Chaḷaṅgadāna
The Six Factors of Giving (AN & AA 6.37)

Discourse and Commentary, AN & AA 6.37
translated from the Burmese Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana text by

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu

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Preface

This is a short discourse from the Aṅguttaranikāya which is a very popular subject for teaching at the time of giving gifts (dāna) to the Saṅgha. It describes the important factors to be borne in mind when giving gifts, and serves to remind all present how important their own intentions are for the proper fulfilment of the gift.

I have translated it together with its commentary interleaved which gives some important doctrinal information over and above the discourse, and also seeks to clarify it in places. It should also give the student an idea of how the word commentaries (vaṇṇanā) work together with their discourse.

link to English Only version, without commentary, with reading

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
August 2014

 

Ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
At one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī,

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
in Jeta’s Wood, at Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.

Tena kho pana samayena Veḷukaṇḍakī Nandamātā upāsikā,
Then at that time the female lay follower Veḷukaṇḍakī Nandamātā,

Sattame, ‘Veḷukaṇḍakī’ ti Veḷukaṇḍakanagaravāsinī.
In the seventh (discourse), ‘Veḷukaṇḍakī’ means she who dwells in the Veḷukaṇḍaka (Bamboo Thorn) town.

Sāriputtamoggallānappamukhe Bhikkhusaṅghe,
chaḷaṅgasamannāgataṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhāpeti.

had prepared a gift endowed with six factors for the Community of monks with Sāriputta and Moggallāna at their head.

‘Chaḷaṅgasamannāgatan’-ti chahi guṇaṅgehi samannāgataṁ.
‘Endowed with six factors’ means endowed with six virtuous factors.

‘Dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhāpetī’ ti dānaṁ deti.
‘Prepared a gift’ means gave a gift.

Addasā kho Bhagavā dibbena cakkhunā, visuddhena atikkantamānusakena,
The Gracious One saw with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses that of (normal) men,

Veḷukaṇḍakiṁ Nandamātaraṁ upāsikaṁ,
the female lay follower Veḷukaṇḍakī Nandamātā,

Sāriputtamoggallānappamukhe Bhikkhusaṅghe,
chaḷaṅgasamannāgataṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhāpeti.

had prepared a gift endowed with six factors for the Community of monks with Sāriputta and Moggallāna at their head.

Disvā bhikkhū āmantesi:
And after seeing it he addressed the monastics,

“Esā, bhikkhave, Veḷukaṇḍakī Nandamātā upāsikā,
saying: “This female lay follower Veḷukaṇḍakī Nandamātā, monastics,

Sāriputtamoggallānappamukhe Bhikkhusaṅghe,
chaḷaṅgasamannāgataṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhāpeti.

has prepared a gift endowed with six factors for the Community of monks with Sāriputta and Moggallāna at their head.

Kathañ-ca, bhikkhave, chaḷaṅgasamannāgatā dakkhiṇā hoti?
And what, monastics, is a gift endowed with six factors?

Idha, bhikkhave, dāyakassa tīṇaṅgāni honti, paṭiggāhakānaṁ tīṇaṅgāni.
Here, monastics, for the donor there are three factors, and for the receivers there are three factors.

Katamāni dāyakassa tīṇaṅgāni?
What are the three factors for the donor?

Idha, bhikkhave, dāyako pubbeva dānā sumano hoti,
Here, monks, the donor before giving is happy in mind,

‘Pubbeva dānā sumano’ ti dānaṁ dassāmī ti,
‘Before giving is happy in mind’ means (before) giving a gift,

māsaḍḍhamāsato paṭṭhāya somanassappatto hoti.
for a fortnight or a month before she has a feeling of well-being.

Ettha hi, pubbecetanā ‘Dassāmī,’ ti
Herein, previously having the intention ‘I will give,’

cittuppādakālato paṭṭhāya: ‘Ito uṭṭhitena dānaṁ dassāmī,’ ti
from the time that this idea arises: ‘I will give a gift with (proper) effort,’

khettaggahaṇaṁ ādiṁ katvā, cintentassa labbhati.
by acquiring the field and so on, she has this thought.

dadaṁ cittaṁ pasādeti, datvā attamano hoti.
while giving her mind is gladdened, and after giving there is delight.

‘Dadaṁ cittaṁ pasādetī,’ ti evaṁ vuttā muñcacetanā pana dānakāle yeva labbhati.
‘While giving her mind is gladdened,’ this is said because she realises her intention at the time of giving.

‘Datvā attamano hotī’ ti ayaṁ pana aparacetanā aparāparaṁ anussarantassa labbhati.
‘After giving there is delight’ but this is another thought she receives that comes when remembering (her gift).

Imāni dāyakassa tīṇaṅgāni.
These are the three factors for the donor.

Katamāni paṭiggāhakānaṁ tīṇaṅgāni?
What are the three factors for the receivers?

Idha, bhikkhave, paṭiggāhakā vītarāgā vā honti, rāgavinayāya vā paṭipannā,
Here, monastics, the receivers are without passion, or they are practising to remove passion,

‘Vītarāgā’ ti vigatarāgā khīṇāsavā.
‘Without passion’ means without passion (different form), without pollutants.

‘Rāgavinayāya vā paṭipannā’ ti rāgavinayapaṭipadaṁ paṭipannā.
‘Practising to remove passion’ means practising the path to remove passion.

Ukkaṭṭhadesanā cesā, na kevalaṁ pana khīṇāsavānaṁ,
This points out someone who is excellent, but not completely without pollutants.

Anāgāmi-Sakadāgāmi-Sotāpannānam-pi antamaso,
at least a Non-Returner, a Once-Returner, a Stream-Enterer,

tad-ahupabbajitassa, bhaṇḍagāhakasāmaṇerassāpi,
one gone forth on that day, a novice who carries (a senior monk’s) requisites,

dinnā dakkhiṇā chaḷaṅgasamannāgatā va hoti.
there is a gift given endowed with these six factors.

So pi hi sotāpattimaggattham-eva pabbajito.
Because he is one gone forth with the purpose of (attaining) Stream Entry.

vītadosā vā honti dosavinayāya vā paṭipannā,
they are without hatred, or they are practising to remove hatred,

vītamohā vā honti mohavinayāya vā paṭipannā.
they are without delusion, or they are practising to remove delusion.

Imāni paṭiggāhakānaṁ tīṇaṅgāni.
These are the three factors for the receivers.

Iti dāyakassa tīṇaṅgāni, paṭiggāhakānaṁ tīṇaṅgāni.
So the donor has three factors and the receivers have three factors

Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, chaḷaṅgasamannāgatā dakkhiṇā hoti.
Thus, monastics, there is a gift endowed with six factors.

Evaṁ chaḷaṅgasamannāgatāya, bhikkhave, dakkhiṇāya
Thus, monastics, for a gift endowed with these six factors

na sukaraṁ puññassa pamāṇaṁ gahetuṁ:
it is not easy to take a measure of the merit,

‘Ettako puññābhisando kusalābhisando,
saying: ‘So much is the accumulation of merit, is the accumulation of wholesomeness,

sukhassāhāro sovaggiko sukhavipāko saggasaṁvattaniko,
is the means of happiness, leading to heaven, having a happy result, conducive to heaven,

iṭṭhāya kantāya manāpāya hitāya sukhāya saṁvattatī.’ ti
which leads to what is wanted, lovely, attractive, beneficial and pleasant.’

Atha kho asaṅkhyeyyo appameyyo,
Rather it is immeasurable, unbounded,

mahāpuññakkhandho tveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati.
and is reckoned as a great mass of merit.

Seyyathā pi, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde
Just as with the great ocean, monastics,

na sukaraṁ udakassa pamāṇaṁ gahetuṁ:
it is not easy to take a measure of the water,

‘Ettakāni udakāḷhakānīti vā ettakāni udakāḷhakasatānīti vā
saying: ‘There are so many litres of water, or so many hundreds of litres of water,

ettakāni udakāḷhakasahassānīti vā, ettakāni udakāḷhakasatasahassānī’ ti vā.
or so many thousands of litres of water, or so many hundreds of thousands of litres of water.’

Atha kho asaṅkhyeyyo appameyyo
Rather it is immeasurable, unbounded,

mahā-udakakkhandho tveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati.
and is reckoned as a great mass of water.

Evam-evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, evaṁ chaḷaṅgasamannāgatāya dakkhiṇāya
Just so, monastics, for a gift endowed with these six factors

na sukaraṁ puññassa pamāṇaṁ gahetuṁ:
it is not easy to take a measure of the merit,

‘Ettako puññābhisando kusalābhisando
saying: ‘So much is the accumulation of merit, is the accumulation of wholesomeness,

sukhassāhāro sovaggiko sukhavipāko saggasaṁvattaniko,
is the means of happiness, leading to heaven, having a happy result, conducive to heaven,

iṭṭhāya kantāya manāpāya hitāya sukhāya saṁvattatī’ ti.
which leads to what is wanted, lovely, attractive, beneficial and pleasant.’

Atha kho asaṅkhyeyyo appameyyo
Rather it is immeasurable, unbounded,

mahāpuññakkhandho tveva saṅkhaṁ gacchatī. ti
and is reckoned as a great mass of merit.

Pubbeva dānā sumano, dadaṁ cittaṁ pasādaye,
Before giving she is happy in mind, while giving her mind is gladdened,

datvā attamano hoti, esā yaññassa sampadā.
and after giving she is uplifted, this is the success of her sacrifice.

‘Yaññassa sampadā’ ti dānassa paripuṇṇatā.
‘The success of her sacrifice’ means the fulfilment of her giving.

Vītarāgā, vītadosā, vītamohā, anāsavā,
Without passion, without hate, without delusion, without pollutants,

khettaṁ yaññassa sampannaṁ, saññatā brahmacārayo.
the field for the sacrifice is successful, being restrained in the spiritual life.

‘Saññatā’ ti sīlasaññamena saññatā.
‘Restrained’ restrained with the restraint of virtuous conduct (etc.)

Sayaṁ ācamayitvāna, datvā sakehi pāṇibhi,
After rinsing oneself, and giving with one’s own hands,

‘Sayaṁ ācamayitvānā’ ti attanāva hatthapāde dhovitvā, mukhaṁ vikkhāletvā.
‘After rinsing oneself’ means after washing one’s own hands, after cleaning one’s face.

‘Sakehi pāṇibhī’ ti attano hatthehi.
‘With one’s own hands’ with her own hands.

‘Sayehī’ ti pi pāṭho.
‘Sayehi’ (one’s own) is another reading.

attano parato ceso, yañño hoti mahapphalo.
for oneself and for the other, the sacrifice is of great fruit.

Evaṁ yajitvā medhāvī, saddho muttena cetasā,
The intelligent one, having made such a sacrifice, faithful, with her mind released,

‘Saddho’ ti Ratanattayaguṇe saddahanto.
‘Faithful’ having faith in the virtues of the Three Treasures.

‘Muttena cetasā’ ti lābhamacchariyādīhi vimuttena cittena.
‘With her mind released’ means with a mind freed from greed, selfishness and so on.

abyāpajjaṁ sukhaṁ lokaṁ paṇḍito upapajjatī.” ti
that wise one arises in a happy world, free of suffering.”

‘Abyāpajjhaṁ sukhaṁ lokan’-ti niddukkhaṁ uḷārasukhasomanassaṁ devalokaṁ.
‘A happy world, free of oppression means in the world of the gods, free of (gross) suffering, having the highest happiness and well-being.