06: Hetucatukkaṁ
The Roots Tetrad

[256]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmahetukaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,

phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[257]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo ...pe... anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, ...pe... fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ ...pe...diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, ...pe...the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[258]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness,

nāmapaccayā phasso nāmahetuko,
with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind,

phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[259]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

‘Nāmapaccayā phasso nāmahetuko.’ ti
‘With mind as condition: contact rooted in mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ nāmaṁ?
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Ṭhapetvā phassaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for contact, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘nāmapaccayā phasso nāmahetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā phasso nāmahetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind.'

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[260]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness,

nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind and bodily form,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,

phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[261]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cattāro mahābhūtā, catunnañ-ca mahābhūtānaṁ upādāya rūpaṁ.
(There are) the four great entities, and the bodily form attached to the four great entities.

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

‘Nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukan.’-ti
‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind and bodily form.’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent: Mind (nāma) is elsewhere (SN 12.2) defined in this context as: feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), intention (cetanā), contact (phassa), application of mind (manasikāra).01

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Yaṁ rūpaṁ nissāya manoviññāṇadhātu vattati:
That bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpaṁ’.
This is said to be ‘mind and bodily form.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ nāmahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[262]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,

phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[263]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro avijjāhetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ ...pe...hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe...heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ saṅkhārahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness?’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cakkhāyatanassa upacayo,
The accumulation (that produces) the eye sense sphere,

sotāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the ear sense sphere,

ghānāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the tongue sense sphere,

kāyāyatanassa upacayo,
the accumulation (that produces) the body sense sphere,

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi atthi rūpaṁ
or whatever other bodily form there is

cittajaṁ cittahetukaṁ cittasamuṭṭhānaṁ:
born of mind, rooted in mind, originating in mind:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ viññāṇahetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness.’

‘Nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukan.’-ti,
‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form.’

Atthi nāmaṁ, atthi rūpaṁ.
There is mind, there is bodily form.

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘rūpaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

Cattāro ca mahābhūtā,
(There are) the four great entities,

yañ-ca rūpaṁ nissāya manoviññāṇadhātu vattati:
and that bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

idaṁ vuccati ‘rūpaṁ,’
this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Iti idañ-ca nāmaṁ, idañ-ca rūpaṁ.
Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘mind and bodily form.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form?’

Cakkhāyatanaṁ, sotāyatanaṁ, ghānāyatanaṁ,
(There is the) eye sense sphere, ear sense sphere, nose sense sphere,

jivhāyatanaṁ, kāyāyatanaṁ, manāyatanaṁ.
tongue sense sphere, body sense sphere, mind sense sphere.

Idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ nāmarūpahetukaṁ.’
This is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso chaṭṭhāyatanahetuko.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā phassahetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo ...pe...anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, ...pe...fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā vedanāhetukā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ ...pe...diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, ...pe...the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ taṇhāhetukaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

Hetucatukkaṁ
The Roots Tetrad