12: Avijjāmūlakakusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Wholesome with a Root of Ignorance

[334]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṃ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, associated with knowledge,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[335]

Tattha katamo ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro?’
Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process?’

Yā cetanā sañcetanā sañcetayitattaṁ:
That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro.’
this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind?’

Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho:
(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

idaṁ vuccati ‘viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere?’

Yaṁ cittaṁ mano mānasaṁ hadayaṁ,
That which is thought, mind, mentality, heart,

paṇḍaraṁ mano manāyatanaṁ manindriyaṁ,
consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty,

viññāṇaṁ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu:
consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

idaṁ vuccati ‘nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso?’
Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact?’

Yo phasso phusanā samphusanā samphusitattaṁ:
That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso.’
this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact.’

 

Tattha katamā ‘phassapaccayā vedanā?’
Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ sātaṁ cetasikaṁ sukhaṁ,
That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure,

cetosamphassajaṁ sātaṁ sukhaṁ vedayitaṁ,
pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind,

cetosamphassajā sātā sukhā vedanā:
pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘phassapaccayā vedanā.’
this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo?’
Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: faith?’

Yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo:
That which is confidence, being confident, assurance, great faith:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘vedanāpaccayā pasādo.’
this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: faith.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho?’
Herein, what is ‘with faith as condition: resolve?’

Yo cittassa adhimokkho adhimuccanā tad-adhimuttatā:
That which is resolve of the mind, resolution, the state of being resolved on that (mind):

ayaṁ vuccati ‘pasādapaccayā adhimokkho.’
this is said to be ‘with faith as condition: resolve.’

 

Tattha katamo ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo?’
Herein, what is ‘with resolve as condition: continuation?’

Ṭhapetvā adhimokkhaṁ, vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho,
Except for resolve, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent,

saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho:
the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo.’
this is said to be ‘with resolve as condition: continuation.’

...pe...
...pe...

 

Tattha katamā ‘bhavapaccayā jāti’?
Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ jāti sañjāti,
That which for various things is birth, being born,

nibbatti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo:
return, turning up, manifestation:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘bhavapaccayā jāti.’
this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Tattha katamaṁ ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

Atthi jarā, atthi maraṇaṁ.
There is ageing, there is death.

Tattha katamā ‘jarā?’
Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

jarā jīraṇatā āyuno saṁhāni:
(there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘jarā.’
this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Tattha katamaṁ ‘maraṇaṁ?’
Herein, what is ‘death?’

Yo tesaṁ tesaṁ dhammānaṁ
For various things

khayo vayo bhedo paribhedo,
(there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up,

aniccatā antaradhānaṁ:
impermanence, a disappearance:

idaṁ vuccati ‘maraṇaṁ.’
this is called ‘death.’

Iti ayañ-ca jarā idañ-ca maraṇaṁ,
Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

idaṁ vuccati ‘jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ.’
this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

 

Evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī ti,
So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa saṅgati hoti,
and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering,

samāgamo hoti, samodhānaṁ hoti, pātubhāvo hoti.
a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it.

Tena vuccati ‘evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotī.’ ti
This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[336]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā phasso,
with mind as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[337]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,

nāmarūpapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[338]

Tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ, Printed as chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ in ChS, which makes this paragraph repeat 337. 01
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[339]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with happiness, associated with knowledge, with intention,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ,
connected with happiness, disassociated with knowledge,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

somanassasahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with happiness, disassociated with knowledge, with intention,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, associated with knowledge,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇasampayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, associated with knowledge, with intention,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with knowledge,

...pe...
...pe...

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

 

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye kāmāvacaraṁ kusalaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ hoti,
At whatever time a wholesome mind has arisen in the sensual realm,

upekkhāsahagataṁ ñāṇavippayuttaṁ, sasaṅkhārena,
connected with equanimity, disassociated with knowledge, with intention,

rūpārammaṇaṁ vā ...pe...saddārammaṇaṁ vā,
(having) a form object, ...pe...or a sound object,

gandhārammaṇaṁ vā rasārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a smell object, or a taste object,

phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṁ vā dhammārammaṇaṁ vā,
or a tangible object, or a thought object,

yaṁ yaṁ vā panārabbha,
or referring to whatever (thought),

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[340]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the Path leading to rebirth in the form worlds,

vivicceva kāmehi, ...pe...vivicca akusalehi dhammehi
quite secluded from sense desires, ...pe...secluded from unwholesome things,

savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ,
having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and rapture born of seclusion,

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati pathavīkasiṇaṁ,
and dwells having attained the first absorption on the earth-object,

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[341]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye arūpūpapattiyā maggaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the Path leading to rebirth in the formless worlds,

sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma,
having completely transcended the sphere of nothingness,

nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasaññāsahagataṁ,
associated with the perception of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,

sukhassa ca pahānā, ...pe...dukkhassa ca pahānā,
having given up pleasure, ...pe...given up pain,

pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā,
and with the previous disappearance of mental well-being and sorrow,

adukkham-asukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ,
without pain, without pleasure, and with complete purity of mindfulness owing to equanimity,

catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati,
he dwells having attained the fourth absorption,

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[342]

Katame dhammā kusalā?
What are wholesome thoughts?

Yasmiṁ samaye lokuttaraṁ jhānaṁ bhāveti,
At whatever time he develops the supermundane absorption,

niyyānikaṁ apacayagāmiṁ,
which leads out, which goes to decrease (of rebirth),

diṭṭhigatānaṁ pahānāya, paṭhamāya bhūmiyā pattiyā,
to abandonment of (wrong) views, to the attainment of the first ground,

vivicceva kāmehi, ...pe...vivicca akusalehi dhammehi
quite secluded from sense desires, ...pe...secluded from unwholesome things,

savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ,
having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and rapture born of seclusion,

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati,
and dwells having attained the first absorption,

dukkhapaṭipadaṁ dandhābhiññaṁ,
with difficulty in practice and slow deepening of knowledge,

tasmiṁ samaye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhāro,
at that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmaṁ,
with consciousness as condition: mind,

nāmapaccayā chaṭṭhāyatanaṁ,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere,

chaṭṭhāyatanapaccayā phasso,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
with contact as condition: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā pasādo,
with feeling as condition: faith,

pasādapaccayā adhimokkho,
with faith as condition: resolve,

adhimokkhapaccayā bhavo,
with resolve as condition: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
with continuation as condition: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Avijjāmūlakakusalaniddeso
The Explanation of the Wholesome with a Root of Ignorance