Studies in Ven. Buddhadatta's Prosody

3: Abhidhammāvatāra

 

1: The Text

Abhidhammāvatāra is a summary In the Ganthārambhakathā, it describes itself as a hatthasāram, or handbook.01 of the Abhidhamma in 24 Chapters, most of which is written in verse. Chapters 1 - 3, 10 - 13, 19, 23 & 24 contain prose sections also, which is sometimes quite extensive. There are 1416 verses (5664 lines) in the work altogether, mainly written in the Siloka metre (98%), which means that only 29 verses (2%) of the verses are written in other metres. They are used mainly at the close of the various sections, which is the way these metres are normally employed in Classical works, which are not of the Kavyā-type. Neither of the previous works examined, though, are restricted in this way, and the Classical metres occur frequently in the body of the text also.02

 

2: Sarabhatti & Resolution

As with the other studies we can note that sarabhatti and resolution are again abundant in this work. The sarabhatti vowels are mainly of the –riy– type, as in the other works, There are 4 exceptions, 2 at 112d & 1279c, where there is sarabhatti in antarahite; and 2 at 246a & 247a, reading arahato.03 they are found in the following 29 places: pari– 19d, 719b; nāparāpariyavedanaṁ 46b; pariyesita 80a; vīriya–, which we should read as viriya– 112d, 1279c; Even after counting the sarabhatti vowel this Siloka line is 9 syllables, and therefore hypermetric.04 rūpīriyāpatha 143a; ariyadehinaṁ 278b; arahato 246a, 274a; tiṇṇamariyānamādito 281b; apari 345a, 352a, 360a; iriyāpatho 885c; antarahite 1018b, 1093a; pariyodāte 1050b; –pari– 1126d, 1381c; pariyaṁ 1159c; ariyamaggo 1188b; pariyatti– 1191a; upapajjāparāpari 1243c; pariyo 1316bd; anāgāmiriyasāvako 1364d; ariyāya 1374b; sacchikiri 1378d.

Example:

 

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
“vuṭṭhānagāminīyā hi, pariyosānan” ti bhāsitaṁ,

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
ñeyyaṁ sabbapakārena, pariyosānan-ti gotrabhu. [1316]

 

Resolution occurs 48 times, in the following words: mana– 113b, 1060b; –cara– 134a, 205c, 344a, 351c, 523a; vici– 140c; kusa– 161c; java– 165d; saka– 239d, 240a, 336d, 337a; sama– 510d, 1383ac; paṭi– 520a, 602a, 1185a; puri– 598b, 904a; upa– 629a, 1089c; catu– 647c; hada– 742c; nira– 744b; para– 778a,d; tati– 778b; –bhava– 835c; ubha

927c; paṭha– 932a, 987d, 1311b; –saha– 974c, 975a; kasi– 1049a; abhi– 1051c, 1087a; apa– 1244a; anu– 1265a; –samu– 1270ab; nava– 1298c, 1301d; uda– 1300a; –gata– 1309b;

Resolution occurs at the 1st syllable 34 times; 6 times at the 4th; & 8 times at the 5th.

Example:

 

⏑⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
paramatthato ca paññatti, tatiyā koṭi na vijjati;

−⏑−−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   navipulā
dvīsu ṭhānesu kusalo, paravādesu na kampati. [778]

 

3: Analysis of the metres

a: Siloka

The idiosyncracies seen in the other studies of Ven. Buddhadatta's usage of the Siloka prevail here also. There are 2709 Siloka pādayuga-s in total, of which 2576 (95%) are pathyā. As the example we can quote the Ganthārambhakathā (vss. 1 - 7):

 

⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
anantakaruṇāpaññaṁ, tathāgatam-anuttaraṁ,

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑⏑   pathyā
vanditvā sirasā buddhaṁ, dhammaṁ sādhugaṇam-pi ca. [1]

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
paṇḍukam-balanāmāya, silāyātulavikkamo,

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
nisinno devarājassa, vimale sītale tale. [2]

 

−−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
yaṁ devadevo devānaṁ, devadevehi pūjito,

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
desesi devalokasmiṁ, dhammaṁ devapurakkhato. [3]

 

−−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
tatthāhaṁ pāṭavatthāya, bhikkhūnaṁ piṭakuttame,

⏑⏑−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
abhidhammāvatāran-tu, madhuraṁ mativaḍḍhanaṁ. [4]

 

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
tāḷaṁ mohakavāṭassa, vighāṭanam-anuttaraṁ,

−−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
bhikkhūnaṁ pavisantānaṁ, abhidhammamahāpuraṁ. [5]

 

⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
suduttaraṁ tarantānaṁ, abhidhammamahodadhiṁ,

⏑−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
suduttaraṁ tarantānaṁ, taraṁ va makarākaraṁ. [6]

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
ābhidhammikabhikkhūnaṁ, hatthasāram-anuttaraṁ,

⏑−−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
pavakkhāmi samāsena, taṁ suṇātha samāhitā. [7]

 

Of the variations they occur in 5% of the pādayuga-s, the distribution being as follows:

The normal mavipulā (⏓⏓⏑⏓¦−,−−×) lines occur 43 times: 3a; 13a; 278a; 308a; 335c; 339c; 397c; 422c; 445a; 456c; 494a; 520a; 586c; 597a; 602c; 653c; 658a; 706a; 714c; 721a; 787a; 802c; 826c; 835c; 845c; 862c; 908a; 912c; 1013a; 1025a; 1140c; 1154c; 1222a; 1223a; 1259c; 1272c; 1307a; 1308a; 1318a; 1340a; 1345a; 1346a; 1396a.

The mavipulā-type (⏓⏓⏓⏓¦−−−×) lines occur 30 times in all:

17 have the correct break, but an incorrect opening: 134a; 157a, 205c; 344a; 351c; 505c; 523a; 531c; 602c; 722c; 758a; 847a; 1122c; 1203ac; 1313a; & 1397c.

3 have the correct opening, but an incorrect word-break: 10c, 1069a; & 1133c.

10 are abnormal in both ways: 364a; 410a; 724a; 736c; 722a; 839c; 1127a; 1209a; &1383ac.

The distribution of the other variations is as follows:

Besides these there are also 4 Anuṭṭhubha pādayuga-s (⏓⏓⏓⏓¦⏑−⏑×): 428c, 552a, 556a, 716c.

There are also 21 lines which have 9 syllables in them, with no easy way to correct the metre: 197c; 320c; 324a; 528c; 530a; 574c; 575b; 742d; 993b; 1005c; 1061d; 1157b; 1165c; 1180a; 1209c; 1234c; 1263a; 1305a; 1350c; 1358c; & 1384d.

There are light syllables in 2nd and 3rd positions in the following 22 lines: 13c; 27a; 78c; 102a; 278c; 297c; 564b; 582c; 593a; 705b; 712a; 749c; 750a; 756a; 836b; 889a; 1127a; 1205a; 1246a; 1247c; 1271a; & 1408c.

Some examples:

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   bhavipulā
yadā catutthaṁ kusalaṁ, javanaṁ hoti tena ca,

−−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā
tulyaṁ catutthaṁ pākaṁ tu, tadārammaṇataṁ vaje. [397]

 

−⏑−−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   navipulā
kucchitānaṁ salanato, kusānaṁ lavanena vā,

⏑−⏑−¦−−−−¦¦⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā-type
kusena lātabbattā vā, kusalan-ti pavuccati. [10]

 

⏑⏑−⏑¦−,−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   mavipulā-type
tadanantaraṁ taṁ hoti, tathā saṅkhāragocaraṁ,

⏑⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   savipulā
tatiyaṁ javanacittaṁ, anuloman-ti saññitaṁ. [1313]

 

−⏑−⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā
Tattha tikkhaṇasampattaṁ, paccuppannakhaṇādikaṁ;

−−−−¦⏑⏑−⏑¦¦−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   savipulā
ekadvesantativārapariyāpannam-idaṁ pana. [1126cd]

 

b: Other Metres

There are only 29 verses which are not in Siloka metre in this work (2% of the total). They are mainly written in Classical metres of one sort or another.

There is a very rare Upagīti verse in this work, which is a Gaṇācchandas metre:

 

⏑⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑⏑¦−−¦⏑¦−⏑⏑¦−
sumadhuravarataravacano, kaṁ nu janaṁ neva rañjayati,

⏑⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−−¦¦⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑−¦⏑¦−−¦−
atinisitavisadabuddhipasādajana vedanīyoyaṁ. [979]

 

There is also a verse at 1169 in an unidentified metre which appears to scan as a gaṇacchandas metre of some sort or other, but as it is it doesn't fit into any scheme that I am aware of:

 

⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑¦−−¦−
vividhatthavaṇṇapadehi sampannaṁ,

⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑¦−−¦−
madhuratthamatinīharaṁ ganthaṁ;

−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−¦⏑⏑−
sotujanassa hadayapītikaraṁ,

⏑−⏑¦−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑¦−⏑−
suṇeyya koci manujo sacetano. [1169]

 

Next come the Mattācchanda-s verses. In this work there is one verse in Vetālīya metre, though we need to make a number of corrections to the text for it to scan properly: Following Smith (Saddanīti, p. 1156) I correct anunaṁ to aṇuṁ in line a; then in line c we need to read dŭrāsade; & -ṭhăne in line d.05

 

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
avagacchati yo imaṁ aṇuṁ,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
paramaṁ tassa samantato mati;

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
abhidhammanaye dŭrāsade,

⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
atigambhīraṭhăne vijambhate. [88]

 

Next there are 2 metres in Addhasamavutta metres:

Aparavatta = 2 (788 & 1401):

 

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
atimatikaramādhinīharaṁ,

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
vimativināsakaraṁ piyakkaraṁ;

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
paṭhati suṇati yo sadā imaṁ,

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
vikasati tassa matīdha bhikkhuno. [788]

 

Pupphitaggā = 1

 

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
sumatimativibodhanaṁ vicittaṁ,

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
kumatimatindhanapāvakaṁ padhānaṁ;

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
imam-atimadhuraṁ avedi yo yo,

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−
jinavacanaṁ sakalaṁ avedi so so. [559]

 

The rest are Samavutta metres:

11 syllables:

Upajāti = 5 (126, 376, 767, 1262, This verse has a very irregular break in line c.06 1374).

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
saddhena sammā pana bhāvanīyā,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
ariyāya paññāya ca bhāvanāya;

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
visuddhikāmena tapodhanena,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
bhavakkhayaṁ patthayatā budhena. [1374]

 

Indavajirā = 2 (474, 1376)

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   
andhajjanānaṁ hadayandhakāraṁ,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
viddhaṁsanaṁ dīpam-imaṁ jalantaṁ;

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
sikkhetha dhīro satataṁ payutto,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
mohandhakārāpagamaṁ yadicche ti. [474]

 

Dodhaka = 4 (181, 375, 1103, 1226)

 

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
ekavidhādinaye panim-asmiṁ,

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
yo kusalo matimā idha bhikkhu;

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
tassabhidhammagatā pana atthā,

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−
hatthagatāmalakā viya honti. [181]

 

Rathoddhatā = 1

 

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−
bhāvanānayam-ahaṁ hitānayaṁ,

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−
mānayañ-ca sugataṁ sukhānayaṁ;

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−
byākaromi paramaṁ ito paraṁ,

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−
taṁ suṇātha madhuratthavaṇṇanaṁ. [789]

 

Sālinī = 1

 

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−   
dānaṁ sīlaṁ bhāvanā pattidānaṁ,

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−
veyyāvaccaṁ desanā cānumodo;

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−
diṭṭhijjuttaṁ saṁsuticcāpacāyo,

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−
ñeyyo evaṁ puññavatthuppabhedo. [21]

 

Saṅgatā See Smith Saddanīti, p. 1167. In line b the 1st syllable is unexpectedly heavy.07 = 1

 

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
yato sumatinā mato nāmato,

−−⏑⏑−−⏑−−⏑−
āyācitasammānato mānato;

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
tato hi racito sadā tosadā,

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑−
mayā hitavibhāvanā bhāvanā. [1402]

 

12 syllables:

Vaṁsaṭṭhā = 2 (62, 1394)

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   
kriyākriyāpattivibhāgadesako,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
kriyākriyaṁ cittam-avoca yaṁ jino;

⏑−⏑−¦−−⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
hitāhitānaṁ sakriyākriyārato,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−
kriyākriyaṁ tan-tu mayā samīritaṁ. [62]

 

Toṭaka = 2 (29, 87)

 

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
kusalākusalehi vipākakriyā -kr- in -kriyā fails to make position in this line.08

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
hadayehi yutā pana cetasikā;

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
sakalāpi ca sādhu mayā kathitā,

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−
sugatena mahāmuninā kathitā. [87]

 

Bhujaṅgappayāta = 1

 

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−
imañ-cābhidhammāvatāraṁ susāraṁ,

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−
varaṁ sattamohandhakārappadīpaṁ;

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−
sadā sādhu cinteti vāceti yo taṁ,

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−
naraṁ rāgadosā ciraṁ nopayanti. [290]

 

13 syllables:

Mattamayūra = 1

 

−−−−,−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑−−
rūpārūpajjhānasamāpattividhānaṁ,

−−−−,−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑−−
jānātīmaṁ ChSa: jānātimaṁ here, and āpattīsu in line c.09 sārataraṁ yo pana bhikkhu;

−−−−,−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑−−
rūpārūpajjhānasamāpattisu dakkho,

−−−−,−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑−−
rūpārūpaṁ yāti bhavaṁ so abhibhuyya. [1042]

 

Unidentified = 1 This metre is listed by Smith on p. 1166 of Saddanīti, but he doesn't have a name for it, and I also have been unable to identify it so far.10

 

−−−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
maggāmaggañāṇadassanesu kovidā,

−−−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
sārāsāravedino samāhitāhitā;

−−−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
maggāmaggañāṇadassananti taṁ idaṁ,

−−−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−
buddhā buddhasāvakā vadanti vādino. [1297]

 

14 syllables:

Vasantatilakā = 1

 

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−
chandādhimokkhamuditā manasī ca kāro,

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−
majjhattatā ca karuṇā viratittayaṁ ca,

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−
puññesu tena niyatāniyatā ca sabbe,

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−
yevāpanā munivarena na ceva vuttā. [73]

 

19 syllables:

Saddūlavikkīḷita = 1

 

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−−⏑−−⏑−
saddhābuddhikaraṁ tathāgatamate sammohaviddhaṁsanaṁ,

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−−⏑−−⏑−
paññāsambhavasampasādanakaraṁ jānāti yo ce imaṁ;

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−−⏑−−⏑−
atthabyañjanasālinaṁ sumadhuraṁ sāraññuvimhāpanaṁ,

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−−⏑−−⏑−
gambhīre nipuṇābhidhammapiṭake so yābhiniṭṭhaṁ padaṁ. [777]