09: Akusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Unwholesome

[280]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

somanassasahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatasampayuttaṁ sasaṅkhārena, ...pe...
connected with happiness, associated with the resort to (wrong) view, with intention, ...pe...The repetition passage that follows this is not clear, but it cannot be as extensive as U Thiṭṭila suggests (paras 248-279 inclusive, and each time), but must follow the pattern given below. This is one of the places where the repetition is given not at the beginning, but at the end of the passage referred to, and some small confusion has come in, as discussed in the next note. 01

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation, Here, the form and its definition cannot be identified from the peyyāla passage alone. The comm. says: Tattha, yasmā diṭṭhivippayuttesu ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ’ natthi, tasmiṁ upādānaṭṭhāne upādānaṁ viya daḷhanipātinā adhimokkhena padaṁ pūritaṁ; herein, because of disassociation from wrong view there is no ‘with craving as condition: attachment’, and therefore in place of attachment, the word resolve fills in, as it falls strongly (on its object), like attachment. We can understand from this that it is only when there is disassociation from wrong view, that resolve (adhimutta) should be used. Here in this first section, it is associated with wrong view, and therefore attachment (upādāna) must be the correct word. 02

287

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

 

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

somanassasahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatavippayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, disassociated with the resort to (wrong) view,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho,
with craving as condition: resolve, As discussed above resolve (adhimokkha) is said here and in the next section, because because there is a disassociation from wrong view.03

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

 

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

somanassasahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatavippayuttaṁ sasaṅkhārena,
connected with happiness, disassociated with the resort to (wrong) view, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho,
with craving as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[281]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[282]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatasampayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, associated with the resort to (wrong) view,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
with craving as condition: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
with attachment as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[283]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

Yā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigataṁ diṭṭhigahanaṁ,
That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhikantāro diṭṭhivisūkāyikaṁ,
the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view,

diṭṭhivipphanditaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ,
the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view,

gāho patiṭṭhāho abhiniveso parāmāso,
obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping,

kummaggo micchāpatho micchattaṁ,
bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong,

titthāyatanaṁ vipariyāsaggāho:
within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

idaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā upādānaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘upādānapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[284]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, associated with the resort to (wrong) view, with intention,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho,
with craving as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatavippayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with the resort to (wrong) view,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho,
with craving as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, diṭṭhigatavippayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with the resort to (wrong) view, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
with feeling as condition: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho,
with craving as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[285]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

...pe...
...pe...

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘taṇhāpaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[286]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

domanassasahagataṁ, paṭighasampayuttaṁ,
connected with sorrow, associated with repulsion,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā paṭighaṁ,
with feeling as condition: repulsion,

paṭighapaccayā adhimokkho,
with repulsion as condition: resolve, Comm: Domanassasahagatesu ca yasmā ‘vedanāpaccayā taṇhā’ pi n’ atthi, tasmā taṇhāṭṭhāne taṇhā viya balavakilesena paṭighena padaṁ pūritaṁ, upādānaṭṭhāne adhimokkhen’ eva; because of connection with sorrow there is no ‘with feeling as condition: craving’, and therefore in place of craving the word repulsion fills in, as it is strongly defiled, (and for the same reason) resolve (is said). 04

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

domanassasahagataṁ, paṭighasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with sorrow, associated with repulsion, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā paṭighaṁ,
with feeling as condition: repulsion,

paṭighapaccayā adhimokkho,
with repulsion as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[287]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ asātaṁ cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ,
That which is mental disagreeableness, mental pain,

cetosamphassajaṁ asātaṁ dukkhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
painful and disagreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā asātā dukkhā vedanā:
painful and disagreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘vedanāpaccayā paṭighaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: repulsion?’

Yo cittassa āghāto ...pe...paṭighāto paṭighaṁ paṭivirodho,
That which is spite of mind, ...pe...repulsiveness, repulsion, opposition,

kopo pakopo sampakopo,
anger, great anger, full anger,

doso padoso sampadoso,
bad temper, very bad temper, full bad temper,

cittassa byāpatti manopadoso,
malice of mind, bad temper in mind,

kodho kujjhanā kujjhitattaṁ,
hatred, hating, the state of hatred,

doso dussanā dussitattaṁ,
ill-temper, being ill-tempered, ill-temperedness,

byāpatti byāpajjanā byāpajjitattaṁ,
malice, malignity, maliciousness,

virodho paṭivirodho caṇḍikkaṁ,
opposing, opposition, violence,

asuropo anattamanatā cittassa:
curtness, irritation of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā paṭighaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: repulsion.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘paṭighapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with repulsion as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘paṭighapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with repulsion as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[288]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, vicikicchāsampayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, associated with uncertainty,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā vicikicchā,
with feeling as condition: uncertainty,

vicikicchāpaccayā bhavo,
with uncertainty as condition: continuation, Comm: Vicikicchāsampayutte pana yasmiṁ sanniṭṭhānābhāvato adhimokkho pi natthi, tasmā taṇhāṭṭhāne balavakilesabhūtāya vicikicchāya padaṁ pūritaṁ, upādānaṭṭhānaṁ parihīnaṁ-eva; because of association with uncertainty there is an absence of conviction and no resolve, therefore in place of craving the word uncertainty fills in, as it is strongly defiled, and the place of attachment is omitted altogether.05

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[289]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā vicikicchā?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: uncertainty?’

Yā kaṅkhā kaṅkhāyanā kaṅkhāyitattaṁ,
That which is doubt, doubting, the state of being in doubt,

vimati vicikicchā,
perplexity, uncertainty,

dveḷhakaṁ dvidhāpatho saṁsayo anekaṁsaggāho,
dubeity, dilemna, irresolution, uncertainty,

āsappanā parisappanā apariyogāhaṇā,
mistrust, misgiving, a lack of fathoming,

chambhitattaṁ cittassa manovilekho:
vacillation, a mental scratching of the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā vicikicchā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: uncertainty.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vicikicchāpaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with uncertainty as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā vicikicchaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for uncertainty, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vicikicchāpaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with uncertainty as condition: continuation.’

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Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[290]

Katame dhammā akusalā?
What are unwholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye akusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time an unwholesome mind has arisen,

upekkhāsahagataṁ, uddhaccasampayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, associated with agitation,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā uddhaccaṁ,
with feeling as condition: agitation,

uddhaccapaccayā adhimokkho,
with agitation as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation, Comm: Uddhaccasampayutte pana yasmiṁ adhimokkho atthi, tasmā taṇhāṭṭhāne balavakilesena uddhaccena padaṁ pūritaṁ, upādānaṭṭhāne adhimokkheneva; because of association with agitation, there is resolve, therefore in place of craving the word agitation fills in, as it is strongly defiled, and in place of attachment, resolve (is said).06

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[291]

Tattha katamā ‘avijjā’?
Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

Yaṁ aññāṇaṁ adassanaṁ ...pe...anabhisamayo,
That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe...a lack of penetration,

ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho,
a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation,

asaṅgāhaṇā apariyogāhaṇā asamapekkhanā,
a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration,

apaccavekkhaṇā apaccakkhakammaṁ dummejjhaṁ bālyaṁ,
a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness,

asampajaññaṁ moho pamoho sammoho,
a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion,

avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo,
ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance,

avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṁ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṁ:
the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjā’.
this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

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Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘vedanāpaccayā uddhaccaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: agitation?’

Yaṁ cittassa uddhaccaṁ avūpasamo
That which is agitation of mind, lack of calm,

cetaso vikkhepo bhantattaṁ cittassa:
mental disturbance, confusion of mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā vicikicchā.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: agitation.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘uddhaccapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with agitation as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘uddhaccapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with agitation as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

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Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

Akusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Unwholesome