3. Pañhāpucchakaṁ
The Questionnaire

[386]

Cattāro Satipaṭṭhānā:
Four Ways of Attending to Mindfulness:

Idha bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
Here a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body,

ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati,
He dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings,

ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Citte cittānupassī viharati,
He dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind,

ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,
He dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things,

ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

 

01: Tikaṁ
The Triplets

[387]

Catunnaṁ satipaṭṭhānānaṁ:
Regarding the four (supermundane) ways of attending to mindfulness: Bhikkhu Bodhi (in a private communication) explained that although it is not explicity stated here, what is being examined in this section is still the supermundane ways of attending to mindfulness, lokuttara satipaṭṭhāna. He further explained that in what follows: siyā kusalā, siyā abyākatā, the Path is kusala, the Fruit is abyākata; siyā vipākā siyā vipākadhammadhammā, the Fruit is vipāka, the Path is vipākadhammadhamma; siyā apacayagāmino, siyā nevācayagāmināpacayagāmino, the Path is the former, the Fruit is the latter; siyā sekkhā, siyā asekkhā, the four Paths and lower three Fruits are sekkha; the arahattaphala is asekkha; siyā sammattaniyatā, siyā aniyatā, the Path is sammattaniyatā, the Fruit is aniyatā.01

[1] [Q:] Kati kusalā?
Are any [of the ways of attending to mindfulness] wholesome? This is a standard list of questions that occurs in the early parts of the Abhidhamma, which seeks to further define which mental factors are present during the practice of the topic under consideration. The sequence of questions is elided in the texts as kati kusalā, kati akusalā, kati abyākatā ... kati saraṇā kati araṇā. The rest has to be inferred from the supermundane wholesome consciousness (lokuttarakusalaṁ) sequence in Dhammasaṅgaṇī. I have rearranged the material here so that the answers, which are indented, follow each of the questions, which hopefully makes the whole discussion more intelligible.02

Kati akusalā?
Are any unwholesome?

Kati abyākatā?
Are any without consequences? Aṭṭhasālinī has this interesting explanation of this sequence: anavajjasukhavipākalakkhaṇā kusalā, sāvajjadukkhavipākalakkhaṇā akusalā, avipākalakkhaṇā avyākatā; what has the characteristic of having faultless and pleasant result is wholesome, what has the characteristic of having faulty and painful result is unwholesome, what has the characteristic of no result is without consequence. For this meaning, see SED: á-vyākṛta, mfn. undeveloped, unexpounded... I follow the first meaning, but PED follows the second meaning and translates as unexplained, not decided, not declared, indeterminate and, it seems to me, misses the point here.03

[388]

[A:] Siyā kusalā,
They may be wholesome,

siyā abyākatā. ...pe...
they may be without consequences. ...pe...

 

[2] Kati sukhāya vedanāya sampayuttā?
Are any connected with pleasant feeling?

Kati dukkhāya vedanāya sampayuttā?
Are any connected with painful feeling?

Kati adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya sampayuttā?
Are any connected with neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?

Siyā sukhāya vedanāya sampayuttā,
They may be connected with pleasant feeling,

siyā adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya sampayuttā. ...pe...
they may be connected with neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. ...pe...Unpleasant feeling (dukkhavedanā) is never present in the supermundane consciousnesses.04

 

[3] Kati vipākā?
Are any results?

Kati vipākadhammadhammā?
Are there any things that have resultant nature? The Nikkhepakaṇḍa section of Dhammasaṅgaṇī paraphrases with vipākasabhāvadhammā; things that by their own nature are resultant. 05

Kati nevavipākanavipākadhammadhammā?
Are any neither results nor have resultant nature? The Nikkhepakaṇḍa says this phrase means: ye ca dhammā kiriyā neva kusalānākusalā na ca kammavipākā, sabbañ-ca rūpaṁ, asaṅkhatā ca dhātu; whatever actions that are neither wholesome nor unwholesome, all form, and the element without processes (i.e. nibbāna).06

Siyā vipākā,
They may be results,

siyā vipākadhammadhammā. ...pe...
they may be things that have resultant nature. ...pe...

 

[4] Kati upādinnupādāniyā?
Are any attached to and favourable to the attachments?

Kati anupādinnupādāniyā?
Are any not attached to (but) are favourable to the attachments?

Kati anupādinna-anupādāniyā?
Are any not attached to and are not favourable to the attachments?

Anupādinna-anupādāniyā. ...pe...
(They are) not attached to and are not favourable to the attachments. ...pe...

 

[5] Kati saṅkiliṭṭhasaṅkilesikā?
Are any defiled and connected with the defilements?

Kati asaṅkiliṭṭhasaṅkilesikā?
Are any not defiled (but) are connected with the defilements?

Kati asaṅkiliṭṭha-asaṅkilesikā?
Are any not defiled and are not connected with the defilements?

Asaṅkiliṭṭha-asaṅkilesikā. ...pe...
(They are) not defiled and are not connected with the defilements. ...pe...

 

[6] Kati savitakkasavicārā?
Are any with thinking and reflection?

Kati avitakkavicāramattā?
Are any without thinking, and have reflection alone?

Kati avitakka-avicārā?
Are any without thinking and reflection?

Siyā savitakkasavicārā,
They may be with thinking and reflection,

siyā avitakkavicāramattā,
they may be without thinking, The second possibility comes about in the fivefold absorption sequence found in the Abhidhamma. The third would apply in the second absorption and higher.07 and have reflection alone,

siyā avitakka-avicārā. ...pe...
they may be without thinking and reflection. ...pe...

 

[7] Kati pītisahagatā?
Are any united with joyful interest?

Kati sukhasahagatā?
Are any united with pleasure?

Kati upekkhāsahagatā?
Are any united with equanimity?

Siyā pītisahagatā,
They may be united with joyful interest,

siyā sukhasahagatā,
they may be united with pleasure,

siyā upekkhāsahagatā. ...pe...
they may be united with equanimity. ...pe...Joyful interest and pleasure occur within the first and second absorptions (or first three, if we follow the Abhidhamma classification), equanimity in the third and fourth absorptions (or fourth and fifth).08

 

[8] Kati dassanena pahātabbā?
Are any to be given up through vision Aṭṭhasālinī: dassanā ti Sotāpattimaggena; through vision means through the (vision of the) Path of Stream Entry.09 (of the First Path)?

Kati bhāvanāya pahātabbā?
Are any to be given up through development Aṭṭhasālinī: bhāvanāyā ti sesamaggattayena; through development means through the (development of the) other three Paths.10 (of the rest of the Paths)?

Kati neva dassanena na bhāvanāya pahātabbā?
Are any to be given up neither through vision (of the First Path) nor through development (of the rest of the Paths)?

Neva dassanena na bhāvanāya pahātabbā. ...pe...
(They are) to be given up neither through vision (of the First Path) nor through development (of the rest of the Paths). ...pe...

 

[9] Kati dassanena pahātabbahetukā?
Do any have roots that are to be given up through vision (of the First Path)?

Kati bhāvanāya pahātabbahetukā?
Do any have roots that are to be given up through development (of the rest of the Paths)?

Kati neva dassanena na bhāvanāya pahātabbahetukā?
Do any have roots that are neither to be given up through vision (of the First Path) nor through development (of the rest of the Paths)?

Neva dassanena na bhāvanāya pahātabbahetukā. ...pe...
(They have) roots that are neither to be given up through vision (of the First Path) nor through development (of the rest of the Paths). ...pe...

 

[10] Kati ācayagāmino?
Can any go towards increase?

Kati apacayagāmino?
Can any go towards decrease?

Kati nevācayagāmino nāpacayagāmino?
Can any go towards neither decrease nor increase?

Siyā apacayagāmino,
They may go towards decrease,

siyā nevācayagāmino nāpacayagāmino. ...pe...
they may go towards neither decrease nor increase. ...pe...

 

[11] Kati sekhā?
Are any in training?

Kati asekhā?
Are any no longer in training? Sekhā are those on one or other of the Noble paths or fruitions, with the exception of those with Arahatta fruit (Arahattaphala), who are known as asekhā, those who are no longer in training; those who are neither in training nor no longer training are ordinary folk (puthujjanā) who have not attained the Paths or the Fruits.11

Kati nevasekhā nāsekhā?
Are any neither in training nor no longer in training?

Siyā sekhā,
They may be in training,

siyā asekhā. ...pe...
they may be no longer in training. ...pe...

 

[12] Kati parittā?
Are any limited?

Kati mahaggatā?
Are any very great?

Kati appamāṇā?
Are any immeasurable? Aṭṭhasālinī: pamāṇakarā dhammā rāgādayo pamāṇaṁ nāma, ārammaṇato vā sampayogato vā, natthi etesaṁ pamāṇaṁ, pamāṇassa ca paṭipakkhā ti appamāṇā; measureable things like passion and so on are called measureable, whether from sense-objects or from association, (but) these are not measureable, they are opposed to the measureable, therefore they are immeasureable. 12

Appamāṇā. ...pe...
(They are) immeasurable. ...pe...

 

[13] Kati parittārammaṇā?
Are any limited sense-objects?

Kati mahaggatārammaṇā?
Are any very great sense-objects?

Kati appamāṇārammaṇā?
Are any immeasurable sense-objects?

Appamāṇārammaṇā. ...pe...
(They are) immeasurable sense-objects. ...pe...

 

[14] Kati hīnā?
Are any inferior?

Kati majjhimā?
Are any middling?

Kati paṇītā?
Are any excellent?

Paṇītā. ...pe...
(They are) excellent. ...pe...

 

[15] Kati micchattaniyatā?
Are any wrongful and have a fixed destiny?

Kati sammattaniyatā?
Are any righteous and have a fixed destiny?

Kati aniyatā?
Do any not have a fixed destiny? According to the Nikkhepakaṇḍa, there are five acts that are wrongful and have a fixed destiny: matricide, patricide, killing a Arahat, drawing the blood of a Buddha, and making a schism in the Saṅgha; the four Paths and Nibbāna are righteous and have a fixed destiny; other things do not have a fixed destiny.13

Siyā sammattaniyatā,
They may be righteous and have a fixed destiny,

siyā aniyatā. ...pe...
they may not have a fixed destiny. ...pe...

 

[16] Kati Maggārammaṇā?
Do any have Path as their objects?

Kati Maggahetukā?
Do any have Path as their roots?

Kati Maggādhipatino?
Do any have Path as their predominant (factor)?

Na maggārammaṇā,
(They do) not have Path as their objects,

siyā maggahetukā,
they may have Path as their roots,

siyā maggādhipatino,
they may have Path as their predominant (factor),

siyā na vattabbā maggahetukā ti pi,
(sometimes) they may not be spoken of as having Path as their roots,

maggādhipatino ti pi. ...pe...
or as their predominant (factor). ...pe...

 

[17] Kati uppannā?
Have any arisen?

Kati anuppannā?
Have any not arisen?

Kati uppādino?
Are any arising?

Siyā uppannā,
They may be arisen,

siyā anuppannā,
they may be not arisen,

siyā uppādino. ...pe...
they may be arising. ...pe...

 

[18] Kati atītā?
Are any past?

Kati anāgatā?
Are any future?

Kati paccuppannā?
Are any present?

Siyā atītā,
They may be past,

siyā anāgatā,
they may be future,

siyā paccuppannā. ...pe...
they may be present. ...pe...

 

[19] Kati atītārammaṇā?
Are any past objects?

Kati anāgatārammaṇā?
Are any future objects?

Kati paccuppannārammaṇā?
Are any present objects?

Na vattabbā atītārammaṇā ti pi,
(They are) not to be spoken of as past objects,

anāgatārammaṇā ti pi,
as future objects,

paccuppannārammaṇā ti pi. ...pe...
(or) as present objects. ...pe...

 

[20] Kati ajjhattā?
Are any his own? Nikkhepakaṇḍa: ye dhammā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ niyatā pāṭipuggalikā upādinnā, rūpaṁ, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhārā, viññāṇaṁ; whatever things for the various beings are one’s own, individual, constantly and personally attached to: form, feelings, perception, (volitional) processes, and consciousness. 14

Kati bahiddhā?
Are any another’s?

Kati ajjhattabahiddhā?
Are any his own and another’s?

Siyā ajjhattā,
They may be his own,

siyā bahiddhā,
they may be another’s,

siyā ajjhattabahiddhā. ...pe...
they may be his own and another’s. ...pe...

 

[21] Kati ajjhattārammaṇā?
Are any internal objects?

Kati bahiddhārammaṇā?
Are any external objects?

Kati ajjhattabahiddhārammaṇā?
Are any internal and external objects?

Bahiddhārammaṇā. ...pe...
(They are) external objects. ...pe...

 

[22] Kati sanidassanasappaṭighā?
Are any visible and have impingement? Aṭṭhasālinī: daṭṭhabbabhāvasaṅkhātena ... sanidassanā; paṭihananabhāvasaṅkhātena ... ti sappaṭighā; what is reckoned as having a visible nature ... (that is) visible; what is reckoned as having a striking nature ... (that is) impingement.15

Kati anidassanasappaṭighā?
Are any not visible and have impingement?

Kati anidassana-appaṭighā?
Are any not visible and without impingement?

Anidassana-appaṭighā.
(They are) not visible and without impingement.

Tikamātikā
The Triplets Tabulation