Cittānupassanā
Contemplation of the Mind

 

Kathañ-ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?
And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ “sarāgaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti, Relying on an ambiguity in the Pāḷi (which also exists in the English), at the beginning of the Dhammānupassanā the commentary will say: Bhagavatā ... cittānupassanāya viññāṇakkhandhapariggaho ... kathetuṁ; to teach ... the contemplation of mind the Auspicious One ... took up the constituent of consciousness. Consciousness (viññāṇa) in the constituents, however, is confined to the six spheres of consciousness. The complexes that are defined here more properly belong to the saṅkhārakkhandha (constituent of [mental] processes).01
Here, monks, a monk when a mind has passion knows “the mind has passion”,

vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ “vītarāgaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti; The commentary explains that when without passion is said it does not indicate the supermundane state (lokuttarapadaṁ), but only that the mind is in a wordly wholesome or inconsequential state (lokiyakusalābyākataṁ) and the same interpretation is to be applied to hate and delusion below. Throughout this section the Comm is careful to note that we are not talking about supermundane states.02
or when a mind is without passion he knows “the mind is without passion”;

sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ “sadosaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind has hate he knows “the mind has hate”,

vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ “vītadosaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti;
or when a mind is without hate he knows “the mind is without hate”;

samohaṁ vā cittaṁ “samohaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind has delusion he knows “the mind has delusion”,

vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ “vītamohaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti;
or when a mind is without delusion he knows “the mind is without delusion”;

saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ “saṅkhittaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind is collected he knows “the mind is collected”,

vikkhittaṁ Comm: Saṅkhittan-ti thinamiddhānupatitaṁ; etañ-hi saṅkuṭitacittaṁ nāma; vikkhittan-ti uddhaccasahagataṁ, etañ-hi pasaṭacittaṁ nāma; saṅkhittaṁ means fallen into sloth and torpor, this is therefore a name for a shrunken mind; scattered means having become agitated, this is therefore a name for the distracted mind. I depart from the commentary here in my translation as the whole logic of this passage is that ethical opposites are being set in contrast, and shrunken on the one hand, and distracted on the other are not opposites ethically and therefore do not fit into this pattern. Saṅkhittaṁ literally means thrown (or brought) together, and vikkhittaṁ means thrown apart.03 vā cittaṁ “vikkhittaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti;
or when a mind is scattered he knows “the mind is scattered”;

mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ “mahaggataṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind has become very great he knows “the mind has become very great”,

amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ “amahaggataṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti; Comm: mahaggatan-ti rūpārūpāvacaraṁ; amahaggatan-ti kāmāvacaraṁ; become very great means being conversant with the form and formless fields; not become very great means being conversant (only) with the sensual field. Similarly for sa-uttaraṁ & anuttaraṁ below.04
or when a mind has not become very great he knows “the mind has not become very great”;

sa-uttaraṁ vā cittaṁ “sa-uttaraṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind is surpassable he knows “the mind is surpassable”,

anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ “anuttaraṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti;
or when a mind is unsurpassable he knows “the mind is unsurpassable”;

samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ “samāhitaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind is concentrated he knows “the mind is concentrated”,

asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ “asamāhitaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti; Comm: samāhitan-ti yassa appanāsamādhi upacārasamādhi vā atthi; asamāhitan-ti ubhayasamādhivirahitaṁ; concentrated means he who has fixed concentration or access concentration; not concentrated (indicates being) devoid of both (types of) concentration.05
or when a mind is not concentrated he knows “the mind is not concentrated”;

vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ “vimuttaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti,
or when a mind is liberated he knows “the mind is liberated”,

avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ “avimuttaṁ cittan”-ti pajānāti.Vimuttan-ti tadaṅgavikkhambhanavimuttīhi vimuttaṁ; avimuttan-ti ubhayavimuttivirahitaṁ; liberated means liberated by (replacing) this factor (with the opposite factor, during vipassanā meditation), and by withdrawing support (in absorption meditation); not liberated (indicates being) devoid of both (types of) liberation. We can note here that the list of qualities in this section is ordered not according to logical opposites, but according to grammatical opposition, which can be seen when we extract them in order:

sarāgaṁ, sadosaṁ, samohaṁ, sa-uttaraṁ (positive grammatically, negative ethically) - vītarāgaṁ, vītadosaṁ, vītamohaṁ, anuttaraṁ (negative grammatically, positive ethically);
but saṅkhittaṁ, mahaggataṁ, samāhitaṁ and vimuttaṁ (positive grammatically and ethically) - vikkhittaṁ, amahaggataṁ, asamāhitaṁ, avimuttaṁ (negative grammatically and ethically).
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or when a mind is not liberated he knows “the mind is not liberated”.

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Iti ajjhattaṁ vā citte cittānupassī viharati,
Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself,

bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati,
or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to others,

ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati,
or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself and in regard to others,

samudayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the mind,

vayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the mind,

samudayavayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the mind,

“atthi cittan”-ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti
or else mindfulness that “there is a mind” is established in him

yāvad-eva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya,
just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness,

anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

Evam-pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.
In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the (the nature of) the mind in the mind.

Cittānupassanā Niṭṭhitā
Contemplation of the Mind is Finished