Bojjhaṅgapabbaṁ
The Section about the Factors of Awakening

Puna ca paraṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things,

sattasu Bojjhaṅgesu. Bojjhaṅga > Bodhy + aṅga, Bodhi + aṅga. From √ budh, the primal meaning of which is to awaken. Through development bodhi also means to understand, hence the alternative translation Enlightenment. The commentary allows for both meanings: Yāya vā so sati-ādikāya sattadhammasāmaggiyā sambujjhati kilesaniddāto uṭṭhāti, Saccāni vā paṭivijjhati, sā dhammasāmaggī Sambodhi; the seven harmonious qualities by which he completely awakens, rises from the sleep of the corruptions, or penetrates the Truths, those harmonious qualities are (called) Complete Awakening.01
in the seven factors of Awakening.

Kathañ-ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things,

sattasu Bojjhaṅgesu? When we look at the structure of this section we can see that it follows the same model as the Hindrances above. These two sections appear to be the earliest and most original form of the Dhammānupassanā, to which the others were later added in the centuries following the parinibbāna.02
in the seven factors of Awakening?

 

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Satisambojjhaṅgaṁ
Here, monks, a monk having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Satisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
knows “there is the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Satisambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Satisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti,
How there is an arising of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ Again here we can see a play on words, because dhamma, which is the Teaching of Lord Buddha, is also the true nature of things, and ultimately they are not different from one another, but in translation we have to choose the meaning that is most important to convey.03
Having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti;
How there is an arising of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti SN Bojjhaṅgasaṁyuttaṁ (46.2) asks how this factor comes to fulfilment, and answers: atthi, bhikkhave, kusalākusalā dhammā, sāvajjānavajjā dhammā, hīnapaṇītā dhammā, kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro; there are, monks, things that are wholesome and unwholesome, blameworthy and blameless, despicable and excellent, things that resemble the dark and the bright, herein he should be one who makes much of wise reflection (on these things).04
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen (until) it comes to fulfilment –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Viriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ
Having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Viriyasambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Viriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Viriyasambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Viriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti;
How there is an arising of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Viriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Pītisambojjhaṅgaṁ Comm: api ca ekādasa dhammā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṁvattanti: Buddhānussati; Dhamma-Saṅgha-sīla-cāga-devatānussati; upasamānussati; lūkhapuggalaparivajjanatā; siniddhapuggalasevanatā; pasādanīyasuttantapaccavekkhaṇatā; tad-adhimuttatā ti; these eleven things lead to the arising of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening: recollection of the Buddha; recollection of the Dhamma, Saṅgha, virtue, generosity, and the gods; recollection of peace; avoidance of rough people; association with admirable people; reflection on discourses that inspire confidence; and being intent upon it (not: the inclination towards joy, as translated in Way [pg. 163], which is too passive - deliberately cultivating it is what is meant). Pīti is defined as fivefold (pañcavaṇṇa): khuddikā pīti, khaṇikā pīti, okkantikā pīti, ubbegā pīti, pharaṇā pītī ti pañcavidhā hoti; slight joyful-interest, momentary joyful-interest, reoccurring joyful-interest, transporting joyful-interest, suffusing joyful-interest. The common translation of pīti as rapture would seem to apply only to the last of these.05
Having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Pītisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Pītisambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Pītisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti;
How there is an arising of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṁ Passaddhi is derived from the verb passambhati, calms, quiets, allays. Another word used in this discourse from the same root is passambhayaṁ (present participle from causative passambheti) in the Ānāpānapabbaṁ at the beginning of the Contemplation of the Body section.06
Having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Passaddhisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Passaddhisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti;
How there is an arising of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Samādhisambojjhaṅgaṁ
Having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Samādhisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Samādhisambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Samādhisambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti.
How there is an arising of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

 

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ
Having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“atthi me ajjhattaṁ Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti;
he knows “there is the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”;

asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ
or, not having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself

“natthi me ajjhattaṁ Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo” ti pajānāti.
he knows “there is no Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”.

Yathā ca anuppannassa Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañ-ca pajānāti;
How there is an arising of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen – that he knows;

yathā ca uppannassa Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti
and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen –

tañ-ca pajānāti.
that also he knows.

* * *

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself,

bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others,

ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others,

samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things,

vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things,

samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things,

“atthi dhammā” ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti
or else mindfulness that “there are (various) things” is established in him

yāvad-eva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya,
just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness,

anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

Evam-pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things,

sattasu Bojjhaṅgesu.
in the seven Factors of Awakening.

Bojjhaṅgapabbaṁ Niṭṭhitaṁ
The Section about the Factors of Awakening is Finished