1. Suttantabhājanīyaṁ
The Section Derived from the Discourses

[Paṭiccasamuppāduddeso]
[The Outline of Conditional Origination]

[225]

Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
With ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the six sense spheres as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

[01: Avijjāniddeso]
[Definition of Ignorance]

[226]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā?’
Herein, what is ‘ignorance?’

Dukkhe aññāṇaṁ, dukkhasamudaye aññāṇaṁ,
Not knowing suffering, not knowing the origination of suffering,

dukkhanirodhe aññāṇaṁ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya aññāṇaṁ.
not knowing the cessation of suffering, not knowing the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā.’
This, is called ‘ignorance.’ Ignorance is normally defined specifically in relation to the Four Noble Truths, it is the kind of ignorance that ties someone to saṁsāra; however, in Dhammasaṅgaṇī (1162) four more are added, ignorance of the past (pubbanta), the future (aparanta), the past and the future (pubbantāparanta) and conditioned things that have originated through conditionality (idapaccayatā samuppannadhamma). Ignorance is the various times in explained in the comm. as meaning ignorance of such things as the constituents, elements and sense-spheres (khandha, dhātu, āyatana).01

 

[02: Saṅkhāraniddeso]
[Definition of (Volitional) Processes]

Tattha katame ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes?’ Despite the framing of the question, it is clear that the answers in each case only define the final term, and the question might have been better stated thus: Tattha katame ‘saṅkhārā?’ ‘Herein, what are (volitional) processes?’ 02

Puññābhisaṅkhāro, apuññābhisaṅkhāro, āneñjābhisaṅkhāro,
(There is) a meritorious (volitional) process, a demeritorious (volitional) process, an impertubable (volitional) process, These constitute one way of analysing the volitions; and the way of expression just below another. 03

kāyasaṅkhāro, vacīsaṅkhāro, cittasaṅkhāro.
a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body, a (volitional) process expressed by way of speech, a (volitional) process expressed by way of the mind.

Tattha katamo puññābhisaṅkhāro?
Herein, what is a meritorious (volitional) process? A careful division is made in the comm. here: there are eight meritorious thoughts in the sense-world spheres, and five in the form-world spheres, making thirteen in all; there are twelve demeritorious thoughts in the sense-world spheres (according to the commentary ten of these also occur in the form-world and formless-world spheres, but they do not lead to rebirth, which is what we are concerned with here, so it is restricted in the definition to those that occur in the sense-world spheres); and there are four impertubable thoughts in the formless-world spheres. This makes twenty-nine (13+12+4) volitions in all.04

Kusalā cetanā kāmāvacarā rūpāvacarā,
(There are) wholesome intentions in the sense-world sphere, in the form-world sphere,

dānamayā sīlamayā bhāvanāmayā,
consisting of generosity, consisting of morality, consisting of meditation, Giving and morality belong solely to the sense-world spheres; whereas meditation belongs to all thirteen. These states can also be said to occur in the three times: when preparing, when acting, and when rejoicing in the deeds later.05

ayaṁ vuccati ‘puññābhisaṅkhāro’.
this is said to be a meritorious (volitional) process.

Tattha katamo apuññābhisaṅkhāro?
Herein, what is a demeritorious (volitional) process?

Akusalā cetanā kāmāvacarā,
(There are) unwholesome intentions in the sense-world sphere,

ayaṁ vuccati apuññābhisaṅkhāro.
this is said to be a demeritorious (volitional) process.

Tattha katamo āneñjābhisaṅkhāro?
Herein, what is an impertubable (volitional) process?

Kusalā cetanā arūpāvacarā
(There are) wholesome intentions in the formless-world sphere,

ayaṁ vuccati āneñjābhisaṅkhāro.
this is said to be an impertubable (volitional) process.

Tattha katamo kāyasaṅkhāro?
Herein, what is a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body? Again a careful division is made by the comm.: the eight wholesome volitions and twelve unwholesome volitions are expressed by way of the body and speech; but all twenty-nine volitions can be expressed by the mind.06

Kāyasañcetanā, kāyasaṅkhāro.
(There is) an intention expressed by way of the body, a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body.

Vacīsañcetanā, vacīsaṅkhāro.
(There is) an intention expressed by way of speech, a (volitional) process expressed by way of speech. This unexpectedly continues on here without the expected questions: Tattha katamo vacīsaṅkhāro? and Tattha katamo cittasaṅkhāro? PTS indicates ellipsis here, but neither ChS nor BJT do so, and it probably is not part of the text.07

Manosañcetanā cittasaṅkhāro.
(There is) an intention expressed by way of the mind, a (volitional) process expressed by way of the mind.

Ime vuccanti ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā.’
This is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes.’ The comm. in its discussion quotes a verse here and then gives this explanation: ekato hi kāraṇato na idha kiñci ekaṁ phalam-atthi, na anekaṁ; nāpi anekehi kāraṇehi ekaṁ; anekehi pana kāraṇehi anekam-eva hoti; from one reason here there is not one result, nor many (results); nor through many reasons is there one (result); but from many reasons there are many (results). 08

 

[03: Viññāṇaniddeso]
[Definition of Consciousness]

[227]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness?’ In the comm. this is defined as paṭisandhiviññāṇaṁ, rebirth-consciousness, and cakkhuviññāṇaṁ, etc. in the definition as resultant eye-consciousness, etc. 09

Cakkhuviññāṇaṁ, sotaviññāṇaṁ, ghānaviññāṇaṁ,
(There is) eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness,

jivhāviññāṇaṁ, kāyaviññāṇaṁ, manoviññāṇaṁ.
tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness.’

 

[04: Nāmarūpaniddeso]
[Definition of Mind and Bodily Form]

[228]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form?’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent: Mind (nāma) is defined in the discourses in this context as (SN 12.2, passim): feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), intention (cetanā), contact (phassa), application of mind (manasikāra), with saṅkhārakkhanda being divided into the last three. According to the comm. consciousness is excluded from nāma here because it is the condition for the others.10

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cattāro mahābhūtā, catunnañ-ca mahābhūtānaṁ upādāya rūpaṁ,
(There are) the four great entities, and the bodily form attached to the four great entities,

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form.’

 

[05: Saḷāyatananiddeso]
[Definition of the Six Sense Spheres]

[229]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres?’

Cakkhāyatanaṁ, sotāyatanaṁ, ghānāyatanaṁ,
(There is the) eye sense sphere, ear sense sphere, nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanaṁ, kāyāyatanaṁ, manāyatanaṁ.
tongue sense sphere, body sense sphere, mind sense sphere.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres.’

 

[06: Phassaniddeso]
[Definition of Contact]

[230]

Tattha katamo ‘saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the six sense spheres as condition: contact?’

Cakkhusamphasso sotasamphasso ghānasamphasso
(There is) eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact,

jivhāsamphasso kāyasamphasso manosamphasso.
tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
This is said to be ‘with the six sense spheres as condition: contact.’

 

[07: Vedanāniddeso]
[Definition of Feeling]

[231]

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā, sotasamphassajā vedanā,
(There is) feeling arising from eye-contact, feeling arising from ear-contact,

ghānasamphassajā vedanā, jivhāsamphassajā vedanā,
feeling arising from nose-contact, feeling arising from tongue-contact,

kāyasamphassajā vedanā, manosamphassajā vedanā.
feeling arising from body-contact, feeling arising from mind-contact.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
This is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

[08: Taṇhāniddeso]
[Definition of Craving]

[232]

Tattha katamā vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Rūpataṇhā, saddataṇhā,
(There is) craving for forms, craving for sounds,

gandhataṇhā, rasataṇhā,
craving for smells, craving for tastes,

phoṭṭhabbataṇhā, dhammataṇhā.
craving for tangibles, craving for thoughts. Elsewhere craving is defined in different terms: craving for sense pleasures (kāmataṇhā), craving for continuation (bhavataṇhā), craving for discontinuation (vibhavataṇhā).11

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
This is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

[09: Upādānaniddeso]
[Definition of Attachment]

[233]

Tattha katamaṁ taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Kāmupādānaṁ, diṭṭhupādānaṁ,
(There is) attachment to sense pleasures, attachment to views,

sīlabbatupādānaṁ, attavādupādānaṁ
attachment to virtue and practice, attachment to self-theories. These last two would seem to be special cases of the second type of attachment, in which case there is really only attachment to the senses and attachment to views (ideas).12

Idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with craving as condition: continuation.’

 

[10: Bhavaniddeso]
[Definition of Continuation]

[234]

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Bhavo duvidhena: atthi kammabhavo, atthi upapattibhavo.
Continuation is two-fold: there is continuation through (intentional) deeds, there is continuation through rebirth. This is greatly expanded from the discourse original, which merely states: (there is) continuation in the sense-world spheres, continuation in the form-world spheres, continuation in the formless-world spheres.13

Tattha katamo ‘kammabhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘continuation through (intentional) deeds?’

Puññābhisaṅkhāro, apuññābhisaṅkhāro, āneñjābhisaṅkhāro.
(There is) a meritorious (volitional) process, a demeritorious (volitional) process, an impertubable (volitional) process.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘kammabhavo.’
This is said to be ‘continuation through (intentional) deeds.’

Sabbam-pi bhavagāmikammaṁ kammabhavo.
All (intentional) deeds leading to continuation This is basically all deeds, except for that which leads to the supermundane.14 is continuation from (intentional) deeds.

Tattha katamo ‘upapattibhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘continuation through rebirth?’

Kāmabhavo, rūpabhavo, arūpabhavo,
(There is) continuation in the sense-world spheres, continuation in the form-world spheres, continuation in the formless-world spheres,

saññābhavo, asaññābhavo, nevasaññānāsaññābhavo,
continuation with perception, continuation without perception, In the asaññāsattāvāsa, one of the highest realms in existence, and belongs to the Brahmalokā, it's corresponding psychological level is (a section within) the fourth jhāna.15 continuation with neither-perception-nor-non-perception, This is the 31st level and pinnacle of existence.16

ekavokārabhavo, catuvokārabhavo, pañcavokārabhavo.
continuation with one constituent, continuation with four constituents, continuation with five constituents. One constituent existence applies in the asaññāsattāvāsa; four in the formless-world spheres; and five in the rest of existence.17

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘upapattibhavo.’
This is said to be ‘continuation through rebirth.’

Iti ayañ-ca kammabhavo, ayañ-ca upapattibhavo.
Thus, this is continuation through (intentional) deeds, this is continuation through rebirth.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
This is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

[11: Jātiniddeso]
[Definition of Birth]

[235]

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti?’
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: The comm. states here that only continuation from (intentional) deeds (kammabhava) is the condition for rebirth, and not continuation through rebirth (upapattibhava).18 birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti,
(there is) birth, being born, appearing, arising, turning up,

khandhānaṁ pātubhāvo, āyatanānaṁ paṭilābho.
the manifestation of the constituents (of mind and bodily form), the acquisition of the sense spheres. The definition here, as in many of the early Abhidhammic-type definitions, is simply by way of synonyms and synonymous phrases. 19

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
This is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

[12: Jarāmaraṇaniddeso]
[Definition of Ageing and Death]

[236]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṁ pāliccaṁ valittacatā,
(there is) broken teeth, greying hair, and wrinkled skin,

āyuno saṁhāni indriyānaṁ paripāko.
the dwindling away of the life span, the decay of the sense faculties.

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṁ maccu maraṇaṁ kālakiriyā,
there is a fall, a falling away, a breaking up, a disappearance, a dying, a death, a making of time,

khandhānaṁ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo,
the break up of the constituents (of mind and bodily form), the throwing off of the body,

jīvitindriyassupacchedo:
a cutting off of the life-faculty:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ.
Thus, this is ageing and this is death.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

[12a: Sokaniddeso]
[Definition of Grief]

[237]

Tattha katamo ‘soko?’
Herein, what is ‘Grief?’

Ñātibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, bhogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives, to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,

rogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, sīlabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health, to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality, I am not sure why it is stated this way, rather than using dusīlabyasanena, which is what is evidently intended. 20

diṭṭhibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,

aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

soko socanā socitattaṁ antosoko antoparisoko,
there is grief, grieving, the state of grieving, inner grief, great inner grief,

cetaso parijjhāyanā domanassaṁ sokasallaṁ.
his mind is sorrowful, being pierced with the dart of grief.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘soko.’
This is said to be ‘grief.’

 

[12b: Paridevaniddeso]
[Definition of Lamentation]

[238]

Tattha katamo ‘paridevo?’
Herein, what is ‘lamentation?’

Ñātibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, bhogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives, to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,

rogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, sīlabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health, to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality,

diṭṭhibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,

aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

ādevo paridevo ādevanā paridevanā ādevitattaṁ paridevitattaṁ,
there are laments, great laments, lamenting, great lamenting, the state of lamenting, the state of great lamentation,

vācā palāpo vippalāpo lālappo lālappanā lālappitattaṁ.
words of wailing, great wailing, moaning, great moaning, the state of moaning.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘paridevo.’
This is said to be ‘lamentation.’

 

[12c: Dukkhaniddeso]
[Definition of Pain]

[239]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘dukkhaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘pain?’

Yaṁ kāyikaṁ asātaṁ kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ,
That which is bodily pain, bodily disagreeableness,

kāyasamphassajaṁ asātaṁ dukkhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pain arising from contact with the body, disagreeable feeling,

kāyasamphassajā asātā dukkhā vedanā.
pain and painful feeling that is born in the body.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘dukkhaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘pain.’

 

[12d: Domanassaniddeso]
[Definition of Sorrow]

[240]

Tattha katamaṁ ‘domanassaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘sorrow?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ asātaṁ, cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ,
That which is mental pain, mental disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ asātaṁ dukkhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pain arising from contact with the mind, disagreeable feeling,

cetosamphassajā asātā dukkhā vedanā.
pain and painful feeling that is born in the mind.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘domanassaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘sorrow.’

 

[12e: Upāyāsaniddeso]
[Definition of Despair]

[241]

Tattha katamo ‘upāyāso?’
Herein, what is ‘despair?’

Ñātibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, bhogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives, to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,

rogabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa, sīlabyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health, to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality,

diṭṭhibyasanena vā phuṭṭhassa,
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,

aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṁ upāyāsitattaṁ.
there is desponding, despairing, the state of despondency, the state of despair.

Ayaṁ vuccati ‘upāyāso.’
This is said to be ‘despair.’

[242]

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering’

 

the commentary quotes this interesting verse Written in Āryā metre.21 here:

Sokādīhi avijjā siddhā, bhavacakkam-aviditādim-idaṁ,
Through grief and so on ignorance occurs, Grief and so on are always accompanied by ignorance, and this is said to explain that ignorance also has its specific conditions, and is not the first cause of the wheel of continuation. 22 (though) the beginning of this wheel of continuation is unknown,

Kāraka-vedakarahitaṁ, dvādasavidha-suññatāsuññaṁ.
Devoid of a doer or an experiencer, (it is) empty with a twelvefold emptiness.