Bibliography and Guide to Further Study
(with abbreviations, and method of quoting)

 

The following books and articles contain further information on the gāthās and metres of the Pāḷi Canon (all volumes are as published by PTS, unless otherwise stated):

Texts:

DN: Dīghanikāya - each volume has a gāthā index (quoted by sutta name, number, bhāṇavāra [where appropriate], and paragraph number)

MN: Majjhimanikāya - volume 3 contains a very incomplete gāthā index (quoted by sutta name, number, bhāṇavāra [where appropriate], and paragraph number)

SN: Saṁyuttanikāya - each volume has a gāthā index, and the index volume (no 6) collates these (quoted by Saṁyutta name, and sutta number)

Sg: Sagāthavagga (new edition, 1998) - the metre of all the gāthās are identified (quoted by verse number)

AN: Anguttaranikāya - each volume has a gāthā index, and the index volume (no 6) collates these (quoted by nipāta number, and sutta number)

Khp: Khuddakapāṭha - has a gāthā index and an analysis of the metres (quoted by sutta name and verse number)

Dhp: Dhammapada - index volume contains a pāda index (quoted by verse number)

Ud: Udāna - includes udāna index (quoted by vagga & sutta number)

Iti: Itivuttaka - includes gāthā index (quoted by vagga & sutta number)

Sn: Suttanipāta - the gāthā index and metre analysis are contained in Vol 3 of the commentary Paramatthajotikā, (quoted by sutta name, vagga and sutta number, and/or verse number)

Vv: Vimānavatthu - (quoted by Vimāna name and line number)

Pv: Petavatthu - (quoted by Peta name and line number)

Th: Theragāthā - 2nd edition (1966) contains Alsdorf's reconstruction of the gaṇacchandas metres in Appendix 2 (quoted by Thera name and verse number)

Thī: Therīgāthā - as Th above (quoted by Therī name and verse number)

Ja: Jātaka - (quoted by Jātaka name and verse number)

 

KJa: Kuṇālajātaka - contains metre analysis, including a commentary on the lines in Veḍha metre

Ap: Apadāna - Buddha Jayanti edition (quoted by verse number)

Bv: Buddhavaṁsa - (quoted by book and line number)

Cp: Cariyāpiṭaka - (quoted by book and line number)

 

Translations, Studies etc.

Alsdorf, L: Die Āryā-Strophen des Pāḷi Kanon, Mainz 1967

Bechert, H: "Alte Vedhas" im Pāli-Kanon, Gottingberg 1988

Bechert, H: A Metric ‘Vaṛṇaka’ in the Pāḷi Scriptures, in Studies in Buddhism and Culture, Tokyo 1991

Bollée, W. B: Reverse Index of Dhammapada, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā, and Therīgāthā, with Parallels from the Ārāranga, Sūyagaḍa, Uttarajjhāya, Dasaveyāliya and Isibhāsiyāiṁ, Reinbeck 1980

Franke, R. O: Die Gāthās des Dīghanikāya mit ihren Parallelen, JPTS 1909, contains parallels passages to the Dīgha verses, including Lakkhaṇasuttanta

Franke, R. O: Konkordanz der Gāthās des Majjhimanikāya, in Kleine Schriften vol 2, Wiesbaden 1978

Hare, E. M: Woven Cadences of Early Buddhists (trans of Sn), contains a complete concordance to the pādas of Sn

Lienhard, S: Sur la Structure Poetique des Thera-Therīgāthā,

JAs 1975

Moore, J. H: Metrical Analysis of the Pāḷi Itivuttaka, JAOS 28 1907

Norman, K. R: Elders Verses 1 (trans of Th), contains a list of the metres and metrical analysis in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (EV 1)

Norman, K. R: Elders Verses II (trans of Thī), contains a list of the metres and metrical analysis in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (EV II)

Norman, K. R: The Group of Discourses II (trans of Sn), contains a running commentary on the metres of the verses (GD II)

Norman, K. R: Word of the Doctrine (trans of Dhp), contains metrical analyses in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (WD)

Norman, K. R: Collected Papers, Vol 3, 4, & 5 contain reconstructions of 3 metres found in Lakkhaṇasuttanta. Vol 4, & 5 also have articles on gaṇacchandas metres (CP)

Sakamoto-Goto, J: Les Stances en Mātrāchandas dans le Jātaka, Paris 1982

Simon, R: Der Śloka im Pāli, ZDMG 1890

Smith, H: Conspectus terminorum (metricorum), in Saddanīti, Vol IV, Lund 1966 (reprinted Oxford 2001)

Smith, H: Epilegomena to Critical Pali-English dictionary Vol 1, Copenhagen 1947

Stede, W: The Pādas of Thera- and Therī- gāthā, JPTS 1924-7

Warder, A. K: Introduction to Pāli, chapter 30 contains an all-too-brief outline of Pāḷi metre (Intro)

Warder, A. K: Pāḷi Metre, the most comprehensive book on the subject studying the development of Pāḷi metre against its historical background, contains many useful tables on usage (PM)

 

Other Abbreviations occuring in the literature

AMg: Ardhamāgadhī, the language of the Jaina Canon

Apa: Apabrahṁsa, a late Prākrit language

Be: Text in Burmese characters, usually refers to the relevant Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana text

BHS: Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Ce: Text in Sinhalese characters, usually refers to the relevant Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka text

Ee: Text in Roman characters, usually refers to the relevant PTS edition; or to the Harvard Oriental Series

m.c.: metri causa, the metre is the cause (of a change in word form)

MIA: Middle Indo-Āryan = Pāḷi & Prākrit

OIA: Old Indo-Āryan = Vedic & Classical Sanskrit

Pkt: Prākrit

Se: Text in Thai characters, usually refers to the relevant Royal Thai edition of the text

Skt: Sanskrit

v.l.: variant reading (in the manuscripts)

v.r.: variant reading (in the commentaries, grammarians, etc.)