05: Paccayacatukkaṁ
The Conditions Tetrad

[248]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

somanassasahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatasampayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, associated with the resort to (wrong) view,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[249]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, Comm: Tam-eva parisuddhaṭṭhena paṇḍaraṁ, bhavaṅgaṁ sandhāyetaṁ vuttaṁ; this is purified consciousness, it is said in reference to the subconscious continuum.01 mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, This is said because normally attachment would be included in the (volitional) processes constituent, but as it can't be a condition for itself, it is excluded here.02 (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[250]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā phasso,
with mind as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[251]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

‘Nāmapaccayā phasso’ ti.
‘With mind as condition: contact.’ The structure is different here, but I don't know why: there is an interjection of this section with a secondary analysis of mind, before a continuation of the expected series.03

 

Tattha katamaṁ nāmaṁ?
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Ṭhapetvā phassaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for contact, Excluding contact from mind, as it cannot be a condition for itself.04 (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘nāmapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: contact.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[252] This number is missing in the transcription on CSCD but belongs here.05

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,

nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[253]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form?’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cakkhāyatanassa upacayo,
The accumulation (that produces) the eye sense sphere,

sotāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the ear sense sphere,

ghānāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the tongue sense sphere,

kāyāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the body sense sphere,

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi atthi rūpaṁ
or whatever other bodily form there is

cittajaṁ cittahetukaṁ cittasamuṭṭhānaṁ:
born of mind, rooted in mind, originating in mind:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form.’

‘Nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanan.’-ti
‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Yaṁ rūpaṁ nissāya manoviññāṇadhātu vattati:
That bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?
Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ’.
this is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[254]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[255]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form?’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cakkhāyatanassa upacayo,
The accumulation (that produces) the eye sense sphere,

sotāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the ear sense sphere,

ghānāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the tongue sense sphere,

kāyāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the body sense sphere,

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi atthi rūpaṁ
or whatever other bodily form there is

cittajaṁ cittahetukaṁ cittasamuṭṭhānaṁ:
born of mind, rooted in mind, originating in mind:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form.’

‘Nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanan.’-ti
‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres.’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cattāro ca mahābhūtā,
(There are) the four great entities,

yañ-ca rūpaṁ nissāya manoviññāṇadhātu vattati:
and that bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ,’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘mind and bodily form.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres?’

Cakkhāyatanaṁ, sotāyatanaṁ, ghānāyatanaṁ,
(There is the) eye sense sphere, ear sense sphere, nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanaṁ, kāyāyatanaṁ, manāyatanaṁ.
tongue sense sphere, body sense sphere, mind sense sphere.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

Paccayacatukkaṁ
The Conditions Tetrad