01: Kāyānupassanāniddeso
Explanation of the Contemplation of the Body

[356]

Kathañ-ca bhikkhu ajjhattaṁ kāye kāyānupassī viharati?
And how does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself?

Idha bhikkhu ajjhattaṁ kāyaṁ -
Here a monk in regard to himself -

uddhaṁ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṁ,
from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin,

pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino: paccavekkhati -
and filled with manifold impurities: reflects (thus) - Note that contemplation of the body is being discussed in terms of the Paṭikkūlamanasikāraṁ and, equally important, no other meditation is mentioned in this section, showing it to be, at the very least, the basic practice associated with Contemplation of the Body. 01

Atthi imasmiṁ kāye:
There are in this body:

kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco,
hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjā, vakkaṁ,
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ,
intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghāṇikā, lasikā, muttan-ti.
tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.

So taṁ nimittaṁ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapeti,
He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition, This is an odd formation which the commentary defines as suvavatthitaṁ. I take it the first three verbs in this sentence relate to nimittaṁ, and that the last one relates to svāvatthitaṁ.02

so taṁ nimittaṁ āsevitvā bhāvetvā bahulīkaritvā svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapetvā,
and after he has practised, developed, made much of that sign, and fixed its definition,

bahiddhā kāye cittaṁ upasaṁharati.
he focuses his mind on another’s body.

 

Kathañ-ca bhikkhu bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati?
And how does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to another?

Idha bhikkhu bahiddhā kāyaṁ -
Here a monk in regard to another’s body -

uddhaṁ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṁ,
from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin,

pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino - paccavekkhati:
and filled with manifold impurities - reflects (thus):

Atthissa kāye:
There are This parses as atthi assa kāye, which can only mean there are in his body, ruling out any other meaning, such as the external part of one’s own body.03 in his body:

kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco,
hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjā, vakkaṁ,
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ,
intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghāṇikā, lasikā, muttan-ti.
tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.

So taṁ nimittaṁ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapeti,
He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition,

so taṁ nimittaṁ āsevitvā bhāvetvā bahulīkaritvā svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapetvā,
and after he has practised, developed, made much of that sign, and fixed its definition,

ajjhattabahiddhā kāye cittaṁ upasaṁharati.
he focuses his mind on his own and on another’s body.

 

Kathañ-ca bhikkhu ajjhattabahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati?
And how does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to another?

Idha bhikkhu ajjhattabahiddhā kāyaṁ -
Here a monk in regard to himself and another -

uddhaṁ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṁ,
from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin,

pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino - paccavekkhati:
and filled with manifold impurities - reflects (thus):

Atthi kāye:
There are Comm: Atthi kāye ti idaṁ yasmā na ekantena attano kāyo nāpi parasseva kāyo adhippeto tasmā vuttaṁ; there are in the body is said because it is not certain whether his own body or another’s body is meant.04 in the body:

kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco,
hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjā, vakkaṁ,
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ,
intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghāṇikā, lasikā, muttan-ti.
tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.

Evaṁ bhikkhu ajjhattabahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
Thus a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) his own and another’s body in the body,

ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

 

(Padabhājanīyaṁ)
(Word Analysis)

[357]

‘Anupassī’ ti.
‘Contemplating’.

Tattha, katamā anupassanā?
Herein, what is contemplation?

Yā paññā pajānanā ...pe...vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo,
That which is wisdom, knowing, ...pe...investigation, deep investigation, investigation of (the nature of) things, Here we see how terms are defined according to their synonyms in the early texts, which can sometimes reach great lengths as every word felt to be connected may be added to the list, even if they are repetitions, and if they appear in collocated lists the whole list is inserted, for which reason paññā appears twice by itself, as well as eight times in compounds in this particular definition. 05

sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā,
discernment, discrimination, differentiation, We see here how collocations are easily made in Pāḷi through the addition of prefixes (upasagga), which slightly change or intensify the meaning. Producing similar lists in translation sounds unnatural in English where word-repetition is normally avoided, but then it is also difficult to find synonyms.06

paṇḍiccaṁ kosallaṁ nepuññaṁvebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā,
erudition, skilfulness, subtlety, Abstract formations from paṇḍita, kusala and nipuṇa respectively.07 clarification, thoughtfulness, consideration,

bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṁ patodo,
breadth, intelligence, guidance, insight, full awareness, examination, Patoda means a stick, or more particularly a goad. I can find no definition in Pāḷi or Sanskrit that would give the meaning that is demanded by the context here, nor does the commentary help here or elsewhere.08

paññā Paññindriyaṁ Paññābalaṁ,
wisdom, the Faculty of Wisdom, the Strength of Wisdom, These are the only two categorisations that appear in the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiyadhammā that mention wisdom (paññā) in their lists.09

paññāsatthaṁ paññāpāsādo paññā-āloko
the sword of wisdom, height of wisdom, light of wisdom,

paññā-obhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṁ,
lustre of wisdom, flame of wisdom, treasure of wisdom, This is a list of metaphors for wisdom, with one or two exceptions (e.g. paññāsatthaṁ is found in Ap. 40. vs 108, paññāpāsādo in Dhp 28). They do not appear to have been used in the texts though that is what one might have expected. 10

amoho dhammavicayo Sammādiṭṭhi:
non-delusion, investigation of (the nature of) things, Right View:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘anupassanā’.
this is said to be ‘contemplation’.

Imāya anupassanāya upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this contemplation he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati ‘anupassī’ ti.
Because of this ‘contemplating’ is said.

 

[358]

‘Viharatī’ ti.
‘Dwells’.

Iriyati vattati pāleti yapeti yāpeti carati viharati.
Poses, moves, guards, persists, carries on, lives, dwells.

Tena vuccati ‘viharatī’ ti.
Because of this ‘dwells’ is said.

 

[359]

‘Ātāpī’ ti.
‘Ardent’.

Tattha, katamaṁ ātappaṁ?
Herein, what is ardour? Ātāpī and ātappaṁ are both from root √tap, to make heat, exert oneself. An ascetic is known as a tapassī, one who is striving (in a spiritual sense).11

Yo cetasiko viriyārambho ...pe...nikkamo parakkamo,
Whatever mental exercise of effort ...pe...Mental effort is said to distinguish it from mere bodily exercise of effort (kāyiko viriyārambho) such as bodily mortification, etc., which was rejected by the Bodhisatta when he discovered the middle path.12, exertion, great exertion,

uyyāmo vāyāmo ussāho ussoḷhī thāmo dhiti asithilaparakkamatā,
enterprise, In Sanskrit this word is udyāma, in Pāḷi there has been an unusual assimilation of the stronger consonant to the weaker one -y- < -d-.13 endeavour, attempt, travail, Ussāho and ussoḷhī appear to be dialectical forms of the same word, with the same meaning.14 vigour, courage, exertion that is not lax,

anikkhittachandatā anikkhittadhuratā dhurasampaggāho,
not putting aside of (wholesome) desire, not putting aside of responsibility, being taken up with responsibility,

viriyaṁ Viriyindriyaṁ Viriyabalaṁ Sammāvāyāmo:
effort, the Faculty of Effort, the Strength of Effort, Right Endeavour: The last three are categorisations that appear in the bodhipakkhiyadhammā, sammāvāyāmo being the sixth factor in the eightfold noble path.15

ayaṁ vuccati ‘ātappaṁ’.
this is said to be ‘ardour’.

Iminā ātappena upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this ardour he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati ‘ātāpī’ ti.
Because of this ‘ardent’ is said.

 

[360]

‘Sampajāno’ ti.
‘Full awareness’.

Tattha, katamaṁ sampajaññaṁ?
Herein, what is full awareness? The answer is exactly the same list of synonyms that occurred in the definition of anupassanā above, which shows the weakness of this way of working as it hardly discriminates one word from another, which is the important part in word definition.16

Yā paññā pajānanā ...pe...vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo,
That which is wisdom, knowing, ...pe...investigation, deep investigation, investigation of (the nature of) things,

sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā,
discernment, discrimination, differentiation,

paṇḍiccaṁ kosallaṁ nepuññaṁ vebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā,
erudition, skilfulness, subtlety, clarification, thoughtfulness, consideration,

bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṁ patodo,
breadth, intelligence, guidance, insight, full awareness, examination,

paññā Paññindriyaṁ Paññābalaṁ,
wisdom, the Faculty of Wisdom, the Strength of Wisdom,

paññāsatthaṁ paññāpāsādo paññā-āloko
the sword of wisdom, height of wisdom, light of wisdom,

paññā-obhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṁ,
lustre of wisdom, flame of wisdom, treasure of wisdom,

amoho dhammavicayo Sammādiṭṭhi:
non-delusion, investigation of (the nature of) things, Right View:

idaṁ vuccati ‘sampajaññaṁ’.
this is said to be ‘full awareness’.

Iminā sampajaññena upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this full awareness he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati ‘sampajāno’ ti.
Because of this ‘full awareness’ is said.

 

[361]

‘Satimā’ ti.
‘Mindful’.

Tattha, katamā sati?
Herein, what is mindfulness?

Yā sati anussati ...pe...paṭissati sati saraṇatā,
That which is mindfulness, recollection, ...pe...recall, mindfulness, remembrance,

dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā,
bearing (in mind), not losing, not confusing,

sati Satindriyaṁ Satibalaṁ Sammāsati:
mindfulness, Sati has the unusual distinction of appearing three times in its own definition in this list, but the list is interesting in showing how much emphasis is placed, not on awareness, but good memory or recall, which is indeed its most basic meaning.17 the Faculty of Mindfulness, the Strength of Mindfulness, Right Mindfulness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘sati’.
this is said to be ‘mindfulness’.

Imāya satiyā upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this mindfulness he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati ‘satimā’ ti.
Because of this ‘mindful’ is said.

 

[362]

‘Vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassan’-ti.
‘After removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world’.

Tattha, katamo loko?
Herein, what is the world?

Sveva kāyo loko, pañca pi upādānakkhandhā loko:
For sure it is the world of his own body, the world of the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘loko’.
this is said to be ‘world’.

Tattha, katamā abhijjhā?
Herein, what is avarice?

Yo rāgo sārāgo ...pe...anunayo anurodho,
That which is passion, passionateness, ...pe... fawning, compliance,

nandī nandirāgo cittassa sārāgo:
enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, a passionate mind: This appears to be a shortened collocation of the much longer definition of lobho that is found in Dhammasaṅgaṇī where there are 97 synonyms!18

ayaṁ vuccati ‘abhijjhā’.
this is said to be ‘avarice’.

Tattha, katamaṁ domanassaṁ?
Herein, what is sorrow? The word comes from du+manas, lit: bad mind(edness), its exact opposite is somanassa, su+manas, good mind(edness), or happiness.19

Yaṁ cetasikaṁ asātaṁ cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ,
That which is mental disagreeableness, mental pain,

cetosamphassajaṁ asātaṁ, dukkhaṁ vedayitaṁ:
disagreeableness born of contact with the mind, painful experience:

cetosamphassajā asātā, dukkhā vedanā:
disagreeableness born of contact with the mind, painful feeling:

idaṁ vuccati ‘domanassaṁ’.
this is said to be ‘sorrow’.

Iti ayañ-ca abhijjhā idañ-ca domanassaṁ imamhi loke vinītā honti paṭivinītā,
Thus this avarice and this sorrow are removed from the world, expelled,

santā samitā vūpasantā atthaṅgatā abbhatthaṅgatā,
quieted, calmed, allayed, gone down, settled down,

appitā byappitā sositā visositā byantīkatā.
destroyed, completely destroyed, dried up, completely dried up, brought to an end.

Tena vuccati ‘vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassan’-ti.
Because of this ‘after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world’ is said.

Kāyānupassanāniddeso
Explanation of the Contemplation of the Body