06: The Roots Tetrad



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[256]

At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,
with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness,
with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,
with attachment as condition: continuation,
with continuation as condition: birth,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[257]

 

Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe... a lack of penetration, a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation, a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration, a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness, a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion, ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance, the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure, pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind, pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

That which is passion, passionateness, ...pe... fawning, compliance, enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, ...pe... the jungle of (wrong) view, the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view, the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view, obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping, bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong, within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

...pe...

 

Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

That which for various things is birth, being born, return, turning up, manifestation:

this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

There is ageing, there is death.

Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

For various things (there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Herein, what is ‘death?’

For various things (there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up, impermanence, a disappearance:

this is called ‘death.’

Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

this is said to be ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death.’

So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering, and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering, a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it. This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[258]

At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,
with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness,
with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,
with attachment as condition: continuation,
with continuation as condition: birth,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[259]

 

Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe... a lack of penetration, a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation, a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration, a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness, a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion, ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance, the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

this is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

‘With mind as condition: contact rooted in mind.’
Herein, what is ‘mind?’

Except for contact, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

this is said to be ‘mind.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind?’

That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

this is said to be ‘with mind as condition: contact rooted in mind.'

...pe...

 

Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling?’

That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure, pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind, pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving?’

That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance, enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment?’

That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view, the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view, the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view, obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping, bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong, within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

That which for various things is birth, being born, return, turning up, manifestation:

this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

There is ageing, there is death.

Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

For various things (there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Herein, what is ‘death?’

For various things (there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up, impermanence, a disappearance:

this is called ‘death.’

Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering, and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering, a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it. This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[260]

At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind and bodily form,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,
with attachment as condition: continuation,
with continuation as condition: birth,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[261]

 

Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe... a lack of penetration, a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation, a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration, a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness, a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion, ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance, the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness?’

There is mind, there is bodily form.

Herein, what is ‘mind?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

this is said to be ‘mind.’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

(There are) the four great entities, and the bodily form attached to the four great entities.

this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind rooted in consciousness.’

‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind and bodily form.’

There is mind, there is bodily form.

Herein, what is ‘mind?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent. Mind (nāma) is elsewhere (SN 12.2) defined in this context as: feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), intention (cetanā), contact (phassa), application of mind (manasikāra).01

This is said to be ‘mind.’
Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

That bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

This is said to be ‘mind and bodily form.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the sixth sense sphere rooted in mind.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

...pe...

 

Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure, pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind, pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

That which is passion, passionateness, fawning, compliance, enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, the jungle of (wrong) view, the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view, the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view, obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping, bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong, within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

That which for various things is birth, being born, return, turning up, manifestation:

this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

There is ageing, there is death.

Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

For various things (there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Herein, what is ‘death?’

For various things (there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up, impermanence, a disappearance:

this is called ‘death.’

Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering, and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering, a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it. This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

[262]

At that time with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance,
with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process,
with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness,
with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form,
with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere,
with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact,
with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling,
with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving,
with attachment as condition: continuation,
with continuation as condition: birth,
with birth as condition: ageing, death,
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

[263]

 

Herein, what is ‘ignorance’?

That which is a lack of knowledge, a lack of seeing, ...pe... a lack of penetration, a lack of recognition, a lack of awakening, a lack of realisation, a lack of comprehension, a lack of fathoming, a lack of consideration, a lack of reflection, a lack of perception, poor intelligence, foolishness, a lack of full knowledge, delusion, deception, confusion, ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the tendency to ignorance, the pervasion of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, delusion, the root of unwholesomeness:

this is said to be ‘ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance?’

That which is volition, intention, intentionality:

this is said to be ‘with ignorance as condition there is a (volitional) process rooted in ignorance.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process?’

That which is thought, mind, mentality, ...pe... heart, consciousness, mind, the mind sense sphere, the mind faculty, consciousness, the consciousness constituent, the mind-consciousness element arising from that:

this is said to be ‘with a (volitional) process as condition: consciousness rooted in a (volitional) process.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness?’

There is mind, there is bodily form.

Herein, what is ‘mind?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

this is said to be ‘mind.’

Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

The accumulation (that produces) the eye sense sphere,

the accumulation (that produces) the ear sense sphere,

the accumulation (that produces) the nose sense sphere,

the accumulation (that produces) the tongue sense sphere,

the accumulation (that produces) the body sense sphere,

or whatever other bodily form there is

born of mind, rooted in mind, originating in mind:

this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

This is said to be ‘with consciousness as condition: mind and bodily form rooted in consciousness.’

‘With mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form.’

There is mind, there is bodily form.

Herein, what is ‘mind?’

(There is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent:

this is said to be ‘mind.’

Herein, what is ‘bodily form?’

(There are) the four great entities, and that bodily form dependent on which mind-consciousness element exists:

this is said to be ‘bodily form.’

Thus, this is mind and this is bodily form.

This is said to be ‘mind and bodily form.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form?’

(There is the) eye sense sphere, ear sense sphere, nose sense sphere, tongue sense sphere, body sense sphere, mind sense sphere.

This is said to be ‘with mind and bodily form as condition: the six sense spheres rooted in mind and bodily form.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere?’

That which is contact, contacting, close contacting, the state of being in close contact:

this is said to be ‘with the sixth sense sphere as condition: contact rooted in the sixth sense sphere.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact?’

That which is mental agreeableness, mental pleasure, pleasant and agreeable experience born of contact with the mind, pleasant and agreeable feeling born of contact with the mind:

this is said to be ‘with contact as condition: feeling rooted in contact.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling?’

That which is passion, passionateness, ...pe... fawning, compliance, enjoyment, passionate enjoyment, passionateness of mind:

this is said to be ‘with feeling as condition: craving rooted in feeling.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving?’

That which is (wrong) view, resorting to (wrong) view, ...pe... the jungle of (wrong) view, the wilderness of (wrong) view, the distortion of (wrong) view, the agitation of (wrong) view, the fetter of (wrong) view, obsession, tenacity, inclination, grasping, bad path, wrong road, the state of being wrong, within the heretical sphere, obsession with what is perverse:

this is said to be ‘with craving as condition: attachment rooted in craving.’

...pe...

 

Herein, what is ‘with attachment as condition: continuation?’

Except for attachment, (it is) the feeling constituent, the perception constituent, the (volitional) processes constituent, the consciousness constituent:

this is said to be ‘with attachment as condition: continuation.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with continuation as condition: birth?’

That which for various things is birth, being born, return, turning up, manifestation:

this is said to be ‘with continuation as condition: birth.’

 

Herein, what is ‘with birth as condition: ageing, death?’

There is ageing, there is death.

Herein, what is ‘ageing?’

For various things (there is) ageing, agedness, the dwindling away of the life span:

this is said to be ‘ageing.’

Herein, what is ‘death?’

For various things (there is) destruction, decay, a breaking up, a complete breaking up, impermanence, a disappearance:

this is called ‘death.’

Thus, this is ageing and this is death,

So there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering, and so there is an association with this whole mass of suffering, a meeting with it, a connection with it, a manifestation of it. This is said to be ‘the origination of this whole mass of suffering.’

The Roots Tetrad