Studies in Ven. Buddhadatta's Prosody

2: Uttaravinicchaya

 

1: The Text

Uttaravinicchaya is a summary in 970 verses of the Parivāra, which is itself a compendium of the Vinayapiṭaka. Apart from the colophon at the end of the work, the work is written entirely in verse. The text has 3,854 lines, of which 3,714 are Siloka (96.4%); and 136 are in Classical metres (3.6%).

 

2: Sarabhatti & Resolution

As with the first of these studies of Ven. Buddhadatta's works, certain features, like sarabhatti and resolution are fairly common. Sarabhatti vowels are found in the following 9 places: pariyāya– 65c; pariyāye 86a; pari– 240c; pariyāya– 282c; –ariya– 432a; pariyesanto 497b; abrahmacari 652c; –arahati 654d; ācariyako 765b; & –kiri 838d – there is a curiosity about this last reading, in that we must take –riy– as not making position for the Siloka cadence to be correct.

Resolution occurs on 24 occasions, 15 at the beginning of the line; once at the 3rd; 4 times at the 4th; and 2 times at the 6th.

niha– 129a; vadha– 215c; na pa– 296c; apa– 324c; dasa– 353c, 946c; pari– 360a, 497b; saha– 363c; –maha– 370a; tati– 411a; dava– 419c; gami– 451a; ati– 497a, 786c; aji– 663d; –tara– 702a; puri– 741a; aca– 749c, 755c; saha 794a; kusa– 868c; sukha– 869c; mara– 911b.

Example, which shows both sarabhatti and resolution:

 

⏑⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
“atirekamāso seso” ti; pariyesanto ca gimhike. [497ab]

 

3: Analysis of the metres

a: Siloka

The most common metre is the Siloka, there being 1857 pādayugas; 1784 (96.1%) of these are pathyā, having the following structure in the prior line: ⏓⏓⏓⏓¦⏑−−×.

The example is the Nigamana at the end of the work:

 

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
racito buddhadattena, suddhacittena dhīmatā.

⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
suciraṭṭhitikāmena, sāsanassa mahesino. [961]

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
antarenantarāyaṁ tu, yathā siddhim-upāgato;

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
atthato ganthato ceva, uttaroyam-anuttaro. [962]

 

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
tathā sijjhantu saṅkappā, sattānaṁ dhammasaṁyutā.

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
rājā pātu mahiṁ sammā, kāle devo pavassatu. [963]

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
yāva tiṭṭhati selindo, yāva cando virocati.

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
tāva tiṭṭhatu saddhammo, gotamassa mahesino. [964]

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
khantisoraccasosīlyabuddhisaddhādayādayo.

⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
patiṭṭhitā guṇā yasmiṁ, ratanānīva sāgare. [965]

 

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
vinayācārayuttena, tena sakkacca sādaraṁ;

−⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
yācito saṅghapālena, therena thiracetasā. [966]

 

⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
suciraṭṭhitikāmena vinayassa mahesino;

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭavatthāya, vinayassa vinicchaye. [967]

 

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
akāsiṁ paramaṁ etaṁ, uttaraṁ nāma nāmato.

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
savane sādaraṁ katvā, sikkhitabbo tato ayaṁ. [968]

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
paññāsādhikasaṅkhyāni, navagāthāsatāni hi.

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
gaṇanā uttarassāyaṁ, chandasānuṭṭhubhena tu. [969]

 

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
gāthā catusahassāni, satañ-ca ūnavīsati. This number is arrived at by adding the total number of verses in Vinayavinicchaya and Uttaravinicchaya together. However the numbers do not match the Burmese edition. In the text it states there are 950 verses in Uttaravinicchaya, but our text has 970 verses. In the next verse it states there are 4,119 verses altogether, but we have 4,170 verses altogether.01

⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
pamāṇato imā vuttā, vinayassa vinicchaye ti. [970]

 

Variations account for 3.9% of the Siloka lines. The most popular of the variations is mavipulā (including the mavipulā-type), of which there are 36 examples altogether.

The normal profile of the mavipulā is ⏓⏓⏑⏓¦−,−−×; of which there are 24: 8ab; 9a; 18a; 54a; 60a; 364c; 387a; 454a; 455a; 456c; 468a; 497a; 545c; 560c; 595a; 646c; 693a; 733c; 734c; 740a; 794a; 860c; 954a.

2 have irregular openings, but otherwise conform to the pattern (⏓⏓⏓⏓¦−,−−×): 440c; 509a.

4 have regular openings, but irregular word-breaks (⏓⏓⏑⏓¦−−−×): 284c; 565c; 692c; 699c.

6 are irregular both in their opening and in their word-break (⏓⏓⏓⏓¦−−−×): 37c; 178c; 255c; 510c; 740c; 753c.

If we accept all of these lines as mavipulā-type, then that variation accounts for 36 pādayugas (i.e. 2%).

Example (line c has an irregular opening & word-break):

 

−−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
kaṇṇaṁ gahetvā tattheva, kaddamaṁ yadi dhovati.

−⏑−−¦−−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā-type
bhikkhunī kāyaṅgāneva, tāni nissaggiyāni hi. [740]

 

Of the other variations:

Some examples:

 

⏑⏑−−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   navipulā
anuvādādhikaraṇa-paccayāpattiyo kati?

⏑⏑−−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   navipulā
anuvādādhikaraṇa-paccayā tividhā siyuṁ. [287]

 

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
vihāre saṅghike seyyaṁ, santharitvā anuddharaṁ.

⏑−−−,¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   ravipulā
anāpucchā pakkamanto, duvidhāpattiyo phuse. [81]

 

−−⏑⏑¦−−⏑⏑¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   tavipulā
paccattharaṇaṁ, vassika-sāṭikā, mukhapuñchanaṁ.

⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−−⏑¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
dakasāṭi, parikkhāra-coḷaṁ, saṁkaccikāpi ca. [673]

 

−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   Anuṭṭhubha Line b has 2 short syllables in 2nd & 3rd positions.03
ehibhikkhūpasampadā, saraṇagamanena ca;

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
pañhābyākaraṇovādā, garudhammapaṭiggaho. [648]

 

⏑−−⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   savipulā
vivādādhikaraṇamhā, kati āpattiyo siyuṁ?

⏑−−⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   savipulā
vivādādhikaraṇamhā, dve panāpattiyo siyuṁ. [285]

 

As with Vinayavinicchaya, Ven. Buddhadatta frequently ignores the rule that light syllables in 2nd and 3rd positions in a Siloka line should be avoided. 30 examples of this can be found, they are at: 29bc; 37b; 145c; 176c; 180a; 269a; 293bd; 294a; 296a; 297ac; 337c; 344d; 355a; 362c; 386c; 443a; 507a; 518d; 541a; 547a; 560d; 607a; 612a; 634a; 648b; 674a; 682c; 731d.

 

Example (short 2nd & 3rd in lines a & c): Also see 648b quoted above.04

 

⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
samanubhāsanāyeva, pāpikāya ca diṭṭhiyā;

−⏑⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−
yāvatatiyakaṁ tassā, pācittaccajato pi ca. [297]

 

b: Other Metres

There are 34 verses is metres other than Siloka, amounting to just 3.4% of the total number of verses in the work.

There is 1 Vetālīya verse:

 

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
bhaṇato paṭhato payuñjato;

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
suṇato cintayato panuttaraṁ.

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑¦−⏑−⏑− This line appears to be a syncopated posterior line in prior position.05
paramaṁ abuddhabuddhivaḍḍhanaṁ.

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
vadato me niratā nibodhatha. [3]

 

All the rest are Samavutta verses, here listed in ascending syllabic order:

8 syllables:

Pamāṇikā = 1 (716)

 

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
naro karoti ce kuṭiṁ,

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
sa sabbam-attikāmayaṁ.

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
na muccateva vajjato,

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
jinena vuttato tato. [716]

 

Vijjummālā = 1 (272):

 

−−−−,−−−−
yasmā tasmā asmiṁ yogaṁ;

−−−−,−−−−
usmāyutto yutto kātuṁ.

−−−−,−−−−
satto satto kaṅkhacchede,

−−−−,−−−−
satthe satthe niccaṁ niccaṁ. [272]

 

10 syllables:

Campakamālā = 1 (435)

 

−⏑⏑−−,−⏑⏑−−
addhavihīno aṅgavihīno;

−⏑⏑−−,−⏑⏑−−
vatthuvipanno dukkaṭakārī.

−⏑⏑−−,−⏑⏑−−
no paripuṇṇo yācati yo no.

−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑−− If we read -upasampādā, this line is in Rummavatī metre (i.e a Campakamālā variant without the word-break).06
tassupasampadā paṭisiddhā.

 

Mattā = 1 (758)

 

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−
duṭṭhullaṁ yo vadati ca vācaṁ;

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−
“sabbā tumhe sikharaṇiyo” ti.

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−
vuttā dosā vinayanasatthe.

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−
tassitthīnaṁ gaṇanavasena. [758]

 

11 syllables:

Upajāti = 16 (32; 40; 271; 327; 629; 630; This line has a nagaṇa break (⏑⏑⏑), which is unusual, all the rest show the normal bhagaṇa.07 652; 719; 737; 751; 764; 766; 871; 885; 886; 898).

Verses 32, 271, 652, & 719 contain Vaṁsaṭṭhā lines (719 has 3 Vaṁsaṭṭhā lines); and 40 & 652 have Indavaṁsa (−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×) lines in them.

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Vaṁsaṭṭhā
atikkamanto atirekacīvaraṁ;

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upindavajirā
dasāham-āpajjati ekam-eva.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Indavajirā
nissaggipācittiyam-ekarattiṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upindavajirā
ticīvarenā pi vinā vasanto. [32]

 

Indavajirā occurs independently 3 times (563; 765; 771):

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
eko upajjhāyakapuggaleko,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
ācariyako dve pi ca puṇṇavassā.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
ekā va tesaṁ pana kammavācā.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
ekassa kammaṁ tu na rūhate kiṁ? [765]

 

Viddhaṅgamālā = 1 (434), this is an unusual metre, which I have identified through Vuttodaya Parisiṣṭha. It is similar to Upajāti, but with a ragaṇa break. The fourth pāda is a normal Indravajrā line:

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
āpattimāpajjituṁ dve va loke;

−−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
buddhā ca paccekabuddhā abhabbā.

−−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
āpattimāpajjituṁ dve va loke.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
bhikkhū ca bhabbā atha bhikkhunī ca. [434]

 

Dodhaka = 2 (738, 772):

 

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
kassaci kiñci na deti sahatthā;

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
neva ca gaṇhati kiñci kutoci.

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
vajjam-upeti lahuṁ, na garuṁ tu.

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
brūhi kathaṁ yadi bujjhasi sādhu? [772]

 

Saṅgatā = 1:

 

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
imaṁ paramamuttaraṁ uttaraṁ;

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
naro hamatasāgaraṁ sāgaraṁ.

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
abuddhijanasāradaṁ sāradaṁ.

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
siyā vinayapārago pārago. [958]

 

12 syllables:

Vaṁsaṭṭhā = 3 (653; 721; 959):

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
ato hi niccaṁ imam-uttamaṁ tamaṁ;

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
vidhūya sikkhe guṇasaṁhitaṁ hitaṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
naro hi sakkaccavapūrato rato.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
sukhassa sabbaṅgaṇakammadaṁ padaṁ. [959]

 

Toṭaka = 4 (423; 770; 778; 960):

 

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
vinaye paṭubhāvakare parame;

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
piṭake paṭutaṁ abhipatthayatā.

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
vidhinā paṭunā paṭunā yatinā.

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
pariyāpuṇitabbam-idaṁ satataṁ. [960]

 

Pamittakkharā = 1 (872):

 

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
imam-uttaraṁ gatam-anuttarataṁ;

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
pariyāpuṇāti paripucchati yo.

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
upayātanuttaratam-uttarato.

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
sa ca kāyavācavinaye vinaye. [872]

 

14 syllables:

Vasantatilakā = 1 (678):

 

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
sa-uttaraṁ vinayavinicchayaṁ tu yo;

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
anuttaraṁ sakalam-apīdha jānati.

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
mahattare vinayanaye anuttare.

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
niruttaro bhavati hi so, na saṁsayo. [678]