Dukkhasaccaṁ From here on the analysis of the truths corresponds closely to Ven. Sāriputta's exposition of the same subject in Saccavibhaṅgasutta (M. 141, which has some small variations), but with the analysis of the 2nd and 3rd truths greatly expanded.01
The Truth of Suffering

 

Katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, Dukkhaṁ Dukkha is the same word that is used in the analysis of the feelings, meaning there: unpleasant (feeling). This is unfortunate as people tend to think it has the same meaning here, which is not the case. Even pleasant feeling is impermanent and therefore dukkha in this sense (though it is not dukkhavedanā, of course). A more comprehensive translation might be unsatisfactoriness (and its cognates), a word too cumbersome to use without risking sounding pedantic, but good to bear in mind as a meaning for dukkha.02 Ariyasaccaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Jāti pi dukkhā
Birth is suffering

jarā pi dukkhā
also old age is suffering

maraṇam-pi dukkhaṁ
also death is suffering

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā pi dukkhā
also grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, is suffering

appiyehi sampayogo dukkho,
also being joined to what is not liked is suffering,

piyehi vippayogo dukkho, PTS omits these two lines, saying they might be an addition from Dhammacakkappavattanasuttaṁ (the First Discourse of the Buddha), but is then also forced to omit the later text that explains these lines. However, the explanation does not occur in the first discourse, or anywhere else in the early texts except in the Satipaṭṭhāna discourses, so that it seems that if they are genuine they must belong here.03
also being parted from what is liked is suffering,

yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ
also not to obtain that which one longs for is suffering

saṅkhittena pañcūpādānakkhandhā dukkhā. To reiterate, it is not that the constituents are always suffering as in the examples given above (like birth, etc.), though they are always prone to it, rather it is that being impermanent they can never provide complete satisfaction.04
in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

 

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jāti?
Now what, monks, is birth?

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi Notice the distributive use of reduplication here. More literally: for this and that being in this and that class of beings. Aññataraññatarena (some sort or other), and tatratatrābhinandinī (delighting in this and that), there are other examples of reduplication being used in a distributive sense below.05 sattanikāye
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

jāti, sañjāti, okkanti, abhinibbatti;
(there is) birth, being born, appearing, turning up;

khandhānaṁ pātubhāvo, āyatanānaṁ paṭilābho: We can see here the methodology employed with definitions in the early texts, which is to define terms by synonyms, so their actual usage in the particular context can be clearly understood.06
the manifestation of the constituents (of mind and body), the acquisition of the sense spheres:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, jāti.
this, monks, is called birth.

 

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jarā? Here is a good example of the methodology at work: jarā in its most general sense means maturing, which can of course have a positive sense. But in this context it doesn't mean so much maturing, as over-maturing.07
Now what, monks, is old age?

Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

jarā, jīraṇatā, khaṇḍiccaṁ, pāliccaṁ, valittacatā;
there is old age, agedness, broken teeth, greying hair, and wrinkled skin;

āyuno saṁhāni, indriyānaṁ paripāko:
the dwindling away of the life span, the decay of the sense faculties:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, jarā.
this, monks, is called old age.

 

Katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, maraṇaṁ?
Now what, monks, is death?

Yaṁ tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā
For the various beings in the various classes of beings

cuti, cavanatā, bhedo, antaradhānaṁ, maccu, maraṇaṁ, kālakiriyā;
there is a fall, a falling away, a breaking up, a disappearance, a dying, a death, a making of time;

khandhānaṁ bhedo, kaḷebarassa nikkhepo;
the break up of the constituents (of mind and body), the throwing off of the body;

jīvitindriyassupacchedo:
the cutting off of the life faculty:

idaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, maraṇaṁ.
this, monks, is called death.

 

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, soko?
Now what, monks, is grief?

Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

soko, socanā, socitattaṁ, antosoko, antoparisoko:
there is grief, grieving, the state of grieving, inner grief, great inner grief:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, soko.
this, monks, is called grief.

 

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paridevo?
Now what, monks, is lamentation?

Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

ādevo, paridevo, ādevanā, paridevanā, ādevitattaṁ, paridevitattaṁ:
there are laments, great laments, lamenting, great lamenting, the state of lamenting, the state of great lamentation:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, paridevo.
this, monks, is called lamentation.

 

Katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṁ? We can see in this definition how sometimes dukkha is restricted in meaning to bodily pain. Compare the definition of domanassa, sorrow, mental pain which follows where dukkha is also used in the definition, but with a broader connotation.08
Now what, monks, is pain?

Yaṁ kho, bhikkhave, kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ, kāyikaṁ asātaṁ,
That, monks, which is bodily pain, bodily disagreeableness,

kāyasamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ, asātaṁ vedayitaṁ:
pain born of contact with the body, disagreeable feeling:

idaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṁ.
this, monks, is called pain.

 

Katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, domanassaṁ?
Now what, monks, is sorrow?

Yaṁ kho, bhikkhave, cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ, cetasikaṁ asātaṁ,
That, monks, which is mental pain, mental disagreeableness,

manosamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ, asātaṁ vedayitaṁ:
pain born of contact with the mind, disagreeable feeling:

idaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassaṁ.
this, monks, is called sorrow.

 

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, upāyāso?
Now what, monks, is despair?

Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa,
For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other,

aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,

āyāso, upāyāso, āyāsitattaṁ, upāyāsitattaṁ:
there is desponding, despairing, the state of despondency, the state of despair:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, upāyāso.
this, monks, is called despair.

 

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho?
And what, monks, is the suffering from being joined to what is not liked?

Idha yassa te honti aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā
Here, for that one who has unwanted, unlovely, unpleasant

rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā;
forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts;

ye vā panassa te honti anatthakāmā ahitakāmā aphāsukakāmā ayogakkhemakāmā -
or, for that one who has those who do not desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security -

yā tehi saddhiṁ saṅgati samāgamo samodhānaṁ missībhāvo:
(and then) having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho.
this, monks, is called the suffering from being joined to what is not liked.

 

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho?
And what, monks, is the suffering from being parted from what is liked?

Idha yassa te honti iṭṭhā kantā manāpā
Here, for that one who has wanted, lovely, pleasant

rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā;
forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts;

ye vā panassa te honti atthakāmā hitakāmā phāsukakāmā yogakkhemakāmā -
or, for that one who has those who do desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security -

mātā vā pitā vā bhātā vā bhaginī vā,
mothers, or fathers, or brothers, or sisters,

mittā vā amaccā vā ñātisālohitā vā -
or friends, or companions, or blood relatives -

yā tehi saddhiṁ asaṅgati asamāgamo asamodhānaṁ amissībhāvo:
(and then) not having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them:

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho.
this, monks, is called the suffering from being parted from what is liked.

 

Katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ?
Now what, monks, is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for?

Jātidhammānaṁ, -dhamma here has the adjectival sense of being so constituted, having the nature of, liability. See PED p. 336 col 2.09 bhikkhave, sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati:
To those beings subject to birth, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Aho vata mayaṁ na jātidhammā assāma, Assāma is 1st person plural optative from atthi.10 na ca vata no No here is the enclitic (mid-sentence) dative form of the pronoun ahaṁ, meaning to us.11 jāti āgaccheyyā!” ti
“Oh, might we not be subject to birth, may birth not come to us!”

Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ:
But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it:

idam-pi yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ.
this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

 

Jarādhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ From here onwards PTS greatly abbreviates the text, reading jarādhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ . . . vyādhidhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ . . . maraṇadhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ . . . before taking it up again in full.12 evaṁ icchā uppajjati:
To those beings subject to old age, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Aho vata mayaṁ na jarādhammā assāma, na ca vata no jarā āgaccheyyā!” ti
“Oh, might we not be subject to old age, may old age not come to us!”

Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ:
But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it:

idam-pi yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ.
this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

 

Byādhidhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati:
To those beings subject to sickness, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Aho vata mayaṁ na byādhidhammā assāma, na ca vata no byādhi āgaccheyyā!” ti
“Oh, might we not be subject to sickness, may sickness not come to us!”

Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ:
But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it:

idam-pi yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ.
this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

 

Maraṇadhammānaṁ, bhikkhave, sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati:
To those beings subject to death, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Aho vata mayaṁ na maraṇadhammā assāma, na ca vata no maraṇaṁ āgaccheyyā!” ti
“Oh, might we not be subject to death, may death not come to us!”

Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ:
But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it:

idam-pi yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ.
this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

 

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammānaṁ
° To those beings subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair,

bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati:
monks, a longing like this arises:

“Aho vata mayaṁ na sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā assāma,
“Oh, might we not be subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair,

na ca vata no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā āgaccheyyun!” ti
may grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, not come to us!”

Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ:
But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it:

idam-pi yam-picchaṁ na labhati tam-pi dukkhaṁ.
this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

 

Katame ca, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcūpādānakkhandhā dukkhā?
Now what, monks, in brief, are the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering?

Seyyathīdaṁ:
They are as follows:

rūpūpādānakkhandho
the form constituent that is fuel for attachment

vedanūpādānakkhandho
the feelings constituent that is fuel for attachment

saññūpādānakkhandho
the perceptions constituent that is fuel for attachment

saṅkhārūpādānakkhandho
the (mental) processes constituent that is fuel for attachment

viññāṇūpādānakkhandho.
the consciousness constituent that is fuel for attachment.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcūpādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
These, monks, are called, in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering.

Idaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, Dukkhaṁ Ariyasaccaṁ.
This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.