10: Kusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Wholesome

[292]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, associated with knowledge,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition Comm: Tattha yasmā ekacittakkhaṇe kusalasaṅkhārena saddhiṁ avijjā natthi, tasmā taṁ avatvā, avijjā viya akusalānaṁ, kusalānaṁ mūlato ‘kusalamūlaṁ’; herein because in that single conscious moment there is no ignorance together with the wholesome (volitional) process, therefore instead of having said that, as ignorance (was said about) unwholesome things, because of it being the root of wholesome things, ‘a wholesome root’ (is said).01 there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve, Comm: taṇhupādānānañ-ca abhāvato taṇhāṭṭhāne, taṇhā viya ārammaṇe ajjhogāḷho pasādo; upādānaṭṭhāne upādānaṁ viya daḷhanipātī nāma adhimokkho vutto; because there is no craving and attachment at the place of craving, faith, which is immersed in the sense-object like craving (is said); and at the place of attachment, resolve, which falls strongly (on its object) like attachment, is said.02

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[293]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso, amoho.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred, a lack of delusion.

Tattha katamo alobho?
Herein, what is ‘a lack of greed?’

Yo alobho alubbhanā alubbhitattaṁ,
That which is a lack of greed, not being greedy, greedlessness,

asārāgo asārajjanā asārajjitattaṁ,
a lack of passion, a lack of being passionate, passionlessness,

anabhijjhā alobho kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of avarice, a wholesome root that is lack of greed:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘alobho’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of greed.’

Tattha katamo ‘adoso?’
Herein, what is ‘a lack of hatred?’

Yo adoso adussanā adussitattaṁ
That which is a lack of hatred, not being hateful, hatelessness,

abyāpādo abyāpajjo adoso kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of malice, a lack of maliciousness, a wholesome root that is lack of hatred:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adoso’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of hatred.’

Tattha katamo amoho?
Herein, what is ‘a lack of delusion?’

Yā paññā pajānanā
That which is wisdom, knowing,

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vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo,
investigation, deep investigation, investigation of (the nature of) things,

sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā,
discernment, discrimination, differentiation,

paṇḍiccaṁ kosallaṁ nepuññaṁ,
erudition, skilfulness, subtlety,

vebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā,
clarification, thoughtfulness, consideration,

bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṁ patodo,
breadth, intelligence, guidance, insight, full awareness, examination,

paññā paññindriyaṁ paññābalaṁ,
wisdom, the Faculty of Wisdom, the Strength of Wisdom,

paññāsatthaṁ paññāpāsādo paññāāloko,
the sword of wisdom, the height of wisdom, the light of wisdom,

paññāobhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṁ,
the lustre of wisdom, the flame of wisdom, the treasure of wisdom,

amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi:
non-delusion, investigation of (the nature of) things, Right View:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘amoho’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of delusion.’

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

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Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

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Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

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Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

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Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

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Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

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Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[294]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with happiness, associated with knowledge, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, disassociated with knowledge,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with happiness, disassociated with knowledge, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[295]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred.

Tattha katamo alobho?
Herein, what is ‘a lack of greed?’

Yo alobho alubbhanā alubbhitattaṁ,
That which is a lack of greed, not being greedy, greedlessness,

asārāgo asārajjanā asārajjitattaṁ,
a lack of passion, a lack of being passionate, passionlessness,

anabhijjhā alobho kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of avarice, a wholesome root that is lack of greed:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘alobho’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of greed.’

Tattha katamo ‘adoso?’
Herein, what is ‘a lack of hatred?’

Yo adoso adussanā adussitattaṁ
That which is a lack of hatred, not being hateful, hatelessness,

abyāpādo abyāpajjo adoso kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of malice, a lack of maliciousness, a wholesome root that is lack of hatred:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adoso’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of hatred.’

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

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Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

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Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[296]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, associated with knowledge,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, associated with knowledge, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[297]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso, amoho.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred, a lack of delusion. The expected peyyāla after amoho is omitted, and similarly below, which indicates this is not a mistake. 03

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

 

[298] This number is missing in the transcription on CSCD but belongs here.04

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with knowledge,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with knowledge, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[299]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred.

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[300]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the Path leading to rebirth in the form worlds,

vivicceva kāmehi, ...pe...vivicca akusalehi dhammehi
quite secluded from sense desires, ...pe...secluded from unwholesome things,

savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ,
having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and rapture born of seclusion,

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati pathavīkasiṇaṁ,
and dwells having attained the first absorption on the earth-object,

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[301]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso, amoho.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred, a lack of delusion.

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ,
That which is neither mental agreeableness nor disagreeableness,

cetosamphassajaṁ adukkham-asukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
neither painful nor pleasant experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā adukkham-asukhā vedanā:
neither painful nor pleasant feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[302]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye arūpūpapattiyā maggaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the Path leading to rebirth in the formless worlds,

sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma,
having completely transcended the sphere of nothingness,

nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasaññāsahagataṁ,
associated with the perception of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,

sukhassa ca pahānā, ...pe...dukkhassa ca pahānā,
having given up pleasure, ...pe...given up pain,

pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā,
and with the previous disappearance of mental well-being and sorrow,

adukkham-asukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ,
without pain, without pleasure, and with complete purity of mindfulness owing to equanimity,

catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati,
he dwells having attained the fourth absorption,

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[303]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso, amoho.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred, a lack of delusion.

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
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Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

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Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[304]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye lokuttaraṁ jhānaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the supermundane absorption,

niyyānikaṁ apacayagāmiṁ,
which leads out, which goes to decrease (of rebirth),

diṭṭhigatānaṁ pahānāya, paṭhamāya bhūmiyā pattiyā,
to abandonment of (wrong) views, to the attainment of the first ground,

vivicceva kāmehi, ...pe...vivicca akusalehi dhammehi
quite secluded from sense desires, ...pe...secluded from unwholesome things,

savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ,
having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and rapture born of seclusion,

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati,
and dwells having attained the first absorption,

dukkhapaṭipadaṁ dandhābhiññaṁ,
with difficulty in practice and slow deepening of knowledge,

tasmiṁ samaye kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[305]

Tattha katame ‘kusalamūlā?’
Herein, what are ‘wholesome roots?’

Alobho, adoso, amoho.
A lack of greed, a lack of hatred, a lack of delusion.

Tattha katamo alobho?
Herein, what is ‘a lack of greed?’

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Yo alobho alubbhanā alubbhitattaṁ,
That which is a lack of greed, not being greedy, greedlessness,

asārāgo asārajjanā asārajjitattaṁ,
a lack of passion, a lack of being passionate, passionlessness,

anabhijjhā alobho kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of avarice, a wholesome root that is lack of greed:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘alobho’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of greed.’

Tattha katamo ‘adoso?’
Herein, what is ‘a lack of hatred?’

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Yo adoso adussanā adussitattaṁ
That which is a lack of hatred, not being hateful, hatelessness,

abyāpādo abyāpajjo adoso kusalamūlaṁ:
a lack of malice, a lack of maliciousness, a wholesome root that is lack of hatred:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adoso’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of hatred.’

Tattha katamo amoho?
Herein, what is ‘a lack of delusion?’

Yā paññā pajānanā
That which is wisdom, knowing,

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vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo,
investigation, deep investigation, investigation of (the nature of) things,

sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā,
discernment, discrimination, differentiation,

paṇḍiccaṁ kosallaṁ nepuññaṁ,
erudition, skilfulness, subtlety,

vebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā,
clarification, thoughtfulness, consideration,

bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṁ patodo,
breadth, intelligence, guidance, insight, full awareness, examination,

paññā paññindriyaṁ paññābalaṁ,
wisdom, the Faculty of Wisdom, the Strength of Wisdom,

paññāsatthaṁ paññāpāsādo paññāāloko,
the sword of wisdom, the height of wisdom, the light of wisdom,

paññāobhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṁ,
the lustre of wisdom, the flame of wisdom, the treasure of wisdom,

amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi,
non-delusion, investigation of (the nature of) things, Right View,

dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo,
investigation (of the nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening,

maggaṅgaṁ maggapariyāpannaṁ,
the Path factor, and what belongs to the Path,

ayaṁ vuccati ‘amoho’.
this is said to be ‘a lack of delusion.’

Ime vuccanti ‘kusalamūlā.’
These are said to be ‘wholesome roots.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘kusalamūlapaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with a wholesome root as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

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Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ CSCD prints ayaṁ here, against its practice elsewhere.05 vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

Kusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Wholesome