[Uruvilvāto Ṛṣipatanaṁ Gamanaṁ]
[The Journey from Uruvilvā to Ṛṣipatana]

(from Mahāvastu Vol. III, pp. 322-329)

Edited by Emile Senart and Translated by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu

PDFEPUBMOBI

 

Introduction

The translation that follows is from a section of the Mahāvastu (Great Story) dealing with the period after Lord Buddha left the area where he had attained Awakening until he arrives at the place where he will give his first official teachings. I made the translation while working on a part of the Mahākhandhakaṁ of the Vinaya, which describes the whole period from just after the Awakening up and till the conversion of Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna.

The section provides interest in the variations it provides on the one hand, and the extra information it gives about this journey on the other. As regards the variations they are numerous and complex. In this version of events the Buddha first thinks of teaching Udraka Rāmaputra, not Ārāḍa Kālāma as in the Pāḷi; the interview with the grumbling brāhmaṇa is placed on the journey, whereas in the Pāḷi it is said to have happened while still in the vicinity of Uruvilvā; the meeting with the Abstainer Upaka is more elaborated here.

As to the additions they are many, but none so very significant: including the preparation of the road by the Pure Land gods; a description of the journey; the meeting with the Dragon-King Sudarśana; many more incidental meetings that are mentioned along the way; and the problem with crossing the Ganges on the final part of the journey. Perhaps one significant thing is that all the days seem to have been accounted for and we can tell from the text that the Buddha spent at least one week on the journey and who entertained him during that time is mentioned in the story.

The text itself is written in a very imperfect Sansritised Prākṛt which, even in this short extract, is very unstable in regards to its form, indeed the Sanskritisation seems to be almost haphazard as some examples will show: the text first writes tasmād-ahaṁ Upaka Jino, which shows the Prākṛtic ending to the noun, whereas just two lines below we find: tasmād-ahaṁ Upaka Jinaḥ, which has the Sanskritised ending.

The application of the sandhi rules is equally haphazard, writing yāvac-ca Bodhi yāvac-ca Vārāṇasī one time (semi-Sanskritised); yāvac-ca Bodhir-yāvac-ca Vārāṇasī on another occasion (properly Sanskritised); and then yāva ca Bodhir-yāva ca Vārāṇasī on another (not Sanskritised). Similarly the text has no problem reading gāthāye 'dhyabhāṣe with the loss of the vowel according to sandhi rules one time; and then gāthāye adhyabhāṣe elsewhere.

These differences and variations make for interest both for the casual reader and for the scholar, and what the work stands in need of is a thorough examination of its historical and linguistic materials which would further deepen our understanding of the earliest tradition.

 

Acknowledgement

I am very grateful again to Rod Bucknell who kindly went through the whole work for me and made a number of useful suggestions and corrections, which has helped clarify the presentation of this work.

 

[Uruvilvāto Ṛṣipatanaṁ Gamanaṁ] This title is given by the present editor based on the contents.1
[The Journey from Uruvilva to Ṛṣipatana]

[1. Deciding Who to Teach] Cf. the Pāḷi version of this story (Mahākhandhaka I.6). These subdivisions have been added by the present editor to help outline the story.2

... atha khalu Bhagavāṁ ... etad-abhūṣi:
... then this occurred ... to the Gracious One:

“Yaṁ nūnāham-Āryam-anuttaraṁ Dharmacakraṁ pravartayeyaṁ?
“Now what if I were to set rolling the unsurpassed and Noble Dharma-Wheel?

Ko nu khalu me pratibalo prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśitaṁ ājānituṁ,
Who would be able to understand my first Dharma-teaching,

na ca me vihiṁsaye yam-idaṁ Dharmadeśanāye?
and would not become annoyed at this Dharma-teaching?

Atha khalu Bhagavato etad-abhūṣi:
Then this occurred to the Gracious One:

“Udrako Rāmaputro śuddho alparajo aparokṣajātīyo,
“Udraka Rāmaputra The Pāḷi version of his name is Uddaka Rāmaputta; in the Pāḷi texts he is thought of secondly, after Āḷāma Kālāma who is mentioned below.3 is pure, having little dust, an open-minded person, It is not clear whether aparokṣajātīyo is a mistake in the transmission of the text for alparajaskajātīyo, which occurs in the section about Ārāḍa Kālāma below, but something similar also occurs in Lalitavistara. If it is correct then I think we have to take it as Edgerton suggests in BHSD (s.v.), perhaps it means that he would be open to accepting the new teaching, the fact that here it says that the Buddha was looking for someone who would not become annoyed would support this interpetation.4

so ca dūragato atikrāntagato,
he has gone far (along the path), has gone a long way,

naivasaṁjñānāsaṁjñāyatanasahavratāye Dharmaṁ deśayati,
he preaches the Dharma concerning the duty of (attaining) the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,

adya saptāhaṁ kālagato Udrako Rāmaputro, mahāhānir-Udrako Rāmaputro.
(but) Udraka Rāmaputra died Lit: gone to (or fulfilled his) time; the Pāḷi equivalent of this term is kālakataṁ, made time.5 seven days ago, Udraka Rāmaputra (has suffered) a great loss. I take it to mean that he has suffered a great loss because he was unable to hear a Teaching he would so greatly have benefited from, cf. the section about Ārāḍa below.6

Katamo pi khalv-anyo pi satvo śuddho alparajo aparokṣajātīyo,
Now what other being is pure, having little dust, an open-minded person,

yo me pratibalo prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśitam-ājānituṁ,
who would be able to understand my first Dharma-teaching,

na ca me viheṭheyā yam-idaṁ Dharmaśravaṇāya?
and would not become annoyed at hearing this Dharma?

Ārāḍo Kālāmo śuddho alparajo alparajaskajātīyo,
Ārāḍa Kālāma is pure, having little dust, with little dust on his eyes,

yo me pratibalo prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśitam-ājānituṁ,
he would be able to understand my first Dharma-teaching,

na ca me viheṭhaye yam-idaṁ Dharmaśravaṇāya,
and would not become annoyed at hearing this Dharma-teaching,

mahāhānir-Ārāḍasya adya, try-ahaṁ kālagato Ārāḍo Kālāmo.
(but) for Ārāḍa there is great loss, (for) Ārāḍa Kālāma died three days ago.

Katamo punar-anyo pi satvo śuddho alparajaskajātīyo,
Now what other being is pure, with little dust on his eyes,

yo me pratibalo prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśitam-ājānituṁ,
who would be able to understand my first Dharma-teaching,

na ca me viheṭhaye yam-idaṁ Dharmaśravaṇāya?”
and would not become annoyed at hearing this Dharma-teaching?”

Atha khalu Bhagavato etad-abhūṣi:
Then this occurred to the Gracious One:

“Paṁcakā bhadravargiyā śuddhā alparajā alparajaskajātīyās-,
“The good group-of-five Called bhikkhū, monks, in the Pāḷi, but prematurely as they are not ordained in the Śāsana yet.7 are pure, having little dust, with little dust on their eyes,

te me pratibalā prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśitaṁ ājānituṁ,
they would be able to understand my first Dharma-teaching,

na ca me viheṭhayensuḥ yam-idaṁ Dharmaśravaṇāya,
they would not become annoyed with me at hearing this Dharma-teaching,

pūrvam-eva duṣkaraṁ carantasya anubaṁdhensuḥ.
they followed me during my life of austerity.

Te ca Vārāṇasyāṁ viharanti Ṛṣipatane Mṛgadāve.
They are now living near Vārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣipatana.

Yaṁ nūnāhaṁ Vārāṇasīṁ gatvā, Vārāṇasyāṁ Ṛṣipatane Mṛgadāve,
Now what if I, having gone to Vārāṇasī, to the Deer Park at Ṛṣipatana, near Vārāṇasī,

paṁcānāṁ bhadravargiyānāṁ prathamaṁ Dharmaṁ deśayeyaṁ?
were to preach the first Dharma-teaching to the good group-of-five?

 

[2. Preparing the Road]

Atha khalu saṁbahulā maheśākhyā Śuddhāvāsakāyikā devā,
Then a great many very powerful gods from the Hosts in the Pure Lands, The five Pure Lands are the highest of the worlds in the Form Worlds (Rūpaloka).8

yena Bhagavāns-tenopasaṁkramitvā,
after approaching the Gracious One,

Bhagavataḥ pādau śirasā vanditvā, ekānte asthānsuḥ.
and worshipping the Gracious One's feet with their heads, stood at one side.

Ekāntas-thitās-te Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
While standing on one side they said this to the Gracious One:

“Yaṁ Bhagavato antevāsināṁ abhijñātaṁ parijñātaṁ
“The Gracious One's pupils understand and know very well

pratibalāś-ca punar-vayaṁ Bhagavato vividhāni vicitrāṇi ṛddhiprātihāryāṇi kartuṁ,
that for the Gracious One we are able to do various and diverse miracles,

yena Bhagavān-mārgeṇa Bodhito
° and along the path the Gracious One will go from the Bodhi (Tree)

Vārāṇasyāṁ gamiṣyati Ṛṣipatanaṁ Mṛgadāvaṁ,
to the Deer Park at Ṛṣipatana, near Vārāṇasī,

anuttaraṁ Dharmacakraṁ pravartayituṁ,
to set rolling the unsurpassed Dharma-Wheel,

tato vayaṁ Bhagavato
° we will attend on the Gracious One

yāvac-ca Bodhi yāvac-ca Vārāṇasī mārgaṁ pratijāgariṣyāmaḥ,
along the path from the Bodhi (Tree) to Vārāṇasī,

samaṁ asamaviṣamaṁ pāṇitalajātaṁ,
(making it) even, level like the palm of a hand,

vitatavitānaṁ citradūṣyaparikṣiptaṁ osaktapaṭṭadāmakalāpaṁ,
covered with a canopy, surrounded with beautiful cloth, bound round with bunches of silken cloth,

siktasammṛṣṭaṁ dhūpitadhūpanaṁ,
sprinkled and swept, perfumed with incense,

muktapuṣpāvakīrṇaṁ suvarṇavālikāsaṁstṛtaṁ,
bestrewn with flowers, covered with beautifully coloured sand,

divyamuktācūrṇasaṁstṛtaṁ divyasphaṭikacūrṇasaṁstṛtaṁ,
covered with divine powdered pearls, covered with divine powdered crystal,

divyamusāragalvacūrṇasaṁstṛtaṁ divyalohitikācūrṇasaṁstṛtaṁ.
covered with divine powdered coral, covered with divine powdered rubies.

Tatra ca vayaṁ Bhagavaṁ mārge yāvac-ca Bodhir-yāvac-ca Vārāṇasī
There, Gracious One, along the path from the Bodhi (Tree) to Vārāṇasī

divyā tālapaṁktiyo abhinirminiṣyāmaḥ,
we will create divine rows of palm trees,

[acchā samā saikatā] We need to exclude these words which have been inserted by mistake. Jones would exclude the following word also, but it seems appropriate enough so I leave it in the text.9 sukhopanītā citrāṇi darśanīyāni,
[transparent, even, sandy,] pleasant, beautiful, good-looking,

saptānāṁ varṇānāṁ: Called seven treasures (saptānāṁ ratnānāṁ) just below.10 suvarṇasya rūpyasya muktāyā,
(made of) seven forms: of gold, silver, pearl,

vaiḍūryasya sphaṭikasya musāgalvasya lohitikāyā.
beryl, crystal, coral, and of ruby.

Tatra ca vayaṁ Bhagavaṁ mārge vāmadakṣiṇato
There, Gracious One, along the path, on the left and the right

divyāyo nadīyo abhinirminiṣyāmaḥ acchā samā saikatā sukhopanītā,
we will create divine streams, transparent, even, sandy, pleasant,

suvarṇavālukāsaṁstṛtā utpalapadmakumudapuṇḍarīkanalinī-
covered with beautifully coloured sand, with a pond (full) of water-lilies, lotuses, white lotuses,

saugandhika-āmrajambukalakucapanasanārikela-
° and shaded completely with sweet smelling mangoes, rose-apples, bread-fruit, jack-fruit, coconuts,

pālevatakabhavyadāḍimavṛddhikapracchannā.
ebony, star-fruit, and pomegranite.

Tatra ca vayaṁ Bhagavan-mārge yāva ca Bodhir-yāva ca Vārāṇasī
There, Gracious One, along the path between the Bodhi (Tree) and Vārāṇasī

divyāni cchattrāṇi abhinirminitvā, divyāni dhvajāni abhinirminiṣyāmaḥ,
after creating divine sunshades, we will create divine banners,

divyāni kūṭāgārāṇi abhinirminiṣyāmaḥ citrāṇi darśanīyāni,
we will create divine peaked halls, beautiful, good-looking,

saptānāṁ ratnānāṁ: suvarṇasya rūpyasya muktāyā,
(made of) the seven treasures: of gold, silver, pearl,

vaiḍūryasya sphaṭikasya musāgalvasya lohitikāyā.
beryl, crystal, coral, and of ruby.

Bhagavato gacchantasya gamiṣyanti tiṣṭhantasya tiṣṭhanti,
When the Gracious One goes they will go, when he stops they will stop,

purato ca Varṣavalāhakā devaputrā divyāni puṣpāṇi prākiriṣyanti,
and the Rain Cloud gods will scatter divine flowers,

mandaṁ mandaṁ ca devā prasārayiṣyanti.
and slowly slowly the gods will advance.

 

[3. The Entourage sets Off]

Bhagavati Bodhito Vārāṇasīm-Ṛṣipatanaṁ Mṛgadāvaṁ prasthite
On the Gracious One's journey from the Bodhi (Tree) to the Deer Park at Ṛṣipatana, near Vārāṇasī

anuttaraṁ Dharmacakraṁ pravartayituṁ Śuddhāvāsehi devehi mārgo pratijāgṛto,
to set rolling the unsurpassed Dharma-Wheel the path had been prepared by the Pure Land gods,

mahatīṁ catur-aṁginīsenām-abhinirmiṇitvā
and after creating a great four-fold army

mahāntaṁ hastikāyaṁ mahāntam-aśvakāyaṁ rathakāyaṁ pattikāyaṁ,
(consisting of) a great body of elephants, a great body of horses, a body of chariots, and a body of foot-soldiers,

Bhagavantaṁ Vārāṇasīṁ gacchantaṁ puras-karensuḥ.
they placed the Gracious One in front as he was going to Vārāṇasī.

Yāvat-Suvarṇānām-adhipatayo Suvarṇarājāno,
Many of the lords of the Suvarṇas Pāḷi: Supaṇṇa.11 and Kings of the Suvarṇas,

aṇḍajā vā jarāyujā vā aupapādukā vā saṁsvedajā vā,
whether born of eggs, born from a womb, born of moisture, or (born) spontaneously, The Suvarṇas are a type of supernatural bird and the Nāgas, who are mentioned below, are a type of supernatural snake, presumably that is why they may have the different types of birth that are mentioned here.12

te mahāntaṁ catur-aṁginīsenāṁ ṛddhīye abhinirmiṇitvā
after creating with their psychic power a great four-fold army

Bhagavantaṁ gacchantaṁ puras-karensuḥ;
placed the Gracious One in front as he was going;

yāva Nāgānāṁ Nāgādhipatayo Nāgarājāno,
many of the lords of the Nāgas and Kings of the Nāgas,

aṇḍajā vā jarāyujā vā saṁsvedajā vā aupapādukā vā,
whether born of eggs, born from a womb, born of moisture, or (born) spontaneously,

te mahatīṁ catur-aṁginīsenām-ṛddhīye abhinirmiṇitvā
after creating with their psychic power a great four-fold army

Bhagavantaṁ Vārāṇasīṁ gacchantaṁ puras-karensuḥ;
placed the Gracious One in front as he was going to Vārāṇasī;

catur-mahārājikā devā Trayastriṁśā Yāmās-Tuṣitā Nirmāṇarati,
(also) the gods called the Four Great Kings, the Trayastriṁsa, Yāma, Tuṣita, Nirmāṇarati,

Paranirmitavaśavarti Brahmakāyikā devā,
Paranirmitavaśavarti, and Brahmakāyikā gods,

mahāntaṁ catur-aṁginīsenām-ṛddhīye abhinirmiṇitvā,
after creating with their psychic power a great four-fold army,

Bhagavantaṁ Kāśiṁ gacchantaṁ puras-karensuḥ.
placed the Gracious One in front as he was going to Kāśī. Kāśī is the State of which Vārāṇasī was the capital.13

 

[4. The Dragon-King]

Atha khalu Bhagavāṁ mahatīye pariṣāye,
Then the Gracious One, surrounded and placed at the front of a great assembly,

anekaśatāye anekasahasrāye anekaśatasahasrāye puras-kṛto parivārito,
with countless hundreds, countless thousands, countless hundreds of thousands,

Uruvilvāto Gayāṁ gacchati, Gayāto Aparagayāṁ gacchati.
went from Uruvilvā to Gayā, and from Gayā to Aparagayā.

Aparagayāyāṁ Sudarśano nāma Nāgarājā
At Aparagayā the Dragon-King called Sudarśana

tena Bhagavāṁ Aparagayāyāṁ vāsena bhaktena ca nimantrito,
invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat with him at Aparagayā,

tahiṁ Bhagavāṁ, Sudarśanasya Nāgarājño bhavane vasitvā,
and the Gracious One, after dwelling in the domicile of the Dragon-King Sudarśana,

kṛtāhāro Vaśālāṁ gacchati.
ate and went on to Vaśālā.

[5. The Grumbling Brāhmaṇa] Cf. the Pāḷi version of this story (Mahākhandhaka I.2).14

Vaśālāyāṁ nadī nāma brāhmaṇaḥ huhuṁkajātiko vuccati,
At the river Vaśālā there was a brāhmaṇa said to be a grumbler by nature,

so Bhagavantaṁ gacchantaṁ apasavyīkaroti ca “huhun”-ti ca karoti.
and as the Gracious One was going he showed disrespect and uttered “huhuṁ”.

Bhagavāṁ etasmiṁ vastusmiṁ etasmiṁ nidāne etasmiṁ prakaraṇe
The Gracious One, with that as the basis, as the cause, as the reason,

tāye velāye imaṁ udānam-udānaye:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance: The verse recorded in the Pāḷi differs in the 3rd line and adds a fifth: That brāhmaṇa who has barred wickedness, Not grumbling, free from blemish, self-restrained, With perfect understanding, (and) the spiritual life accomplished, Righteously he might speak a word about the Brahman, For him there is no arrogance anywhere in the world.15

      −−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Triṣṭubh
   “Yo brāhmaṇo bāhitapāpadharmo,
“That brāhmaṇa who has barred wickedness,

      ⏑⏑−−,¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
   Nihuhuṁko niṣkaṣāyo yatātmā,
Not grumbling, free from blemish, self-restrained,

      −−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
   Kṣīṇāśravo antimadehadhārī,
With pollutants destroyed, bearing his last body,

      −−⏑[−¦−⏑−]−⏑−¦−⏑−−
   Dharmeṇa so brahmaṇo So brāhmaṇo is intrusive to the metre, the words are missing in the Pāḷi.16 brahmavādaṁ vadeya.”
Righteously that brāhmaṇa might speak a word about the Brahman.”

 

[6. The Abstainer Upaka] Cf. the Pāḷi version of this story (Mahākhandhaka I.7).17

Vaśālāyām-anyatamo I presume this is a mistake for anyataro and translate accordingly.18 gṛhapatiḥ Bhagavantaṁ vāsena ca bhaktena ca nimantreti
At Vaśālā a certain householder invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat with him

tahiṁ Bhagavāṁ vusto kṛtabhaktakṛtyo,
and when the Gracious One had dwelt and eaten in that place,

Vaśālāto Cundadvīlaṁ nāma adhiṣṭhānaṁ gacchati.
from Vaśālā he made an approach to Cundadvīlā.

Adrākṣīt Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantaṁ dūrato yevāgacchantaṁ,
The Abstainer Upaka saw the Gracious One coming from afar,

dṛṣṭvā ca punar-yena Bhagavāṁs-tenopasaṁkramitvā
and again after seeing the Gracious One, approaching

Bhagavatā sārdhaṁ saṁmodanīyāṁ kathāṁ saṁmodayitvā
° and exchanging polite talk with the Gracious One

sārāyaṇīyāṁ kathāṁ vyatisārayitvā, ekānte sthād-ekāntas-thitaḥ
and courteous greetings, he stood at one side, and while stood on one side

Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantam-etad-uvācat:
Upaka the Abstainer said this to the Gracious One:

“Pariśuddho Bhagavato Gautamasya cchavivarṇo pariśuddho paryavadāto,
“Purified is the Gracious Gautama's skin, purified and bright,

viprasannaṁ ca mukhavarṇaṁ,
and his face is clear,

sayyathāpi nāma tālasya pakvasya saṁprati vṛntacyutasya
just as when a palm nut has fallen from the stalk

bandhanāśrayo pariśuddho bhavati paryavadāto sapītanirbhāso ca,
the stalk it hung from is purified, bright and golden,

evam-eva Bhagavato Gautamasya cchavivarṇo pariśuddho paryavadāto
just so the Gracious Gautama's skin is purified and bright,

viprasanno ca mukhavarṇo:
and his face is clear:

adya Bhagavatā Gautamenāmṛtaṁ adhigataṁ amṛtagāmī ca Mārgo.”
today the Deathless has been attained by the Gracious Gautama, and the Path that leads to the Deathless.”

Evam-ukte Bhagavān-Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ etad-uvāca:
After that was said, the Gracious One said this to the Abstainer Upaka:

“Amṛtaṁ me Upaka adhigataṁ amṛtagāmī ca mārgo.”
“The Deathless has been attained by me, and the Path that leads to the Deathless.”

Evam-ukte Upako Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
After that was said, Upaka said this to the Gracious One:

“Kahiṁ vo bho Gautama brahmacaryam-uṣyate?”
“Under whom, dear Gautama, do you live the spiritual life?”

Evam-ukte Bhagavān-Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ gāthāye adhyabhāṣe:
After that was said, the Gracious One addressed the Abstainer Upaka with a verse:

      −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Triṣṭubh
   “Sarvābhibhū sarvavido 'ham asmi,
“All-Conquering, All-Wise am I,

      −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
   Sarvehi dharmehi anopalipto,
Undefiled in regard to all things,

      −−−−¦−−⏑¦−⏑−−
   Sarvajño 'haṁ tṛṣṇākṣaye vimukto,
Having given up everything, liberated through the destruction of craving,

      ⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
   Ahaṁ abhijñāya kim-uddiśeyaṁ?”
I have deep knowledge, who should I point to (as Teacher)?”

Evam-ukta Elsewhere always written evam-ukte.19 Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
After that was said, the Abstainer Upaka said this to the Gracious One:

“Anācāryo Bhagavāṁ Gautamo prajānāsi?”
“Is the Gracious Gautama claiming to be without a Teacher?”

Atha khalu Bhagavān-Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ gāthāye adhyabhāṣe:
Then the Gracious One addressed the Abstainer Upaka with verses:

      ⏑−−−−−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
   “Na me Ācāryo asti, kaścit-sadṛśo me na vidyate, We should no doubt exclude kaścit and read Ācariyo (as in the Pāḷi) to correct the metre; it may be that kaścit has been inserted in an attempt to repair the metre once the svarabhakti vowel was left out owing to Sanskritisation.20
“There is no Teacher for me, no one whosoever like me is found,

      −−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
   Eko 'smi loke Saṁbuddho, prāpto Saṁbodhim-uttamāṁ.” This line is somewhat different to the corresponding Pāḷi line.21
I am the One Sambuddha in the world, who has attained supreme Awakening.”

Evam-ukte Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
After that was said, the Abstainer Upaka said this to the Gracious One:

“Arhann-iti Bhagavāṁ Gautamo prajānāsi?”
“Is the Gracious Gautama claiming to be a Worthy One?”

Atha khalu Bhagavān-Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ gāthāye adhyabhāṣe
Then the Gracious One addressed the Abstainer Upaka with verses:

      ⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   “Ahaṁ hi arahā loke, ahaṁ loke anuttaraḥ,
“I am a Worthy One in the world, I am unsurpassed in the world,

      ⏑−⏑−¦−−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
   Sadevakasmiṁ lokasmiṁ sadṛśo me na vidyate.”
There is no person the same as me found in the world with its gods.”

Evam-ukte Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
After that was said, the Abstainer Upaka said this to the Gracious One:

“Jino ti Bhagavāṁ Gautamo prajānāsi?”
“Is the Gracious Gautama claiming to be a Victor?”

Atha khalu Bhagavān-Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ gāthāye 'dhyabhāṣe:
Then the Gracious One addressed the Abstainer Upaka with verses:

      ⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   “Jinā hi mādṛśā bhonti ye prāptā āśravakṣayaṁ.
“There are surely Victors like me, who have attained the destruction of the pollutants.

      ⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑⏑−
   Jitā me pāpakā dharmā, tasmād-ahaṁ Upaka Jino. We should no doubt read tasmāhaṁ Upakā Jino to correct the metre as in the Pāḷi, or something very similar. Similarly below. Note that what is written here as Jino, is written in the same sentence below as Jinaḥ, showing clearly the very imperfect Sanskritisation of the text.22
I have been victorious over all wicked things, therefore, Upaka, I am a Victor.

      −⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   Pauṇḍarīkaṁ yathā varṇaṁ anope na pralipyate,
Just as a white lotus' beauty is not defiled by the mud,

      −−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑⏑−
   Evaṁ loke na lipyāmi, tasmād-ahaṁ Upaka Jinaḥ.
Even so I am not defiled in the world, therefore Upaka I am a Victor.

      ⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   Abhijñeyaṁ abhijñātaṁ sadvaktavyaṁ ca bhāṣyati,
What was to be known deeply has been known deeply, and what is to be well-spoken is spoken,

      ⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑⏑−
   Prahātavyaṁ prahīnaṁ me, tasmād-ahaṁ Upaka Jino.”
What was to be abandoned has been abandoned by me, therefore, Upaka, I am a Victor.”

Evam-ukte Upako Ājīvako Bhagavantam-etad-uvāca:
After that was said, the Abstainer Upaka said this to the Gracious One:

“Kahiṁ Bhagavāṁ Gautamo gamiṣyasi?”
“Where will the Gracious Gautama go?”

Atha khalu Bhagavāṁ Upakaṁ Ājīvakaṁ gāthāye 'dhyabhāṣaye:
Then the Gracious One addressed the Abstainer Upaka with verses:

      −−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−
   “Vārāṇasīṁ gamiṣyāmi, āhaniṣyaṁ Amṛtadundubhiṁ,
“I will go to Vārāṇasī, I will beat the drum of the Deathless,

      −⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   Dharmacakraṁ pravartayiṣyaṁ loke aprativartiyaṁ.
I will set rolling the Dharma-Wheel that cannot be rolled back in the world.

      −−−⏑¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   navipulā
   Yo me dharma adhigato virāgopasamo śivo,
That thing attained by me is passionless, tranquil and auspicious,

      ⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦⏑−⏑−
   Tam-ahaṁ pravartayiṣyāmi hitāya sarvăprāṇināṁ,
I will set it rolling for the benefit of all living beings,

      −−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
   Ye cābhyatītā Saṁbuddhā, ye ca Buddhā anāgatā,
Those who were Sambuddhas in the past, and those who (will be) Buddhas in the future,

      −−⏑⏑¦−,−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
   Ye caitarahiṁ Saṁbuddhā bahūnāṁ śokanāśakā,
Those who are Sambuddhas now, who are destroyers of many griefs,

      −−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦−−⏑−   pathyā
   Dharmaṁ deśenti satvānāṁ Buddhānāṁ eṣā We need to read eṣa to correct the metre.23 dharmatā.”
They teach the Dharma to (all) beings, this is the nature of the Buddhas.”

Devatā antarīkṣe gāthāṁ bhāṣanti:
The gods in the firmament spoke this verse:

      −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Jagatī
   “Yo evarūpaṁ naradamyasārathiṁ,
° “Having seen him who is such a guide for those people who need taming,

      −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Triṣṭubh
   Dṛṣṭvā Maharṣiṁ parivārayeya. Text reads: Maharṣiṁ parivarjayeya, one should avoid the Great Seer, which makes no sense in the context. I follow Edgerton's suggestion (BHSD, s.v. parivarjayati) in the amendment.24
They should gather round the Great Seer.

      −−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Jagatī
   Hastehi pādehi ca so mahāśiriṁ
One should worship (such) great good fortune

      ⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Triṣṭubh
   Praṇāmaye eṣa atīvamātraṁ.”
With (open) hands and feet.”

 

[7. Meetings along the Way]

Cundadvīlāyāṁ Cundo nāma Yakṣo
At Cundadvīlā the Yakṣa Cunda

tena Bhagavāṁ svake bhavane vāsena ca bhaktena ca nimantrito.
invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat at his domicile.

Bhagavāṁ Cundasya Yakṣasya bhavane ekarātroṣito kṛtabhaktakṛtyo
The Gracious One, after he had dwelt and eaten at the Yakṣa Cunda's domicile for one night

Sārathipure Lohitavastukaṁ gacchati.
went to Lohitavastu near Sārathipura.

Lohitavastuke Kamaṇḍaluko nāma Nāgarājo
At Lohitavastu the Dragon-King Kamaṇḍaluka

tena Bhagavāṁ svake bhavane vāsena ca bhaktena ca nimantrito.
invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat at his domicile.

Tatrāpi Bhagavāṁ ekarātroṣito kṛtabhaktakṛtyo
The Gracious One, after he had dwelt and eaten there for one night

Lohitakāto Gandhapuraṁ gacchati.
went from Lohitaka to Gandhapura.

Gandhapure Kandho nāma Yakṣo prativasati
At Gandhapura dwelt the Yakṣa Kandha

tena Bhagavāṁ svake ca bhavane vāsena ca bhaktena ca nimantrito.
and he invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat at his domicile.

Tatrāpi Bhagavān-ekarātroṣito kṛtabhaktakṛtyo
The Gracious One, after he had dwelt and eaten there for one night

Sārathipuraṁ gacchati.
went (back to) Sārathipura.

Sārathipure Bhagavāṁ anyatareṇa gṛhapatinā vāsena ca bhaktena ca nimantrito.
At Sārathipura another householder invited the Gracious One to dwell and eat at his domicile.

Tatrāpi Bhagavāṁ ekarātroṣito kṛtabhaktakṛtyo
The Gracious One, after he had dwelt and eaten there for one night

Sārathipurāto Gaṁgātīram-anuprāpto.
from Sārathipura arrived at the bank of the Ganges.

[8. The Boatman]

Nāviko dāni āha: “Dehi tarapaṇyaṁ,”
Now the boatman said: “Give the fare for crossing,”

Bhagavān-āha: “Kuto mama samaleṣṭukāṁcanasya,
the Gracious One said: “How can I, when money is the same (to me) as a clod of earth,

vyapagatajātarūparajatasya tarapaṇyaṁ?”
and I am without gold and silver, (give) the fare for crossing?”

Nāviko āha: “Yadi me desi tarapaṇyantarīhasi,
The boatman said: “If you give me the fare for crossing you will cross,

atha na dadāsi na tarīhasīti.”
but if you don't give you won't cross.”

Bhagavān-āha:
The Gracious One said:

      −−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   “No haṁso Narmadātīre nāvikaṁ paripṛcchati,
“The goose does not beg the boatman to cross the Narmadā,

      ⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
   Svakena bāhuvīryeṇa haṁso tarati Narmadāṁ.”
The goose crosses the Narmadā with his own great energy.”

      ⏑⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−
   Iti vaditvāna Saṁbuddho haṁsarājevă prakrame,
Having said this the Sambuddha, like the Goose King, crossed over,

      −−−−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
   Gaṁgāyā tīre asthāsi oghatīrṇo Mahāmuni.
Having crossed the ocean the great Sage stood on the (other) bank of the Ganges. This incident was apparently the occasion for King Bimbisāra making an allowance throughout the Kingdom of Magadhā that ascetics need not give the fare for crossing a river but were to be taken for free.25

Bhagavā dāni Gaṁgām-uttīrṇo Vārāṇasīm-anuprāptaḥ Saṁkhamedhīyaṁ asthāsi,
Having crossed the Ganges the Gracious One arrived at Vārāṇasī and stopped at Saṁkhamedī,

Bhagavāṁ kālaṁ āgameti Vārāṇasyāṁ piṇḍāya carituṁ.
and when the right time had come the Gracious One went into Vārāṇasī for alms.

      ⏑⏑⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Triṣṭubh
   Na hi We need to read to correct the metre.26 vikāle viharanti Buddhā,
The Buddhas do not sojourn at the wrong time,

      −−⏑−¦−⏑,⏑¦−⏑−−
   Kāle tu piṇḍāya carantĭ grāme;
They go to the village for alms at the right time;

      ⏑−⏑−¦−⏑,⏑¦−⏑−−
   Vikālacārīhi vasanti saṁgā,
Attachments are found in those who go at the wrong time,

      −−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
   Tasmād-vikāle na caranti Buddhā.
Therefore the Buddhas do not go at the wrong time.

Ṛṣipatane paṁcakā bhadravargiyā viharanti:
The good group-of-five were living at Ṛṣipatana:

Ājñātakauṇḍinyo Aśvakī Bhadrako Vāṣpo Mahānāmo...
Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya, Aśvakī, Bhadraka, Vāṣpa, Mahānāma In the Pāḷi texts they are named as: Aññā(ta) Koṇḍañña, Assajī, Bhaddaka, Vappa and Mahānāma. Kauṇḍinya actually acquired the name Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya only later, after attaining the Vision-of-the-Dharma.27...