6. The Analysis of Conditional Origination This section should be compared and contrasted with the (Paṭiccasamuppāda)-Vibhaṅgasuttaṁ (SN 12.2), The Discourse giving the Analysis (of Conditional Origination) elsewhere on this website.01

1. The Section Derived from the Discourses



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[The Outline of Conditional Origination]

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With ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes,
with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres,
with the six sense spheres as condition: contact,
with contact as condition: feeling,
with feeling as condition: craving,
with craving as condition: attachment,
with attachment as condition: continuation,
with continuation as condition: birth,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow and despair (all) arise,
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[01: Definition of Ignorance]

[226]

Herein, what is ‘ignorance?’

Not knowing suffering,
not knowing the origination of suffering,
not knowing the cessation of suffering,
not knowing the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

This is called ‘ignorance.’ Ignorance is normally defined specifically in relation to the Four Noble Truths, it is the kind of ignorance that ties someone to saṁsāra; however, in Dhammasaṅgaṇī (1162) four more are added, ignorance of the past, the future, the past and the future and conditioned things that have originated through conditionality (idapaccayatā samuppannadhamma). Ignorance in the various times is explained in the comm. as meaning ignorance of such things as the constituents, elements and sense-spheres (khandha, dhātu, āyatana).02

[02: Definition of (Volitional) Processes]

Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes?’ Despite the framing of the question, it is clear that the answers in each case only define the final term, and the question might have been better stated thus: Herein, what are (volitional) processes?03

(There is) a meritorious (volitional) process,
a demeritorious (volitional) process,
an impertubable (volitional) process, These constitute one way of analysing the volitions; and the way of expression just below another. 04
a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body,
a (volitional) process expressed by way of speech,
a (volitional) process expressed by way of the mind.

Herein, what is a meritorious (volitional) process? A careful division is made in the comm. here: there are eight meritorious thoughts in the sense-world spheres, and five in the form-world spheres, making thirteen in all; there are twelve demeritorious thoughts in the sense-world spheres (according to the commentary ten of these also occur in the form-world and formless-world spheres, but they do not lead to rebirth, which is what we are concerned with here, so it is restricted in the definition to those that occur in the sense-world spheres); and there are four impertubable thoughts in the formless-world spheres. This makes twenty-nine (13+12+4) volitions in all.05

(There are) wholesome intentions in the sense-world sphere, in the form-world sphere, consisting of generosity, consisting of morality, consisting of meditation, Giving and morality belong solely to the sense-world spheres; whereas meditation belongs to all thirteen. These states can also be said to occur in the three times: when preparing, when acting, and when rejoicing in the deeds later.06 this is said to be a meritorious (volitional) process.

Herein, what is a demeritorious (volitional) process?

(There are) unwholesome intentions in the sense-world sphere, this is said to be a demeritorious (volitional) process.

Herein, what is an impertubable (volitional) process?

(There are) wholesome intentions in the formless-world sphere, this is said to be an impertubable (volitional) process.

Herein, what is a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body? Again a careful division is made by the comm.: the eight wholesome volitions and twelve unwholesome volitions are expressed by way of the body and speech; but all twenty-nine volitions can be expressed by the mind.07

(There is) an intention expressed by way of the body, a (volitional) process expressed by way of the body.
(There is) an intention expressed by way of speech, a (volitional) process expressed by way of speech. This unexpectedly continues on here without the expected questions: Herein, what is a (volitional) process expressed by way of the voice? and Herein, what is a (volitional) process expressed by way of the mind? PTS indicates ellipsis here, but neither ChS nor BJT do so, and it probably is not part of the text.08
(There is) an intention expressed by way of the mind, a (volitional) process expressed by way of the mind.

This is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there are (volitional) processes.’ The comm. in its discussion quotes a verse here and then gives this explanation: From one reason here there is not one result, nor many (results); nor through many reasons is there one (result); but from many reasons there are many (results). 09

[03: Definition of Consciousness]

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Herein, what is ‘with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness?’ In the comm. this is defined as rebirth-consciousness, and eye-consciousness, etc. in the definition as resultant eye-consciousness, etc. 10

(There is) eye-consciousness,
ear-consciousness,
nose-consciousness,
tongue-consciousness,
body-consciousness,
mind-consciousness.

This is said to be ‘with (volitional) processes as condition: consciousness.’

[04: Definition of Mind and Bodily Form]

[228]

Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form?’

There is mind, there is bodily form.

Herein, what is ‘mind?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent. Mind (nāma) is defined in the discourses in this context as (SN 12.2, passim): feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), intention (cetanā), contact (phassa), application of mind (manasikāra), with saṅkhārakkhanda being divided into the last three. According to the comm. consciousness is excluded from nāma here because it is the condition for the others.11

This is said to be ‘mind.’

Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

(There are) the four great entities, and the bodily form attached to the four great entities,

this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form.’

[05: Definition of the Six Sense Spheres]

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Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres?’

(There is the) eye sense sphere,
ear sense sphere,
nose sense sphere,
tongue sense sphere,
body sense sphere,
mind sense sphere.

This is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres.’

[06: Definition of Contact]

[230]

Herein, what is ‘with the six sense spheres as condition: contact?’

(There is) eye-contact,
ear-contact,
nose-contact,
tongue-contact,
body-contact,
mind-contact.

This is said to be ‘with the six sense spheres as condition: contact.’

[07: Definition of Feeling]

[231]

Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

(There is) feeling arising from eye-contact,
feeling arising from ear-contact,
feeling arising from nose-contact,
feeling arising from tongue-contact,
feeling arising from body-contact,
feeling arising from mind-contact.

This is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

[08: Definition of Craving]

[232]

Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

(There is) craving for forms,
craving for sounds,
craving for smells,
craving for tastes,
craving for tangibles,
craving for thoughts. Eslewhere craving is defined in different terms: craving for sense pleasures (kāmataṇhā), craving for continuation (bhavataṇhā), craving for discontinuation (vibhavataṇhā).12

This is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

[09: Definition of Attachment]

[233]

Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

(There is) attachment to sense pleasures,
attachment to views,
attachment to virtue and practice,
attachment to self-theories. These last two would seem to be special cases of the second type of attachment, in which case there is really only attachment to the senses and attachment to views (ideas).13

This is said to be ‘with craving as condition: continuation.’

[10: Definition of Continuation]

[234]

Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Continuation is two-fold: there is continuation through (intentional) deeds, there is continuation through rebirth. This is greatly expanded from the discourse original, which merely states: (there is) continuation in the sense-world spheres, continuation in the form-world spheres, continuation in the formless-world spheres.14

Herein, what is ‘continuation through (intentional) deeds?’

(There is) a meritorious (volitional) process,
a demeritorious (volitional) process,
an impertubable (volitional) process.

This is said to be ‘continuation through (intentional) deeds.’

All (intentional) deeds leading to continuation This is basically all deeds, except for that which leads to the supermundane.15 is continuation from (intentional) deeds.

Herein, what is ‘continuation through rebirth?’

(There is) continuation in the sense-world spheres,
continuation in the form-world spheres,
continuation in the formless-world spheres,
continuation with perception,
continuation without perception, In the The Realm of Unconscious Beings, one of the highest realms in existence, and belongs to the Brahmalokā, it's corresponding psychological level is (a section within) the fourth jhāna.16
continuation with neither-perception-nor-non-perception, This is the 31st level and pinnacle of existence.17
continuation with one constituent,
continuation with four constituents,
continuation with five constituents. One constituent existence applies in the The Realm of Unconscious Beings; four in the formless-world spheres; and five in the rest of existence.18

This is said to be ‘continuation through rebirth.’

Thus, this is continuation through (intentional) deeds, this is continuation through rebirth.

This is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

[11: Definition of Birth]

[235]

Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: The comm. states here that only continuation from (intentional) deeds (kammabhava) is the condition for rebirth, and not continuation through rebirth (upapattibhava).19 birth?’

For the various beings in the various classes of beings (there is) birth, being born, appearing, arising, turning up, the manifestation of the constituents (of mind and bodily form), the acquisition of the sense spheres. The definition here, as in many of the early Abhidhammic-type definitions, is simply by way of synonyms and synonymous phrases. 20

This is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

[12: Definition of Ageing and Death]

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Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

There is ageing, there is death.

Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

For the various beings in the various classes of beings (there is) broken teeth, greying hair, and wrinkled skin, the dwindling away of the life span, the decay of the sense faculties.

this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Herein, what is ‘death?’

For the various beings in the various classes of beings there is a fall, a falling away, a breaking up, a disappearance, a dying, a death, a making of time, the break up of the constituents (of mind and bodily form), the throwing off of the body, a cutting off of the life-faculty:

this is called ‘death.’

Thus, this is ageing and this is death.

This is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

[12a: Definition of Grief]

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Herein, what is ‘Grief?’

To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives,
to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health,
to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality, I am not sure why it is stated this way, rather than using dusīlabyasanena, which is what is evidently intended. 21
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,
there is grief, grieving, the state of grieving, inner grief, great inner grief, his mind is sorrowful, being pierced with the dart of grief.

This is said to be ‘grief.’

[12b: Definition of Lamentation]

[238]

Herein, what is ‘lamentation?’

To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives,
to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health,
to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality,
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,
there are laments, great laments, lamenting, great lamenting, the state of lamenting, the state of great lamentation, words of wailing, great wailing, moaning, great moaning, the state of moaning.

This is said to be ‘lamentation.’

[12c: Definition of Pain]

[239]

Herein, what is ‘pain?’

That which is bodily pain, bodily disagreeableness, pain arising from contact with the body, disagreeable feeling, pain and painful feeling that is born in the body.

This is said to be ‘pain.’

[12d: Definition of Sorrow]

[240]

Herein, what is ‘sorrow?’

That which is mental pain, mental disagreeableness, pain arising from contact with the mind, disagreeable feeling, pain and painful feeling that is born in the mind.

This is said to be ‘sorrow.’

[12e: Definition of Despair]

[241]

Herein, what is ‘despair?’

To one touched by misfortune regarding relatives,
to one touched by misfortune regarding wealth,
to one touched by misfortune regarding health,
to one touched by misfortune regarding (loss of) morality,
to one touched by misfortune regarding his views,
for he who has some sort of misfortune or other,
who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another,
there is desponding, despairing, the state of despondency, the state of despair.

This is said to be ‘despair.’

[242]

So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering, and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering, a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it. This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering’