The Essence of the Analysis of Deeds, 1-14 Health and Wealth

The Essence of the Analysis of Deeds
(Karma-vibhaṅga-sāro)

[1-14: Health and Wealth]

[1] Numbers in square brackets are added by the editor for easy reference, they do not appear in the original text. Short Life

Herein, what is the deed that leads to a short life?

It is said:

[1] Killing living beings.
[2] Rejoicing in the killing of living beings.
[3] Speaking in praise of the killing of living beings.
[4] Greatly enjoying the death of enemies.
[5] Encouraging the death of enemies.
[6] Speaking in praise of encouraging the death of enemies.
[7] Destroying what is in the womb.
[8] Speaking in praise of destroying what is in the womb.
[9] Causing a place to be established where many animals are killed – buffalos, cattle, pigs, chicken and so on – during the course of a sacrifice for sons, grandsons, or for other people This means making sacrifices in order to acquire servants, slaves and so on. or advantages.
[10] Destroying people while acting out of fear and fright.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to a short life.

[2] Long Life

Herein, what is the deed that leads to a long life?

It is said:

[1] Ceasing from killing living beings.
[2] Speaking in praise of ceasing from killing living beings.
[3] Herein, encouraging (ceasing from killing living beings).
[4] Speaking in praise of encouraging (the ceasing from killing living beings).
[5] The release of those due to be slaughtered, whether men, cattle, pigs, chickens and so on.
[6] Having thoughts of compassion in the midst of beings and giving fearlessness to frightened beings. Sattva in Sanskrit usually indicates beings, as here, but many times in Sanskrit Buddhist texts it seems to have the more defined significance of people, as is the case in the next sentence and mainly throughout this text.
[7] Having thoughts of loving-kindness in the midst of people who are sick.
[8] Giving food to others, whether young and old, and having thoughts of loving-kindness towards those who receive them.
[9] What was said previously, This refers back to an example given earlier, but omitted here. on the side of wholesomeness, regarding the spectacle of war, etc.
[10] Restoring broken living quarters, temples, and stupas.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to a long life.

[3] Much Illness

What is the deed that leads to much illness?

It is said:

[1] Giving a beating with open hands. More idiomatic in English might be: giving a slap, but I have preferred to be more literal here.
[2] Rejoicing in the giving of a beating with open hands.
[3] Speaking in praise of giving a beating with open hands.
[4] Being satisfied with giving (a beating with open hands) to them.
[5] Annoying mother and father in body and mind.
[6] Similarly, afflicting the minds of others, (such as) virtuous ones who have gone forth.
[7] Being satisfied with the illnesses of enemies. Lit: Not-friends, but it is more than someone who is not a friend, and indicates someone who is actively hostile.
[8] Being dissatisfied with the (slow) development of the illnesses of enemies.
[9] Giving what is not really medicine to those who are sick.
[10] Similarly, (giving) indigestible food (to those who are sick).

This is the deed that leads to much illness.

[4] Little Illness

What is the deed that leads to little illness?

It is said:

[1] Ceasing from giving a beating with open hands.
[2] Herein, encouraging (others to cease from giving a beating with open hands).
[3] Speaking in praise of (ceasing from giving a beating with open hands).
[4] Greatly rejoicing in (ceasing from giving a beating with open hands).
[5] Attending to mother and father when they are sick.
[6] Also (attending to) others, (such as) those gone forth who depend on one’s household.
[7] Not being uplifted by the illnesses of one’s enemies.
[8] Not being uplifted by the development of these (illnesses).
[9] Giving (effective) medicine (to those who are sick).
[10] Giving digestible food (to those who are sick).

This is the deed that leads to little illness.

[5] Ugliness

What is the deed that leads to ugliness?

It is said:

[1] Anger.
[2] Enmity.
[3] Hypocrisy.
[4] Contentiousness.
[5] Speaking in dispraise of mother and father.
[6] And (speaking is dispraise) of others, (such as) those gone forth who depend on one’s household, whether young or old.
[7] Not keeping clean the grounds of living quarters, temple grounds, and the area around stupas. A stūpa, here translated as a stupa, is the familiar spherical building found in many temples, and which houses relics of the Buddha or other saints or upstanding members of the Buddhist community.
[8] Breaking lights and statues at stupas.
[9] Deriding ugly people.
[10] Similarly, (deriding) those who are pure (at heart).

This is the deed that leads to ugliness.

[6] Beauty

What is the deed that leads to beauty?

It is said:

[1] Lack of anger.
[2] Lack of enmity.
[3] Lack of hypocrisy.
[4] Giving of clothes.
[5] Giving of whitewash in the area around stupas, temples and housing.
[6] Giving golden bowls.
[7] Giving incense and creams.
[8] Giving decorations.
[9] Speaking in praise of mother and father.
[10] Speaking in praise of virtuous noble ones. Ārya in Buddhism generally has the meaning of one who has attained one of the four noble paths (stream-entry, once-returner, non-returner and arhat, or worthy one).
[11] Sweeping the living quarters and the area around stupas.
[12] Constantly sweeping the housing (there).
[13] Not deriding ugly people, or others, young or old who are living a pure life.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to beauty.

[7] Undistinguished

What is the deed that leads to being undistinguished?

It is said:

[1] Jealousy.
[2] Selfishness.
[3] Being dissatisfied with the gains of others.
[4] Being dissatisfied by the speaking of praise of others.
[5] Contempt of mother and father.
[6] Contempt of virtuous noble ones.
[7] Similarly, (contempt) of others who are ill, (both) young and old.
[8] Speaking in praise of unwholesome roots, The three unwholesome roots: greed, hatred and delusion. and of low things that are outside the Dharma.
[9] Hindering the establishment of Bodhicitta. This is the mind that is intent of becoming a Buddha, and is one of the very few references to a specifically Mahāyāna teaching.
[10] Greatly rejoicing in (hindering the establishment of Bodhicitta).

This is the deed that leads to being undistinguished.

[8] Distinguished

What is the deed that leads to being distinguished?

It is said:

[1] Lack of jealousy.
[2] Lack of selfishness.
[3] Being satisfied with the gains of others.
[4] Being satisfied by hearing of the glory, praise and fame of others.
[5] Being uplifted by the praise spoken of others.
[6] Making stupas and temples for the Gracious One.
[7] Hindering unwholesome roots, and low things that are outside the Dharma.
[8] Encouraging the wholesome roots The three wholesome roots: non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion. of the distinguished.
[9] Establishing Bodhicitta.
[10] Establishing Bodhicitta and all the wholesome roots of the distinguished.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to being distinguished.

[9] Low Family

What is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a low family?

It is said:

[1] Stubbornness.
[2] Great conceit.
[3] Not acknowledging mother and father.
[4] Not being devoted to ascetics.
[5] Not being devoted to brahmins.
[6] Not respecting the elders of the family.
[7] Not attending to mother and father.
[8] Not attending to virtuous noble ones.
[9] Not attending to teachers and preceptors and other advisors.
[10] Contempt of people of low family.

This is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a low family.

[10] High Family

What is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a high family?

It is said:

[1] Lack of stubbornness.
[2] Lack of great conceit.
[3] Acknowledging mother and father.
[4] Being devoted to ascetics.
[5] Being devoted to brahmins.
[6] Respecting the elders of the family.
[7] Attending to mother and father.
[8] Attending to virtuous noble ones.
[9] Attending to teachers and preceptors and other advisors.
[10] Not having contempt of people of low family.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a high family.

[11] Little Wealth

What is the deed that leads to having little wealth?

It is said:

[1] Taking what is not given.
[2] Encouraging taking what is not given.
[3] Speaking in praise of fraud.
[4] Greatly rejoicing (in fraud).
[5] Cutting off the means of subsistence of mother and father.
[6] Similarly, cutting off the means of subsistence of others who are ill, both young and old.
[7] Being dissatisfied with the gains of others.
[8] Making obstacles to the gains of others.
[9] Greatly rejoicing in famine. This section deviates from the norm so far by having only nine causes instead of ten. In fact this happens many times throughout the discourse, and it may be that the reciters thought of ‘ten’ as being an approximate or round number, rather than an exact one.

This is the deed that leads to having little wealth.

[12] Great Wealth

Herein, what is the deed that leads to having great wealth?

It is said:

[1] Ceasing from taking what is not given.
[2] Hindering the taking of what is not given by others.
[3] Approving of the cessation of the taking of what is not given by others.
[4] Giving the means of subsistence to mother and father.
[5] Giving the means of subsistence to virtuous noble ones.
[6] Similarly, giving the means of subsistence to others who are ill, both young and old.
[7] Being satisfied with the gains of others.
[8] Being dissatisfied with the losses of others.
[9] Approving of the gains of others.
[10] Greatly rejoicing in abundance.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to having great wealth.

[13] Little Wisdom

Herein, what is the deed that leads to having little wisdom?

It is said:

[1] Not questioning others here, be they the learned, ascetics or brahmins, saying: ‘What is Dharma, why does Dharma make for happiness?’
[2] Associating with those of little wisdom.
[3] Avoiding those who are wise.
[4] Expounding what is not Dharma.
[5] One reviles true Dharma.
[6] One cuts off those who are skilled reciters of the true Dharma.
[7] One does not congratulate those who are intent on being reciters of the true Dharma.
[8] One congratulates those who are reciters of the what is not true Dharma.
[9] One praises wrong view.
[10] One reviles right view.
[11] Similarly, one cuts off the means of subsistence of the reciters and the writers of books.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to having little wisdom.

[14] Great Wisdom

Herein, what is the deed that leads to having great wisdom?

It is said:

[1] Questioning those here who are wise.
[2] Associating with ascetics and brahmins.
[3] Avoiding those of little wisdom.
[4] One expounds the true Dharma.
[5] One reviles what is not true Dharma.
[6] One praises those who are skilled reciters of the Dharma.
[7] One congratulates what is spoken beneficially.
[8] One avoids what is spoken that is unbeneficial.
[9] One praises right view.
[10] One reviles wrong view.
[11] One gives gifts of ink Masi is soot or charcoal which was used to make ink. and written books.
[12] Not drinking alcohol.

{Examples}

This is the deed that leads to having great wisdom.