Abstract (for all three genders): As with the declension of ahaṁ above, the forms for these pronouns are complicated by being declined on a number of stems, one of which has three alternative forms: tumha, tuṁ taya/tvaya/tava.01

 

singular:
 
plural:
 
case:
 
tvaṁ tuvaṁ tumhe nomimative - paṭhamā
taṁ tvaṁ tuvaṁ tavaṁ tumhe tumhākaṁ accusative - dutiyā
tayā tvayā tumhehi tumbhehi instrumental - tatiyā
tava tuyhaṁ tavaṁ tumhaṁ tumhākaṁ tumhaṁ dative - catutthī
tayā tvayā tumhehi tumbhehi ablative - pañcamī
tava tuyhaṁ tavaṁ tumhaṁ tumhākaṁ tumhaṁ genitive - chaṭṭhī
tayi tvayi tumhesu locative - sattamī

 

Sentences (masculine):

 

Tvaṁ pana puriso puññaṁ karohi (nom. sing.)
Tuvaṁ pana puriso puññaṁ karohi

You (masculine) must do a meritorious deed

 

Tumhe purisā puññaṁ karotha (nom. plur.)
You (masculine) do a meritorious deed

 

Taṁ pana purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti (acc. sing.)
Tvaṁ pana purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti
Tuvaṁ pana purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti
Tavaṁ pana purisaṁ puññaṁ kārāpeti

He makes you (masculine) do a meritorious deed

 

Tumhe purise puññāni kārāpeti (acc. plur.)
Tumhākaṁ purise puññāni kārāpeti

He makes you (masculine) do meritorious deeds

 

Tayā purisena odano paccate (agent. inst. sing.)
Tvayā purisena odano paccate

Rice is cooked by (masculine) you

 

Tumhehi purisehi odano paccante (agent. inst. plur.)
Rice is cooked by (masculine) you

 

Tayā purisena ekacco jīvati (inst. sing.)
Tvayā purisena ekacco jīvati

Because of (masculine) you some live

 

Tumhehi purisehi ekacce jīvanti (inst. plur.)
Because of (masculine) you some live

 

Tava purisassa dhanaṁ deti dhanī (dat. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ deti dhanī
Tavaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ deti dhanī
Tumhaṁ purisassa dhanaṁ deti dhanī

The wealthy man gives wealth to (masculine) you

 

Tumhākaṁ purisānaṁ dhanaṁ deti dhanī (dat. plur.)
Tumhaṁ purisānaṁ dhanaṁ deti dhanī

The wealthy man gives wealth to (masculine) you

 

Tayā purisamhā apeti yo koci (abl. sing.)
Tvayā purisamhā apeti yo koci

There is some one who departs from (masculine) you

 

Tumhehi purisehi apenti ye keci (abl. plur.)
There are some who depart from (masculine) you

 

Tava purisassa nāmagottādayo (gen. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ purisassa nāmagottādayo
Tavaṁ purisassa nāmagottādayo
Tumhaṁ purisassa nāmagottādayo

Your (masculine) name and lineage and so on

 

Tumhākaṁ purisānaṁ pariggaho (gen. plur.)
Tumhaṁ purisānaṁ pariggaho

Your (masculine) possessions

 

Tayi purisasmiṁ koci pasīdati (loc. sing.)
Tvayi purisasmiṁ koci pasīdati

Some person has confidence in (masculine) you

 

Tumhesu purisesu keci pasīdanti (loc. plur.)
Some people have confidence in (masculine) you

 

Sentences (feminine):

 

Tvaṁ itthī pi odanaṁ bhutvā gacchāhi (nom. sing.)
Tuvaṁ itthī pi odanaṁ bhutvā gacchāhi

You (feminine) having eaten the rice, must go

 

Tumhe itthiyo odanaṁ bhutvā gacchatha (nom. plur.)
You (feminine) having eaten the rice, must go

 

Taṁ itthiṁ puññaṁ kārayati puriso (acc. sing.)
Tvaṁ itthiṁ puññaṁ kārayati puriso
Tuvaṁ itthiṁ puññaṁ kārayati puriso
Tavaṁ itthiṁ puññaṁ kārayati puriso

The man makes you (feminine) do a meritorious deed

 

Tumhe itthiyo puññāni kārenti purisā (acc. plur.)
Tumhākaṁ itthiyo puññāni kārenti purisā

The men make you (feminine) do meritorious deeds

 

Tayā itthiyā pi dhaññaṁ bhajjate (agent. inst. sing.)
Tvayā itthiyā pi dhaññaṁ bhajjate

The corn was roasted by you (feminine)

 

Tumhehi itthīhi dhaññāni bhajjante (agent. inst. plur.)
The corn was roasted by you (feminine)

 

Tayā itthiyā dukkhaṁ pāpuṇāti koci (inst. sing.)
Tvayā itthiyā dukkhaṁ pāpuṇāti koci

Because of you (feminine) some will attain suffering

 

Tumhehi itthīhi sukhaṁ pāpuṇāti sāmi (inst. plur.)
Because of you (feminine) the husband will attain happiness

 

Tava itthiyā ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi (dat. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ itthiyā ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi
Tavaṁ itthiyā ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi
Tumhaṁ itthiyā ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi

The husband gives an ornament to you (feminine)

 

Tumhākaṁ itthīnaṁ ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi (dat. plur.)
Tumhaṁ itthīnaṁ ābharaṇaṁ deti sāmi

The husband gives an ornament to you (feminine)

 

Tayā itthiyā apeti yo koci (abl. sing.)
Tvayā itthiyā apeti yo koci

There is some one who departs from you (feminine)

 

Tumhehi itthīhi apenti ye keci (abl. plur.)
There are some who depart from you (feminine)

 

Tava itthiyā puttā pi bahavo honti (gen. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ itthiyā puttā pi bahavo honti
Tavaṁ itthiyā puttā pi bahavo honti
Tumhaṁ itthiyā puttā pi bahavo honti

There are many children for you (feminine)

 

Tumhākaṁ itthīnaṁ vatthābharaṇāni honti (gen. plur.)
There are clothes and ornaments for you (feminine)

 

Tayi itthiyā pana manaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ (loc. sing.)
Tvayi itthiyā pana manaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

The mind is well established in you (feminine)

 

Tumhesu itthīsu pana manāni patiṭṭhitāni (loc. plur.)
Minds are well established in you (feminine)

 

Sentences (neuter):

 

Tvaṁ cittaṁ pana ārammaṇaṁ cintesi (nom. sing.)
Tuvaṁ cittaṁ pana ārammaṇaṁ cintesi

Your heart cognizes an object The translation from here makes it look like the forms indicate a possessive sense, but this is not so, it is simply that it is not possible to give a literal translation here.02

 

Tumhe cittāni ārammaṇaṁ cintetha (nom. plur.)
Your hearts cognize an object

 

Taṁ cittaṁ saññam-esanti ye keci (acc. sing.)
Tvaṁ cittaṁ saññam-esanti ye keci
Tuvaṁ cittaṁ saññam-esanti ye keci
Tavaṁ cittaṁ saññam-esanti ye keci

There are some who seek perception in your heart

 

Tumhe cittāni saññam-esanti ye keci (acc. plur.)
Tumhākaṁ cittāni saññam-esanti ye keci

there are some who seek perception in your hearts

 

Tayā cittena kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. sing.)
Tvayā cittena kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ

Action and result is experienced by your heart

 

Tumhehi cittehi kammaphalaṁ anubhuttaṁ (agent. inst. plur.)
Action and result is experienced by your hearts

 

Tayā cittena Buddhaṁ sarati sappuriso (inst. sing.)
Tvayā cittena Buddhaṁ sarati sappuriso

Because of your heart the good man remembers the Buddha

 

Tumhehi cittehi Buddhaṁ saranti sappurisā (inst. plur.)
Because of your hearts the good men remember the Buddha

 

Tava cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci (dat. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci
Tavaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci
Tumhaṁ cittassa ovādaṁ deti koci

Some person gives advice to your heart

 

Tumhākaṁ cittānaṁ ovādaṁ denti keci (dat. plur.)
Tumhaṁ cittānaṁ ovādaṁ denti keci

Some people give advice to our hearts

 

Tayā cittamhā kho pana bhayaṁ uppajjati (abl. sing.)
Tvayā cittamhā kho pana bhayaṁ uppajjati

Fear arises from your heart

 

Tumhehi cittehi pana bhayāni uppajjanti (abl. plur.)
Fears arise from our hearts

 

Tava cittassa parivitakko udapādi (gen. sing.)
Tuyhaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi
Tavaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi
Tumhaṁ cittassa parivitakko udapādi

Thought arises in your heart

 

Tumhākaṁ cittānaṁ parivitakko udapādi (gen. plur.)
Tumhaṁ cittānaṁ parivitakko udapādi

Thought arises in your hearts

 

Tayi citte kho pana kusalacittaṁ patiṭhitaṁ (loc. sing.)
Tvayi citte kho pana kusalacittaṁ patiṭhitaṁ

Wholesome thought is well established in your heart

 

Tumhesu cittesu kusalacittāni patiṭṭhitāni (loc. plur.)
Wholesome thoughts are well established in your hearts

 

Iti Dutiyo Pāṭho
Such is the Second Lesson