Tisuttanirutti
A Grammatical Analysis of Three Discourses
(Maṅgala, Ratana and Mettā)
(Sn 2.4, 2.1 & 1.8; also found at Khp 5, 6 & 9)

PDFEPUBMOBI

Edited & Translated by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
(March 2014)

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Preface

This work provides a basic analysis of the grammatical form and relationships of three of the most popular discourses in the Pāḷi canon.

Nouns are analysed as to case, gender and number; verbs as to tense, gender and number; and basic syntactical information is given so that adjectives and adverbs are related to the nouns and verbs they qualify.

I have also parsed the compounds, and identified their type; and there is some extra information added where it has seemed to be useful.

The analysis show the pre-sandhi form of the words involved, so that, for instance, bāhusaccañ-ca sippañ-ca is analysed as: bāhusaccaṁ, ca, sippaṁ, ca.

This work was requested by a Pāḷi teacher and friend, Ven. Dīpananda from Bangladesh, and builds on much simpler analyses I did earlier of two of the discourses.

In making the analysis I was much helped by the commentary, and by Ven. Ñāṇamoli's translation of the same (Minor Readings and Illustrator, PTS, Oxford, 1991), which contains incidental grammatical information.

The text used is as established for my Text and Translation of the Safeguard Recitals that are used extensively in the Sri Lankan tradition. They are available elsewhere on this website, see: Safeguard Recitals

Most of the text is in verse form, and has been written constrained by the needs of the metre. For an examination of the metrical information, see: Catubhāṇavārapāḷi.

If you find the information a bit overwhelming at first, it is possible to toggle the grammatical analysis on and off using the always visible link in the top right corner, leaving only the text and translation.

Anandajoti Bhikkhu
March 2014

 

Maṅgalasuttanirutti
An Analysis of the Discourse on the Blessings

(prose introduction)

Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I have heard:

Evaṁ, thus, indeclineable adverb to sutaṁ
me, by me, agent instrumental, masculine, singular (enclitic)
sutaṁ, heard, accusative, neuter, singular

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthi

ekaṁ, at one, numerical adjective qualifying samayaṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
samayaṁ, time, accusative, masculine, singular
Bhagavā, the Gracious One, nominative, masculine, singular
Sāvatthiyaṁ, near Sāvatthi, locative, feminine, singular
viharati, was dwelling (lit: dwells), indicative, 3rd person, singular

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
at Anāthapiṇḍika’s grounds in Jeta’s Wood.

Jetavane, in Jeta’s Wood, locative, masculine, singular
Anāthapiṇḍikassa, Anāthapiṇḍika’s, genitive, masculine, singular
ārāme, at grounds, Later meaning: monastery.1 locative, masculine, singular

Atha kho aññatarā devatā abhikkantāya rattiyā,
Then a certain god, towards the end of the night,

Atha kho, then, indeclinables
aññatarā, a certain, adjective qualifying devatā (nom. fem. sing.)
devatā, god, nominative, feminine, singular
abhikkantāya, towards the end, adjective qualifying rattiyā (loc. fem. sing.)
rattiyā, of the night, locative, feminine, singular

abhikkantavaṇṇā kevalakappaṁ Jetavanaṁ obhāsetvā,
having lit up the whole of Jeta’s Wood with his surpassing beauty,

abhikkanta + vaṇṇā, with surpassing beauty, adjective + instrumental, masculine, singular (kammadhāraya)
kevalakappaṁ, whole, adjective qualifying Jetavanaṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
Jetavanaṁ, Jeta’s Wood, accusative, masculine, singular
obhāsetvā, having lit up, absolutive

yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami,
approached the Gracious One,

yena ... tena upasaṅkami, [by where, by there] approached, instrumental pronouns + aorist, 3rd person, singular (idiom)
Bhagavā, the Gracious One, nominative, masculine, singular

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he stood on one side.

upasaṅkamitvā, after approaching, absolutive
abhivādetvā, worshipping, absolutive
Bhagavantaṁ, the Gracious One, accusative, masculine, singular
ekamantaṁ, on one side, accusative, neuter, singular
aṭṭhāsi, he stood, aorist, 3rd person, singular

Ekamantaṁ ṭhitā kho sā devatā Bhagavantaṁ gāthāya ajjhabhāsi:
While standing on one side that god addressed the Gracious One with a verse:

Ekamantaṁ, on one side, accusative, neuter, single
ṭhitā, while standing, past participle, Having durative sense.2 masculine, singular
kho, (untranslated), emphatic
sā, that, demonstrative pronoun to devatā (nom. fem. sing.)
devatā, god, nominative, feminine, singular
Bhagavantaṁ, the Gracious One, accusative, masculine, singular
gāthāya, with a verse, instrumental, feminine, singular
ajjhabhāsi, addressed, aorist, 3rd person, singular

(verses)

(Verse 1: Spoken by one of the Gods)

“Bahū devā manussā ca maṅgalāni acintayuṁ
“Many are the gods and the men who have thought about the blessings

Bahū, many, adjective qualifying devā and manussā (nom. masc. pl.)
devā, gods, nominative, masculine, plural
manussā, men, nominative, masculine, plural
ca, and, connective
maṅgalāni, blessings, accusative, neuter, plural
acintayuṁ, have thought, aorist, 3rd person, plural

(Verse 2-12: Spoken by the Buddha in Reply)

ākaṅkhamānā sotthānaṁ: brūhi maṅgalam-uttamaṁ.” [01]
hoping for (their) safety: now please say what is the supreme blessing.”

ākaṅkhamānā, hoping, present participle (attanopada)
sotthānaṁ, for safety, genitive, neuter, plural
brūhi, please say, imperative, 2nd person, singular
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

“Asevanā ca bālānaṁ, paṇḍitānañ-ca sevanā,
“Not associating with fools, but associating with the wise,

Asevanā, not associating, nominative, feminine, plural
ca, but, disjunctive
bālānaṁ, with fools, dative, neuter, plural
paṇḍitānaṁ, with the wise, dative, neuter, plural
ca, but, disjunctive
sevanā, associating, nominative, feminine, plural

pūjā ca pūjanīyānaṁ: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [02]
honouring those worthy of honour: this is the supreme blessing.

pūjā, honouring, nominative, feminine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
pūjanīyānaṁ, those worthy of honour, dative, masculine, plural
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Paṭirūpadesavāso ca, pubbe ca katapuññatā,
Living in a suitable place, having done good deeds in the past,

paṭirūpa + desa, a suitable place, (kammadhāraya)
paṭirūpadesa [= -dese] + vāso, living in a suitable place, locative + nominative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
ca, (untranslated), connective
pubbe, in the past, locative, masculine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
katapuññatā, having done good deeds, nominative, feminine, singular

attasammāpaṇidhi ca: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [03]
aspiring in a right way oneself: this is the supreme blessing.

atta[ssa] + sammāpaṇidhi, right aspiration for oneself, genitive + nominative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
sammā + paṇidhi, right aspiration, indeclinable + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
ca, (untranslated), connective
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Bāhusaccañ-ca sippañ-ca, vinayo ca susikkhito,
Having great learning and craft, and being disciplined and well trained,

Bāhu + saccaṁ, great learning, adjective + nominative, neuter, singular (kammadhāraya)
ca, and, connective
sippaṁ, craft, nominative, neuter, singular
ca, and, connective
vinayo, being disciplined, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, and, connective
su + sikkhito, well trained, indeclinable + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)

subhāsitā ca yā vācā: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [04]
and whatever words are well spoken: this is the supreme blessing.

su + bhāsitā, well spoken, adjective qualifying vācā (indeclinable + nom. fem. pl.) (avyayībhava)
ca, and, connective
yā, whatever, relative pronoun to vācā (nom. fem. pl.)
vācā, words, nominative, feminine, plural
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Mātāpitu-upaṭṭhānaṁ, puttadārassa saṅgaho,
Attendance on mother and father, looking after wife and children,

Mātā + pitu, mother and father, dative, masculine, singular (dvanda)
upaṭṭhānaṁ, attendance on, nominative, neuter, singular
putta + dārassa, wife and children, dative, masculine, singular (dvanda)
saṅgaho, looking after, nominative, masculine, singular

anākulā ca kammantā: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [05]
with works that are not agitating: this is the supreme blessing.

an + ākulā, not agitating, adjective qualifying kammantā (negative particle + nom. neut. pl.) (avyayībhava)
ca, (untranslated), connective
kammantā, works, nominative, neuter, plural
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Dānañ-ca Dhammacariyā ca, ñātakānañ-ca saṅgaho,
Giving, living by the Dhamma, looking after one’s relatives,

dānaṁ, giving, accusative, neuter, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
Dhamma [= Dhammena] + cariyā, living by the Dhamma, instrumental + nominative, feminine, singular (tappurisa)
ca, (untranslated), connective
ñātakānaṁ, relatives, genitive, masculine, plural
ca, (untranslated), connective
saṅgaho, looking after, nominative, masculine, singular

anavajjāni kammāni: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [06]
(performing) actions that are blameless: this is the supreme blessing.

ana + vajjāni, blameless, adjective qualifying kammāni (indeclinable + nom. neut. pl.) (avyayībhava)
kammāni, actions, nominative, neuter, plural
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Ārati virati pāpā, majjapānā ca saññamo,
Abstinence, avoidance of bad deeds, restraint from intoxicating drink,

ārati, abstinence, nominative, feminine, singular
virati, avoidance, nominative, feminine, singular
pāpā, of bad deeds, ablative, neuter, singular
majja[ssa] + pānā, from intoxicating drink, genitive So defined by the comm.3 + ablative, neuter, singular (tappurisa)
ca, (untranslated), connective
saññamo, restraint, nominative, masculine, singular

appamādo ca dhammesu: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [07]
being heedful regarding (all) things: this is the supreme blessing.

appamādo, being heedful, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
dhammesu, regarding things, locative, neuter, plural
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Gāravo ca nivāto ca, santuṭṭhī ca kataññutā,
Having respect, being humble, being satisfied and grateful,

gāravo, having respect, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
nivāto, being humble, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
santuṭṭhī, being satisfied, nominative, feminine, singular
ca, and, connective
kataññutā, grateful, nominative, feminine, singular

kālena Dhammasavaṇaṁ: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [08]
listening to Dhamma at the right time: this is the supreme blessing.

kālena, at the right time, instrumental, masculine, singular
Dhamma[ssa] + savaṇaṁ, listening to Dhamma, dative + accusative, neuter, singular (tappurisa)
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Khantī ca sovacassatā, samaṇānañ-ca dassanaṁ,
Being patient and easily spoken to, seeing ascetics,

Khantī, being patient, nominative, feminine, singular
ca, and, connective
so [= su] + vacassatā, easily spoken to, indeclinable + nominative, feminine, singular (avyayībhava)
samaṇānaṁ, ascetics, genitive, masculine, plural
ca, and, connective
dassanaṁ, seeing, Comm. defines seeing here as upasaṅkamanupaṭṭhānānussaraṇassavanadassanaṁ; approaching, attending on, listening to, recalling, seeing.4 nominative, neuter, singular

kālena Dhammasākacchā: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [09]
discussing Dhamma at the right time: this is the supreme blessing.

kālena, at the right time, indeclinable
Dhamma[ssa] + sākacchā, discussing Dhamma, genitive + nominative, feminine, singular (tappurisa)
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Tapo ca brahmacariyañ-ca, ariyasaccāna’ dassanaṁ,
Austere, living spiritually, insight into the noble truths,

Tapo, austere, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
brahma + cariyaṁ, Comm. gives an alternative resoltuon as a tappurisa compound: brahmāṇaṁ cariyaṁ; the living of the Brahmā gods. 5 living spiritually, adjective + nominative, neuter, singular (kammadhāraya)
ca, (untranslated), connective
ariya + saccānaṁ, into the noble truths, adjective + dative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
dassanaṁ, insight, nominative, neuter, singular

Nibbānasacchikiriyā ca: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [10]
the experience of Nibbāna: this is the supreme blessing.

Nibbāna[ssa] + sacchikiriyā, the experience of Nibbāna, genitive + nominative, feminine, singular (tappurisa)
ca, (untranslated), connective
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Phuṭṭhassa lokadhammehi, cittaṁ yassa na kampati,
He whose mind does not waver, when it is touched by things of this world,

Phuṭṭhassa, touched, I don’t really understand the construction here, instrumental with genitive? Ven Ñāṇamoli calls it a ‘neat’ construction (Minor Readings, p. 167). 6 genitive, masculine, singular
loka [= loke] + dhammehi, by worldly things, locative So defined by the comm.7 + instrumental, neuter, plural (tappurisa)
cittaṁ, mind, accusative, neuter, singular
yassa, he whose, relative pronoun genitive, masculine, singular
na, not, negative adverb to kampati
kampati, does waver, indicative, 3rd person, singular

asokaṁ virajaṁ khemaṁ: etaṁ maṅgalam-uttamaṁ. [11]
(being) griefless, dustless, and secure: this is the supreme blessing.

asokaṁ, griefless, adjective qualifying cittaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
virajaṁ, dustless, adjective qualifying cittaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
khemaṁ, secure, adjective qualifying cittaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Etādisāni katvāna, sabbattha-m-aparājitā,
Having done as here directed, they are undefeated everywhere,

Etādisāni, here directed, accusative, neuter, plural
katvāna, having done, absolutive
sabbattha, everywhere, adverb to aparājitā
-m-, euphonic particle
a + parājitā, undefeated, negative particle + nominative, masculine, plural (avyayībhāva)

sabbattha sotthiṁ gacchanti: taṁ tesaṁ maṅgalam-uttaman”-ti. [12]
they go everywhere in safety: for them this is the supreme blessing.”

sabbattha, everywhere, adverb to gacchanti
sotthiṁ, in safety, accusative, feminine, singular
gacchanti, they go, indicative, 3rd person, plural
taṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
tesaṁ, for them, demonstrative pronoun, genitive, neuter, plural
maṅgalaṁ, blessing, accusative, neuter, singular
uttamaṁ, supreme, adjective qualifying maṅgalaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
ti, (untranslated), quotation marker

 

Ratanasuttanirutti
An Analysis of the Discourse on the Treasures

Yānīdha bhūtāni samāgatāni,
Bhummāni vā yāni va antalikkhe,
Whatever beings have come together here,
whether of the earth or in the firmament,

Yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
idha, here, adverb to samāgatāni
bhūtāni, beings, nominative, neuter, plural
samāgatāni, have come together, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
bhummāni, of the earth, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
antalikkhe, in the firmament, locative, neuter, singular

sabbe va bhūtā sumanā bhavantu,
atho pi sakkacca suṇantu bhāsitaṁ. [01]
may the minds of all those beings be happy,
and may they listen carefully to what is said.

Sabbe, Ñāṇamoli identifies this as a masculine, but bhūtāni in the first verse is certainly neuter. 8 all, pronominal adjective qualifying bhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
va, (untranslated), emphatic
bhūtā, beings, nominative, neuter, plural
su + manā, happy ... minds, indeclinable + nominative, neuter, plural (avyayībhava)
bhavantu, may ... be, indicative, 3rd person, plural
atho pi, and, indeclinables
sakkacca, carefully, adverb to suṇantu
suṇantu, may they listen, imperative, 3rd person, plural
bhāsitaṁ, to what is said, accusative, neuter, singular

Tasmā hi bhūtā nisāmetha sabbe,
mettaṁ karotha mānusiyā pajāya,
Therefore, all of you beings, be attentive,
be friendly towards this generation of men,

Tasmā hi, therefore, indeclinables
bhūtā, beings, vocative, neuter, plural
nisāmetha, be attentive, indicative, 2nd person, plural
sabbe, all, pronominal adjective qualifying bhūtā (voc. neut. pl.)
mettaṁ, friendly, accusative, neuter, singular
karotha, be, indicative, 2nd person, plural
mānusiyā, of men, adjective qualifying pajāya (dat. fem. sing.)
pajāya, generation, dative, feminine, singular

divā ca ratto ca haranti ye baliṁ,
tasmā hi ne rakkhatha appamattā. [02]
they who bring offerings by day and by night,
therefore, being heedful, you must protect them.

Divā, by day, adverb to haranti
ca, and, connective
ratto, by night, adverb to haranti
ca, and, connective
haranti, bring, indicative, 3rd person, plural
ye, they who, relative pronoun, nominative, masculine, plural
baliṁ, offerings, accusative, masculine, singular
tasmā hi, therefore, indeclinables
ne, them, demonstrative pronoun, accusative, masculine, plural (enclitic)
rakkhatha, you must protect, indicative, 2nd person, plural
appamattā, being heedful, adjective qualifying bhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)

Yaṁ kiñci vittaṁ - idha vā huraṁ vā
saggesu vā - yaṁ ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ
na no samaṁ atthi Tathāgatena.
Whatever riches there are - here or elsewhere
or in the heavens - that excellent treasure
is not equal unto the Realised One.

Yaṁ kiñci, whatever, relative pronoun, nominative, neuter, singular + indeclinable
vittaṁ, riches, nominative, neuter, singular
idha, here, adverb to (honti)
vā, or, disjunctive
huraṁ, elsewhere, Defined by the comm. as meaning in the worlds of the nāgas and supaṇṇas, etc. Probably indicating the earth-bound gods in general. 9 adverb to (honti)
vā, or, disjunctive
saggesu, in the heavens, adverb to (honti), locative, masculine, plural
vā, or, disjunctive
yaṁ, that, relative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
na no, not, negative adverb to atthi
samaṁ, equal, adverb to atthi
atthi, is, indicative, 3rd person, singular
Tathāgatena, unto the Realised One, instrumental, masculine, singular

Idam-pi Buddhe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
Etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [03]
This excellent treasure is in the Buddha:
By virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Buddhe, in the Buddha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Khayaṁ virāgaṁ amataṁ paṇītaṁ:
yad-ajjhagā Sakyamunī samāhito,
Na tena dhammena samatthi kiñci.
(Pollutants’) end, dispassion, deathlessness, excellence:
which the concentrated Sakyan sage attained,
there is nothing that is equal to that state.

Khayaṁ, (pollutants’) Comm: rāgādayo khīṇā, the end of greed and so on, the others being hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha), collectively called pollutants (āsavā).10 end, accusative, masculine, singular
virāgaṁ, dispassion, accusative, masculine, singular
amataṁ, deathlessness, accusative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellence, accusative, neuter, singular
yaṁ, which, relative pronoun to khayaṁ, etc. (acc. masc. sing.)
ajjhagā, attained, aorist, 3rd person, singular
Sakya[ssa] + munī, Sakyan sage, genitive + nominative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
samāhito, concentrated, adjective qualifying Sakyamunī (nom. masc. sing.)
na ... kiñci, nothing, negative particle + indeclinable
tena, to that, demonstrative pronoun to dhammena (inst. masc. sing.)
dhammena, to state, instrumental, masculine, singular
sama [= samo], equal, nominative, masculine, singular
atthi, there is, indicative, 3rd person, singular

Idam-pi Dhamme ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
Etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [04]
This excellent treasure is in the Dhamma:
By virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Dhamme, in the Dhamma, locative, neuter, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Yam-Buddhaseṭṭho parivaṇṇayī suciṁ
samādhim-ānantarikañ-ñam-āhu,
samādhinā tena samo na vijjati.
That which the Buddha, the Great One, praised as pure,
the concentration said to have prompt (result),
no equal to that concentration is found.

Yaṁ, that which, relative pronoun to samādhiṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
Buddha + seṭṭho, the Buddha, the Great One, nominative, masculine, singular (dvanda) So defined by the comm.11
parivaṇṇayī, praised, aorist, 3rd person, singular
suciṁ, pure, nominative, neuter, singular
samādhiṁ, concentration, accusative, masculine, singular
ānantarikaṁ, prompt, accusative, masculine, singular
naṁ, the, demonstrative pronoun to samādhiṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
āhu, said, aorist, 3rd person, plural
samādhinā, to concentration, instrumental, masculine, singular
tena, to that, demonstrative pronoun to samādhinā (inst. masc. sing.)
samo, equal, nominative, masculine, singular
na, no, negative adverb to vijjati
vijjati, is found, indicative, 3rd person, singular

Idam-pi Dhamme ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
Etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [05]
this excellent treasure is in the Dhamma
By virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Dhamme, in the Dhamma, locative, neuter, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Ye puggalā aṭṭha sataṁ pasatthā
cattāri etāni yugāni honti,
Those eight individuals praised by the good -
there are these four pairs (of individuals),

Ye, those, relative pronoun to puggalā (nom. masc. pl.)
puggalā, individuals, nominative, masculine, plural
aṭṭha, eight, numerical adjective qualifying puggalā (nom. masc. pl.)
sataṁ, by the good, Comm. offers a second interpretation here, saying aṭṭhasataṁ may be interpreted as meaning 108, then: those 108 individuals who are praised, is the meaning. This hardly fits with the next line though.12 genitive, neuter, singular
pasatthā, praised, adjective qualifying puggalā (nom. masc. pl.)
cattāri, four, numerical adjective qualifying yugāni (nom. neut. pl.)
etāni, these, demonstrative pronoun to yugāni (nom. neut. pl.)
yugāni, pairs, nominative, neuter, plural
honti, there are, indicative, 3rd person, plural

te dakkhiṇeyyā Sugatassa sāvakā,
etesu dinnāni mahapphalāni.
the Fortunate One’s disciples, worthy of gifts,
those things that are given to them have great fruit.

Te, those, demonstrative pronoun to sāvakā (nom. masc. pl.)
dakkhiṇeyyā, worthy of gifts, adjective qualifying sāvakā (nom. masc. pl.)
Sugatassa, Fortunate One’s, genitive, masculine, singular
sāvakā, disciples, nominative, masculine, plural
etesu, to them, demonstrative pronoun, locative, masculine, plural
dinnāni, those things that are given, nominative, neuter, plural
mahapphalāni, great fruit, nominative, neuter, plural

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [06]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Ye suppayuttā manasā daḷhena
nikkāmino Gotamasāsanamhi,
Those who have firm and devoted minds,
without sense desire in Gotama’s dispensation,

Ye, those who, relative pronoun, nominative, masculine, plural
suppayuttā, devoted, adjective qualifying ye (nom. masc. pl.)
manasā, minds, adjective qualifying ye, instrumental, masculine, singular
daḷhena, firm, adjective qualifying ye, instrumental, masculine, singular
nikkāmino, without sense desire, adjective qualifying ye (nom. masc. pl.)
Gotama[ssa] + sāsanamhi, in Gotama’s teaching, genitive + locative, neuter, singular (tappurisa)

te pattipattā amataṁ vigayha
laddhā mudhā nibbutiṁ bhuñjamānā.
those who have attained, and entered the deathless,
enjoying emancipation, gained for free.

Te, those, demonstrative pronoun, nominative, masculine, plural
pattipattā, have attained, adjective qualifying te (nom. masc. pl.)
amataṁ, the deathless, accusative, neuter, singular
vigayha, entered, absolutive
laddhā, gained, absolutive
mudhā, for free, indeclinable
nibbutiṁ, emancipation, accusative, feminine, singular
bhuñjamānā, enjoying, present participle (attanopada)

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [07]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Yathindakhīlo paṭhaviṁ sito siyā
catubbhi vātehi asampakampiyo,
Just as a locking post stuck fast in the earth
does not waver on account of the four winds,

Yathā, just as, adverb to siyā
indakhīlo, a locking post, nominative, masculine, singular
paṭhaviṁ, in the earth, accusative, feminine, singular
sito, stuck fast, adjective qualifying indakhīlo (nom. masc. sing.)
siyā, (untranslated), optative, 3rd person, singular
catubbhi, on account of the four, numerical adjective to vātehi (inst. masc. pl.)
vātehi, on account of the winds, instrumental, masculine, plural
a + sampakampiyo, does not waver, negative particle + nominative, feminine, plural (avyayībhava)

Tathūpamaṁ sappurisaṁ vadāmi,
yo ariyasaccāni avecca passati.
in the same way, I say, is the true person,
the one who sees the noble truths completely.

Tathā, in the way, adverb to upamaṁ
upamaṁ, the same, accusative, masculine, singular
sappurisaṁ, the true person, accusative, masculine, singular
vadāmi, I say, indicative, 1st person, singular
yo, the one who, demonstrative pronoun, nominative, masculine, singular
ariya + saccāni, the noble truths, adjective + accusative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
avecca, completely, adverb to passati
passati, sees, indicative, 3rd person, singular

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [08]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Ye ariyasaccāni vibhāvayanti,
gambhīrapaññena sudesitāni,
Those who clearly distinguish the noble truths,
which were well preached by the one with deep wisdom,

Ye, those who, demonstrative pronoun, nominative, masculine, plural
ariya + saccāni, the noble truths, adjective + accusative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
vibhāvayanti, clearly distinguish, indicative, 3rd person, plural
gambhīra + paññena, by the one with deep wisdom, adjective + instrumental, masculine, singular (kammadhāraya)
sudesitāni, well preached, adjective qualifying ariyasaccāni (acc. neut. pl.)

kiñcāpi te honti bhusappamattā
na te bhavaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ ādiyanti.
however great they become in heedlessness
they still do not take up an eighth existence.

Kiñci + api, however, indeclinables
te, they, demonstrative pronoun, nominative, masculine, plural
honti, they become, indicative, 3rd person, plural
bhusa + appamattā, great in heedlessness, adjective + nominative, masculine, plural (kammadhāraya)
na, not, negative adverb to ādiyanti
te, they, nominative, masculine, plural
bhavaṁ, existence, accusative, masculine, singular
aṭṭhamaṁ, eighth, numerical adjective qualifying bhavaṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
ādiyanti, take up, indicative, 3rd person, plural

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [09]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Sahā vassa dassanasampadāya
tayassu dhammā jahitā bhavanti:
With his attainment of (liberating) insight
there are a triad of things that are given up:

Sahā, with, connective
va, (untranslated), emphatic
assa, his, genitive, 3rd person, singular
dassana[ssa] + sampadāya, attainment of (liberating) insight, dative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
taya + assu, three, indeclinable + nominative, neuter, singular
dhammā, things, nominative, neuter, plural
jahitā, given up, adjective qualifying dhammā (nom. neut. pl.)
bhavanti, there are, indicative, 3rd person, plural

Sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchitañ-ca
sīlabbataṁ vāpi yad-atthi kiñci.
embodiment view, uncertainty, and
whatever (grasping at) virtue and practices there is.

Sakkāya[ssa] + diṭṭhi, embodiment view, genitive + nominative, feminine, singular (tappurisa)
vicikicchitaṁ, uncertainty, nominative, neuter, singular
ca, and, connective
sīlabbataṁ [= sīla + vataṁ], (grasping at) virtue and practices, Normally with -parāmāsa, grasping at, here it is dropped to fit the metre.13 nominative, neuter, singular (dvanda)
va api, (untranslated), emphatic indeclinables
yaṁ kiñci, whatever, relative pronoun to sīlabbataṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
atthi, there is, indicative, 3rd person, singular

Catūhapāyehi ca vippamutto,
cha cābhiṭhānāni abhabbo kātuṁ.
He is free from (rebirth in) the four lower worlds,
he is incapable of the six great crimes.

Catūhi + apāyehi, in the four lower worlds, numerical adjective + instrumental, masculine, plural
ca, (untranslated), connective
vippamutto, free, nominative, masculine, singular
cha, six, numerical adjective qualifying abhiṭhānāni, indeclinable
ca, (untranslated), connective
abhiṭhānāni, great crimes, nominative, neuter, plural
a + bhabbo, incapable, negative particle + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
kātuṁ, of (doing), infinitive

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [10]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ
kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā,
Whatever bad action there is that he performs
by way of body, or of speech, or of mind,

Kiñci + api, whatever, indeclinables
so, he, nominative, masculine, singular
kammaṁ, action, accusative, neuter, singular
karoti, performs, indicative, 3rd person, singular
pāpakaṁ, bad, adjective qualifying kammaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)
kāyena, by way of body, instrumental, masculine, singular
vācā, by way of speech, instrumental, feminine, singular
uda ... vā, or, indeclinables
cetasā, by way of mind, instrumental, neuter, singular

abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya,
abhabbatā diṭṭhapadassa vuttā.
he is incapable of covering it up,
this incapacity is said of one who has seen the state (of peace).

A + bhabbo, incapable, negative particle + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
so, he, nominative, masculine, singular
tassa paṭicchādāya, of covering it up, demonstrative pronoun + dative, masculine, singular
a + bhabbatā, incapacity, negative particle + nominative, feminine, singular (avyayībhava)
diṭṭha + [santi] + padassa, of one who has seen the state (of peace), genitive, masculine, singular
vuttā, is said, nominative, feminine, singular

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [11]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Vanappagumbe yathā phussitagge
gimhānamāse paṭhamasmiṁ gimhe,
Just like a tall woodland tree crowned with blossom
in the summer months, in the early summer,

Vanappagumbe, According to Ñāṇamoli (p. 211) a Magadhism, where the nom. masc. sing. has the form -e.14 a tall woodland tree, masculine, singular nominative,
yathā, just like, adverb to phussita
phussita (= phussitehi) + agge, crowned with blossom, instrumental + nominative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
gimhāna + māse, in the summer months, adjective + locative, masculine, plural (kammadhāraya)
paṭhamasmiṁ gimhe, in the early summer, numerical adjective + locative, masculine, singular

tathūpamaṁ Dhammavaraṁ adesayī,
Nibbānagāmiṁ paramaṁhitāya.
in the same way he preached the Dhamma which is best,
which leads to Nibbāna, the highest benefit.

Tathā, in the way, adverb to adesayī
upamaṁ, the same, accusative, masculine, singular
Dhamma[ssa] + varaṁ, the Dhamma which is best, genitive + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
adesayī, he preached, aorist, 3rd person, singular
Nibbāna[ssa] + gāmiṁ, goes to Nibbāna, dative + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
paramaṁ + hitāya, to the highest benefit, syntactic compound, dative, masculine, singular

Idam-pi Buddhe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [12]
This excellent treasure is in the Buddha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Buddhe, in the Buddha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Varo varaññū varado varāharo,
anuttaro Dhammavaraṁ adesayī.
The best one, knowing the best, giving the best,
brought the best, unsurpassed he preached the best Dhamma.

Varo, the best one, nominative, masculine, singular
varaññū, knowing the best, nominative, masculine, singular
varado, giving the best, nominative, masculine, singular
varāharo, brought the best, nominative, masculine, singular
anuttaro, unsurpassed, nominative, masculine, singular
Dhamma[ssa] + varaṁ, the best Dhamma, genitive + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
adesayī, he preached, aorist, 3rd person, singular

Idam-pi Buddhe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [13]
This excellent treasure is in the Buddha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Buddhe, in the Buddha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Khīṇaṁ purāṇaṁ navaṁ natthi sambhavaṁ,
virattacittā āyatike bhavasmiṁ,
The old is destroyed, and nothing new is produced,
(their) minds are unexcited by future rebirth,

Khīṇaṁ, destroyed, accusative, masculine, singular
purāṇaṁ, the old, accusative, masculine, singular
navaṁ, new, accusative, masculine, singular
na + atthi, nothing is, negative adverb + indicative, 3rd person, singular
sambhavaṁ, produced, accusative, masculine, singular
viratta + cittā, unexcited minds, adjective + nominative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
āyatike, by the future, adjective qualifying bhavasmiṁ (loc. masc. sing.)
bhavasmiṁ, by rebirth, locative, masculine, singular

te khīṇabījā avirūḷhicchandā,
nibbanti dhīrā yathāyam-padīpo.
they destroyed the seeds, and have no desire for growth,
the wise ones are still, just as this lamp (is still).

Te, they, nominative, masculine, plural
khīṇa + bījā, destroyed seeds, adjective + nominative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
a + virūḷhi, no desire, negative + adjective (avyayībhava)
avirūḷhi[yā] + chandā, no desire for growth, genitive + nominative, masculine, plural (tappurisa)
nibbanti, are still, indicative, 3rd person, plural
dhīrā, the wise ones, nominative, masculine, plural
yathā, just as, adverb to (nibbati)
ayaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to padīpo (nom. masc. sing.)
padīpo, lamp, nominative, masculine, singular

Idam-pi Saṅghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:
etena saccena suvatthi hotu! [14]
This excellent treasure is in the Saṅgha:
by virtue of this truth may there be safety!

Idaṁ pi, this, demonstrative pronoun to ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.) + indeclinable
Saṅghe, in the Saṅgha, locative, masculine, singular
ratanaṁ, treasure, nominative, neuter, singular
paṇītaṁ, excellent, adjective qualifying ratanaṁ (nom. neut. sing.)
etena, by this, demonstrative pronoun to saccena (inst. neut. sing.)
saccena, by virtue of truth, instrumental, neuter, singular
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

(Verses Spoken by Sakka, Lord of the Gods)

Yānīdha bhūtāni samāgatāni,
bhummāni vā yāni va antalikkhe,
Whatever beings have come together here,
whether of the earth or in the firmament,

Yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
idha, here, adverb to samāgatāni
bhūtāni, beings, nominative, neuter, plural
samāgatāni, have come together, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
bhummāni, of the earth, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
antalikkhe, in the firmament, locative, neuter, singular

Tathāgataṁ devamanussapūjitaṁ,
Buddhaṁ namassāma suvatthi hotu! [15]
the Realised One is revered by gods and men,
we honour the Buddha - may there be safety!

Tathāgataṁ, the Realised One, accusative, masculine, singular
deva + manussa, Gods and men, dvanda
devamanuss[ehi] + pūjitaṁ, is revered by Gods and men, instrumental + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
Buddhaṁ, the Buddha, accusative, masculine, singular
namassāma, we honour, indicative, 3rd person, plural
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Yānīdha bhūtāni samāgatāni,
bhummāni vā yāni va antalikkhe,
Whatever beings have come together here,
whether of the earth or in the firmament,

Yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
idha, here, adverb to samāgatāni
bhūtāni, beings, nominative, neuter, plural
samāgatāni, have come together, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
bhummāni, of the earth, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
antalikkhe, in the firmament, locative, neuter, singular

Tathāgataṁ devamanussapūjitaṁ,
Dhammaṁ namassāma suvatthi hotu! [16]
the Realised One is revered by gods and men,
we honour the Dhamma - may there be safety!

Tathāgataṁ, the Realised One, accusative, masculine, singular
deva + manussa, Gods and men, dvanda
devamanuss[ehi] + pūjitaṁ, is revered by Gods and men, instrumental + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
Dhammaṁ, the Dhamma, accusative, masculine, singular
namassāma, we honour, indicative, 3rd person, plural
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

Yānīdha bhūtāni samāgatāni,
bhummāni vā yāni va antalikkhe,
Whatever beings have come together here,
whether of the earth or in the firmament,

Yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
idha, here, adverb to samāgatāni
bhūtāni, beings, nominative, neuter, plural
samāgatāni, have come together, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
bhummāni, of the earth, adjective qualifying bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
yāni, whatever, relative pronoun to bhūtāni (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, whether, disjunctive
antalikkhe, in the firmament, locative, neuter, singular

Tathāgataṁ devamanussapūjitaṁ,
Saṅghaṁ namassāma suvatthi hotu! [17]
the Realised One is revered by gods and men,
we honour the Saṅgha - may there be safety!

Tathāgataṁ, the Realised One, accusative, masculine, singular
deva + manussa, Gods and men, dvanda
devamanuss[ehi] + pūjitaṁ, is revered by Gods and men, instrumental + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
Saṅghaṁ, the Saṅgha, accusative, masculine, singular
namassāma, we honour, indicative, 3rd person, plural
suvatthi, safety, nominative, feminine, singular
hotu, may there be, imperative, 3rd person, singular

 

Mettasuttanirutti
An Analysis of the Discourse about Friendliness Meditation

Karaṇīyam-atthakusalena
yan-taṁ santaṁ padaṁ abhisamecca
What should be done by one skilful in good,
who has comprehended the state of peace:

Karaṇīyaṁ, what should be done, nominative, neuter, singular
attha [= atthe] + kusalena, by one skilful in good, locative + instrumental, neuter, singular (tappurisa)
yaṁ taṁ, (the one) who, demonstrative and relative pronouns
santaṁ, of peace, nominative, neuter, singular
padaṁ, the state, nominative, neuter, singular
abhisamecca, has comprehended, absolutive

sakko ujū ca sūjū ca
suvaco c’ assa mudu anatimānī [01]
he ought to be able, straight, and upright,
easy to speak to, meek, without conceit,

sakko, able, nominative, masculine, singular
ujū, straight, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, and, connective
su + ujū, upright, indeclinable + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
ca, and, connective
suvaco, easy to speak to, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, and, connective
assa, he ought to be, optative, 3rd person, singular
mudu, meek, nominative, masculine, singular
an + atimānī, without conceit, negative adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)

santussako ca subharo ca
appakicco ca sallahukavutti
satisfied (with little), easy to support,
with few duties, and light in living,

santussako, satisfied, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, and, connective
su + bharo, easy to support, negative adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
ca, and, connective
appa + kicco, few duties, adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (kammadhāraya)
ca, and, connective
sallahuka + vutti, light in living, adjective + nominative, feminine, singular (kammadhāraya)

santindriyo ca nipako ca
appagabbho kulesu ananugiddho [02]
with faculties at peace, prudent,
not forward, and greedless among the families,

santa + indriyo, faculties at peace, adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (kammadhāraya)
ca, and, connective
nipako, prudent, nominative, masculine, singular
ca, and, connective
a + ppagabbho, not forward, negative adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
kulesu, among the families, locative, neuter, plural
an + anugiddho, greedless, negative adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)

na ca khuddaṁ samācare kiñci
yena viññū pare upavadeyyuṁ
he should not do the slightest thing
whereby others who are wise might find fault (with him).

na, not, negative adverb to samācare
ca, (untranslated), connective
khuddaṁ, slightest, nominative, neuter, singular
samācare, he should do, optative, 3rd person, singular
kiñci, thing, indeclinable
yena, whereby, indepenedent adverb with causative sense
viññū, wise, adjective qualifying pare (nom. neut. pl.)
pare, others, nominative, neuter, plural
upavadeyyuṁ, might find fault, optative, 3rd person, plural

“Sukhino vā khemino hontu
sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā [03]
“(May all beings) be happy and secure,
may all beings in their hearts be happy!

Sukhino, happy, nominative, masculine, singular
vā [= va], (untranslated), emphatic
khemino, secure, nominative, masculine, singular
hontu, may ... be, imperative, 3rd person, plural
sabbe, all, pronominal adjective qualifying sattā (nom. masc. pl.)
sattā, beings, nominative, masculine, plural
bhavantu, may ... be, imperative, 3rd person, plural
sukhita + attā, happy... hearts, adjective + nominative, masculine, plural (kammadhāraya)

Ye keci pāṇabhūt’ atthi
tasā vā thāvarā vā anavasesā
Whatsoever breathing beings there are -
trembling, firm, or any other (beings),

Ye keci, whatsoever, relative pronoun + indefinite pronoun
pāṇa + bhūtā, breathing beings, adjective + nominative, neuter, plural (kammadhāraya)
atthi, there are, indicative, 3rd person, plural
tasā, trembling, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
thāvarā, firm, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
an + avasesā, any other, negative adjective + adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.) (avyayībhava)

dīghā vā ye mahantā vā
majjhimā rassakāṇukathūlā [04]
whether they be long or great,
of middle (size), short, tiny, or of compact (body),

dīghā, long, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
ye, they (who), relative pronoun to pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
mahantā, great, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
majjhimā, middle (size), adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
rassaka + aṇuka + thūlā, short, tiny, compact (body), adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.) (dvanda)

diṭṭhā vā ye ca addiṭṭhā
ye ca dūre vasanti avidūre
those who are seen, and those who are unseen,
those who live far away, those who are near,

diṭṭhā, seen, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, (or), disjunctive
ye, those who, relative pronoun to pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
ca, and, connective
a + diṭṭhā, unseen, negative particle + adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.) (avyayībhava)
ye, those who, relative pronoun to pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
ca, (untranslated), connective
dūre, far (away), adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vasanti, live, indicative, 3rd person, plural
avidūre, near, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)l

bhūtā vā sambhavesī vā
sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā [05]
those who are born, and those who still seek birth -
may all beings in their hearts be happy!"

bhūtā, those who are born, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. neut. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
sambhavesī, those who seek birth, adjective qualifying pāṇabhūtā (nom. masc. pl.)
vā, or, disjunctive
sabbe, all, pronominal adjective qualifying sattā (nom. masc. pl.)
sattā, beings, nominative, masculine, plural
bhavantu, may ... be, imperative, 3rd person, plural
sukhita + attā, happy... hearts, adjective + nominative, masculine, plural (kammadhāraya)

Na paro paraṁ nikubbetha
nātimaññetha katthaci naṁ kañci
No one should cheat another,
nor should he despise anyone wherever they be,

Na, no, negative adverb to nikubbetha
paro, one (lit: other), nominative, masculine, singular
paraṁ, another, accusative, masculine, singular
nikubbetha, should cheat, imperative, 3rd person, polite plural
na, nor, negative adverb to atimaññetha
atimaññetha, should he despise, imperative, 3rd person, polite plural
katthaci, wherever, indeclinable
naṁ kañci, anyone, demonstrative pronoun + indeclinable

byārosanā paṭighasaññā
nāññamaññassa dukkham-iccheyya [06]
he should not long for suffering for another
through anger or through resentment.

byārosanā, through anger, instrumental, feminine, singular
paṭigha[ssa] + saññā, through [the idea of] resentment, genitive + instrumental, Described as truncated feminine instrumentals (or ablatives) by the Comm. which gives other examples.15 feminine, singular (tappurisa)
na, not, negative adverb to iccheyya
aññamaññassa, for another, adverb to iccheyya
dukkhaṁ, suffering, accusative, neuter, singular
iccheyya, he should long, optative, 3rd person, singular

Mātā yathā niyaṁ puttaṁ
āyusā ekaputtam anurakkhe
in the same way as a mother would protect
her child, her only child, with her life,

Mātā, a mother, nominative, feminine, singular
yathā, in the same way as, adverb to anurakkhe
niyaṁ, her (lit: one’s own), adjective qualifying puttaṁ (nom. masc. sing.)
puttaṁ, child, nominative, masculine, singular
āyusā, with ... life, instrumental, neuter, singular
eka + puttaṁ, only child, numerical adjective + nominative, accusative, singular (kammadhāraya)
anurakkhe, would protect, optative, 3rd person, singular

evam-pi sabbabhūtesu
mānasaṁ bhāvaye aparimāṇaṁ [07]
so toward all beings
he should develop the measureless thought (of friendliness).

evaṁ pi, so, adverb + indeclinable
sabba + bhūtesu, toward all beings, pronominal adjective + locative, neuter, plural
mānasaṁ, thought, accusative, neuter, singular
bhāvaye, he should develop, optative, 3rd person, singular
aparimāṇaṁ, measureless, adjective qualifying mānasaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

Mettañ-ca sabbalokasmiṁ
mānasaṁ bhāvaye aparimāṇaṁ
Towards the whole wide world he should develop
the measureless thought of friendliness,

Mettaṁ, friendliness, accusative, feminine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
sabba + lokasmiṁ, towards the whole world, pronominal adjective + locative, masculine, singular
mānasaṁ, thought, accusative, neuter, singular
bhāvaye, he should develop, optative, 3rd person, singular
aparimāṇaṁ, measureless, adjective qualifying mānasaṁ (acc. neut. sing.)

uddhaṁ adho ca tiriyañ-ca
asambādhaṁ averaṁ asapattaṁ [08]
above, below, and across (the middle),
without barriers, hate, or enemy.

uddhaṁ, above, adverb to bhāvaye
adho, below, adverb to bhāvaye
ca, and, connective
tiriyaṁ, across, adverb to bhāvaye
ca, (untranslated), connective
a + sambādhaṁ, without barriers, negative adjective + accusative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)
a + veraṁ, without hate, negative adjective + accusative, neuter, singular (avyayībhava)
a + sapattaṁ, without enemy, negative adjective + accusative, masculine, singular (avyayībhava)

Tiṭṭhaṁ caraṁ nisinno vā
sayāno vā yāvat’ assa vigatamiddho
Standing, walking, or sitting,
or lying, for as long as he is without torpor,

Tiṭṭhaṁ, standing, present participle (parassapada)
caraṁ, walking, present participle (parassapada)
nisinno, sitting, past participle used with present participle meaning
vā, or, disjunctive
sayāno, lying, present participle (attanopada)
vā, or, disjunctive
yāvatā, for as long as, indeclinable
assa, he is, optative, 3rd person, singular
vigata + middho, Normally neuter but here masculine.16 without torpor, adjective + nominative, masculine, singular (kammadhāraya)

etaṁ satiṁ adiṭṭheyya
brahmam-etaṁ vihāraṁ idha-m-āhu [09]
he should be resolved on this mindfulness,
for this, they say here, is the spiritual way of life.

etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to satiṁ (acc. fem. sing.)
satiṁ, mindfulness, accusative, feminine, singular
adiṭṭheyya, he should be resolved on, optative, 3rd person, singular
brahmaṁ, spiritual, adjective qualifying vihāraṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
etaṁ, this, demonstrative pronoun to vihāraṁ (acc. masc. sing.)
vihāraṁ, life, accusative, masculine, singular
idha, here, adverb to āhu
-m-, (untranslated), euphonic particle
āhu, they say, aorist, 3rd person, plural

diṭṭhiñ-ca anupagamma
sīlavā dassanena sampanno
without going near a (wrong) view,
virtuous, and endowed with (true) insight,

diṭṭhiṁ, wrong view, accusative, feminine, singular
ca, (untranslated), connective
an + upagamma, without going near, negative particle + absolutive
sīlavā, virtuous, nominative, masculine, singular
dassanena, with insight, instrumental, neuter, singular
sampanno, endowed, nominative, masculine, singular

kāmesu vineyya gedhaṁ
na hi jātu gabbhaseyyaṁ puna-r-etī ti [10]
having removed greed towards sense pleasures,
he does not come to lie in a womb again.

kāmesu, towards sense pleasures, locative, masculine, plural
vineyya, having removed, absolutive
gedhaṁ, greed, accusative, masculine, singular
na, not, negative adverb to eti
hi, (untranslated), emphatic indeclinable
jātu, (untranslated), emphatic indeclinable
gabbha [= gabbhe] + seyyaṁ, lie in a womb, locative + accusative, masculine, singular (tappurisa)
puna, again, indeclinable
-r-, (untranslated), euphonic particle
eti, will come, indicative, 3rd person, singular
ti (untranslated), quotation marker