[Dhammapadaṁ] This title is inferred from the usage in the text itself. From the end of the work we could infer a title Dhammapadaṁ, but all the end-titles are Sanskritised (see further the note to the title at the end of this chapter). Cone titled the work Patna Dharmapada, which looks like a simplification of the end-title.01

1: Jama This is how the chapter titles appear in Cone's edition, it is not clear whether they are found in the manuscript or extracted from the end-titles by Cone herself.02

siddhaṁ namaḥ sarvvabuddhadharmmāryyasaṁghebhyaḥ
namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa


[1 ≈ Dhp 1]

⏑−−−¦⏑−−−¦¦⏑−−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā Śloka All lines are to be understood as the pathyā form of the Śloka metre, unless otherwise indicated.03
manopūrvvaṁgamā -v- is always doubled after -r-, and no assimilation takes place. Pāḷi is unusual amongst the MIA languages in showing the development -vv- to -bb-.04 dhammā manośreṣṭhā manojavā |

manasā ca praduṣṭena bhāṣate Notice that Patna retains the three sibilants: manośreṣṭhā, manasā, bhāṣate, whereas in Pāḷi they have all become one: manoseṭṭhā, manasā, bhāsati.05 vā karoti vā |

tato naṁ dukham This word is sometimes spelt with simple -kh- in Patna owing to metrical considerations, see 75b, 80c, 144d, 145c, 260a; but here and at 273c there is no metrical reason for the spelling.06 anneti anneti shows regressive assimilation of the conjunct consonant. The Pāḷi form, which retains the complex cluster is more Sanskritic in this case.07 cakram vā vahato padaṁ ||


manopubbaṅgamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā,

manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā,

tato naṁ dukkham anveti cakkaṁ va vahato padaṁ.


[2 ≈ Dhp 2]

ma[nopūrvvaṁ]gamā dhammā manośreṣṭhā manojavā |

manasā ca prasannena bhāṣate vā karoti vā |

tato naṁ sukham anneti cchāyā vā anapāyinī ||


manopubbaṅgamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā,

manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā,

tato naṁ sukham anveti chāyā va anapāyinī.


[3 ≈ Dhp 15]

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦−⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Vaitālīya x 4
iha śocati precca I count pr- as not making position here to give the normal cadence.08 śocati pāpakam[mo ubhaya]ttha śocati This line has an unusual opening (also found in the Pāḷi), which seems to have been acceptable to the both groups of bhāṇakas.09 |

so śocati so vihaṁnyati vihaṁnyati is the passive of vihanati. 10  dṣṭā Patna retains the -vowel, whereas the vowel develops to a, i (as here), or u in Pāḷi.11 kammakileśam I do not count kileś- as having a svarabhakti vowel here as that would produce an irregular opening.12 āttano The long vowel is retained before a conjunct consonant, something which is usually avoided in Pāḷi, but regressive assimilation of the nasal to the stop (ātma- >> ātta-) still takes place.13 ||


⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦−⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Vetālīya x 4
idha socati pecca socati pāpakārī ubhayattha socati,

so socati so vihaññati disvā kammakiliṭṭham attano.


[4ab ≈ Dhp 18ab; d ≈ Dhp 16d]

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Vaitālīya x 4
iha Iha is the Sanskrit form of the word, which has developed to idha in Pāḷi.14 nandati precca nandati katapuṁño Patna normally writes the first consonant as anusvara in these forms. In the Pāḷi manuscripts the same convention normally prevails, but the custom in transcription is to write it as the nasal of the class it belongs to.15 ubhayattha nandati |

so nandati [ ]dati Roth: so nandati s[o pramo]dati; Shukla: so nandati [so pramo]dati. However, the reading cannot be reconstructed here with such certainty. 16 dṣṭā kammaviśuddhim āttano This verse seems to combine Dhp 16 and 18, or it may be the Pāḷi has differentiated one verse into two. The Udānavarga and Gāndhārī rescensions agree with Patna.17 ||


⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑− Vetālīya x 4
idha nandati pecca modati katapuñño ubhayattha nandati,


so modati so pamodati disvā kammavisuddhim attano.


[5 ≈ Dhp 3]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑− navipulā
ākrośi maṁ avadhi maṁ ajini maṁ ahāsi me The opening of the posterior line allows two shorts in 2nd and 3rd positions, which again seems to have been as acceptable to the bhāṇakas in the Patna tradition as it was to the Pāḷi bhāṇakas.18 |

ye tāni upanahyanti veraṁ tesaṁ na śāmyati ||


−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑− navipulā
akkocchi maṁ avadhi maṁ ajini maṁ ahāsi me,

ye ca taṁ upanayhanti veraṁ tesaṁ na sammati.


[6 ≈ Dhp 4]

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑− navipulā
ākro[śi maṁ] avadhi maṁ ajini maṁ ahāsi me |

−−⏑−¦⏑−−−¦¦−−−−⏑¦⏑−⏑−   9 syllables
ye tāni nopanahyanti veraṁ tesaṁ upaśāmyati There are 9 syllables in this line, which is avoided in the Pāḷi by dropping niggahīta and subsequent sandhi of the vowels.19 ||


−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑− navipulā
akkocchi maṁ avadhi maṁ ajini maṁ ahāsi me,

ye taṁ na upanayhanti veraṁ tesūpasammati.


[7 ≈ Dhp 7]

⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− mavipulā
śubhā 'nupaśśiṁ viharantaṁ indriyesu asaṁvtaṁ |

[bhojana]mhi amāttaṁñū kuśīdaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ ||

taṁ ve prasahate māro vāto rukkham va dubbalaṁ |


⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− mavipulā
subhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ indriyesu asaṁvutaṁ,

bhojanamhi amattaññuṁ kusītaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ,

−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− savipulā
taṁ ve pasahati māro vāto rukkhaṁ va dubbalaṁ.


[8 ≈ Dhp 8]

⏑⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− mavipulā
aśubhānupaśśiṁ viharantaṁ indriyeṣu susaṁvtaṁ ||

bhojanamhi ca mā[ttraṁñū sa]ddhaṁ āraddhavīriyaṁ |

taṁ ve na prasahate māro vāto śelaṁ va parvvataṁ ||


⏑⏑−⏑−¦−,−−−¦¦−⏑−⏑¦⏑−⏑− mavipulā
asubhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ indriyesu susaṁvutaṁ,

bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṁ saddhaṁ āraddhavīriyaṁ,

−−−⏑⏑¦⏑⏑−−¦¦−−−−¦⏑−⏑− savipulā
taṁ ve nappasahati māro vāto selaṁ va pabbataṁ.


[9 ≈ Dhp 328, Nāgavaggo]

⏑−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Triṣṭubh x 4
sace labheyā The optative in Patna is an imperative in the Pāḷi, both can carry the same meaning. 20 nipakaṁ sapraṁñaṁ I take -pr- here and in the next verse as not making position to give the normal cadence.21 sāddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāradhīraṁ |

adhibhūya sabbāṇi pariśrav[āṇi] careyā Read careya to correct the metre.22 tenāttamano satīmā ||


⏑−⏑−¦⏑,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Tuṭṭhubha x 4
sace labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,

abhibhuyya sabbāni parissayāni careyya tenattamano satīmā.


[10 ≈ Dhp 329, Nāgavaggo]

−−⏑−,¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Triṣṭubh x 4
no ce labheyā nipakaṁ sapraṁñaṁ sāddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāradhīraṁ |

rājā va rāṣṭaṁ vijitaṁ prahāya eko ccare mātaṁgāranne va nāgo This line is irregular, and cannot be taken as the extended form of the metre that sometimes turns up, as there is no caesura after the 5th.23 ||


−−⏑−¦⏑,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Tuṭṭhubha x 4
no ce labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−−⏑−¦−⏑−− irregular
rājā va raṭṭhaṁ vijitaṁ pahāya eko care mātaṅgaraññe va nāgo.


[11 ≈ Dhp 330] This is an extra verse that is not part of a pair. It has been brought in here because of the similarity to the vocabulary in the previous verses in lines c and d: eko ccare ... mātaṁgāranne va nāgo.24

−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑−   pathyā x 2
ekassa caritaṁ śreyo nāsti bāle bitīyatā |

−−⏑−,¦⏑⏑−¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−,¦−−−−¦−⏑−− Triṣṭubh x 2
eko ccare na ca pāpāni kayirā appussuko Patna avoids the Vedic opening found in the Pāḷi by simplifying -kk- to -k-.25 mātaṁgāranne va nāgo The posterior line is very irregular.26 ||


−−⏑⏑¦⏑−−−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−−   pathyā x 2
ekassa caritaṁ seyyo natthi bāle sahāyatā,

−−⏑−,¦⏑⏑−¦−⏑−−¦¦−−−−,¦−−⏑−¦−⏑−− Tuṭṭhubha x 2
eko care na ca pāpāni kayirā   appossukko mātaṅgaraññe va nāgo.


[12 ≈ Aṅg Bk. 4. 17]

chandadoṣabhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ ativattati |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− bhavipulā
nīhīrate tassa yaśo kālapakkhe va candramā ||


chandā dosā bhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ ativattati,

⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− bhavipulā
nihīyati tassa yaso kālapakkhe va candimā.


[13 ≈ Aṅg Bk. 4. 18]

chandadoṣabhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ nātivattati |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− bhavipulā
āpūrate tassa yaśo śuklapakkhe śukla- here is an occasion where conjunct assimilation has not taken place in Patna, although it has in the Pāḷi text.27 va candramā ||


chandā dosā bhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ nātivattati,

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−¦¦−⏑−−¦⏑−⏑− bhavipulā
āpūrati tassa yaso sukkapakkhe va candimā.

Jamavarggaḥ The Sanskritic nominative 3rd person singular ending -aḥ never occurs in the text itself where it is normally the same as in the Pāḷi text: -o. 28