The Analysis of Deeds
(Karma-vibhaṅga)



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23-50: Permutations

23. Deeds Done that are not Accumulated

Herein, The lists of deeds which characterised the early part of this discourse, is now abandoned until 62 and permutations of sets takes its place. what is the deed that, when done, is not accumulated?

It is said:

Whatever deed, which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, confessed, announced and made manifest, which he promises to restrain himself from in the future, and not do again.

This is the deed that, when done, is not accumulated.

24. Deeds that are accumulated even when not Done

Herein, what is the deed that is accumulated even when not done?

It is said:

Whatever deed which is yet to be completed by way of body. Herein, speaking a word with corrupt mind, and saying: ‘Like this I will do to you’. This is an awkwardly stated permutation. From the description it means making threats against another person, but not following through on them.

This is the deed that is accumulated even when not done.

25. Deeds that are accumulated when Done

Herein, what is the deed that is accumulated when done?

It is said:

Whatever good deed that is intentional.

25a

As was said by the Fortunate One: cf. Dhp 1-2: Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, their quality is made by mind, if with a base mind one speaks or acts, through that suffering follows him like a wheel follows the ox’s foot. Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, their quality is made by mind, if with pure mind one speaks or acts, through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.

“Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, they are impelled by mind,
if with a corrupt mind one speaks or acts,
through that suffering follows him like a wheel follows the ox’s foot.

Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, they are impelled by mind,
if with a pure mind one speaks or acts,
through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.”

This is the deed that is accumulated when done.

26. Deeds not really Done

Herein, what is the deed that is not really done, nor is accumulated?

It is said:

Whatever deed is intentionally done or effected but in a dream. Dreams were not believed to have real-life consequences in themselves.

This is the deed that is not really done, nor is accumulated.

27. Hell for a Full Time

Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and only falls away after that full hell life is completed? Hell is not everlasting in Buddhism, but a temporary abode where creatures suffer for as long as the result of their karma hasn’t come to an end.

It is said:

That deed that is done here and is successful and through which he goes to hell. That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted about, and it is not confessed, announced and made manifest, which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future, but through which he is exceedingly happy and joy arises.

27a

Like Devadatta, Kokālika and so on. Two notorious opponents of the Buddha. See, for instance, the story accompanying the rule to Saṅghādisesa 10 in the Pārājikakkhanda of the Vinaya (PTS III.171 ff.)

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and only falls away after that full hell life is completed.

28. Hell for a Half Time

Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after half a hell life is completed?

It is said:

That deed that is done here and is accumulated and through which one goes to hell. That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted about, and it is not confessed, announced and made manifest, which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future. But through which he is not exceedingly happy and joy does not arise.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after half a hell life is completed.

29. Hell for a Short Time

Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time?

It is said:

That deed that is done here and is accumulated and through which he goes to hell. That deed, which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, announced, confessed and made manifest, which he promises to restrain himself from in the future. Not having done it again, he is reborn in hell, and falls away a short time after rebirth.

29a

As with king Ajātaśatru. Through his friendship with Devadatta he had committed a deed having immediate effect after death:

Patricide. For the story of Ajātasattu’s patricide, cf. DhpA 1.12.
Schism in the Sangha.
He had let loose the elephant Dhanapāla to charge at the Buddha.
He had let loose a catapult to hit the Buddha.

All through the advice of Devadatta. In the Pāḷi tradition these last three deeds were not directly the work of Ajātasattu, but of Devadatta himself.

Then having heard that Devadatta had gone to the Ceaseless hell, having spiritual anxiety, he gained faith in the Fortunate One, and in the discourse on the Fruits of the Ascetic Life cf. DN 2, Sāmañña-phala-sutta. he confessed his faults, and reestablished the roots of wholesomeness. Then at the time of death his mind was full of faith, thinking: even with my bones I go for refuge to the Buddha, the Fortunate One, and he fell away from hell after a short time. This is very different from the Pāḷi tradition, which had him condemned to hell for 60,000 years, before being reborn as Vijitāvī, and becoming a Pacceka-buddha. See DA II.237-8.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time.

30. Specific Rebirth

Herein, what is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth?

It is said:

Whatever deed, when done, after declaring ‘May this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and in that place he is reborn.

30a

As was introduced by the Fortunate One in the Śyāmāka birth story, praising the arising of the will to make an aspiration to become a Buddha. I am not sure if this is related to Sāma-jātaka (or, Suvaṇṇa-sāma-jātaka), Jā 540, but that story does not include an aspiration to become a Buddha.

This is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth.

31. Non-Specific Rebirth

Herein, what is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth?

It is said:

Whatever deed, when done, without declaring ‘May this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and he is reborn according to his deeds.

This is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth.

32. Another Country

Herein, what is the deed that has results in another country?

It is said:

Whatever deed, in this life, that matures in another country, whether good or bad, and the deed that has results in another country.

32a

As the Fortunate One said: “Previously, monastics, in the Rose-Apple Isle, humans had unlimited life, like king Māndhātu.” See Jātaka 258; and Divy. 17 for his story. He is mentioned at 2c above, and 44a below.

32b

In a certain city there was a son of a caravan-leader named Maitrāyajña. This story lacks the normal formal introduction. It is also known to the Avadāna-śataka (no 36), where the protagonist is called Maitrakanyaka; the same story and name are known to the Divyāvadāna (no 38). In the Pāḷi Jātakas the story is similar, but the name is there Mittavinda or Mittavindaka (Ja 369). The city is specified below as being Tāmalipta, a great port on the east coast of India. Surrounded by five-hundred friends he went to a park. Then his friends said: “In this city the merchants took your father, and having made him their leader, they crossed the great ocean and entered the Land of Gold. Having gone to another country, they saw the interior of the island, and made an acquisition of gold. We also, having made you our leader, and crossed the great ocean, will make an acquisition of gold and we will guard it in the interior of the island.”

“Let it be so!” he replied.

The night having passed, he asked his mother: “Dear, we will go to the Land of Gold.”

His mother said: “Son, there are immeasurable riches in the house. Stay here, you should not go.” Because of his mother’s word he turned back.

Once more he went to the park, and his friends said: “We still point out the benefit.”

“So be it!” he replied. Having gone to his mother once more, he asked her again. But his mother fell at his feet and turned him back.

And so a third time.

Once more after an interval, having gone to the park, his friends said: “It is your fault that we do not go, we ask you again! Otherwise we thirteen will go without you.” Above five hundred friends have been mentioned.

Unknown to his mother, he got many goods ready and went outside. At the departure time, when getting ready, his mother, having fallen at his feet near the door, without moving said: “Son, you should not go!”

After kicking his mother angrily on the head, he crossed over her and went to the sea shore.

Then he said to his friends: “When crossing the sea no one knows whether we live or die. We should undertake all eight fasting day rules.” Saying, “So be it” they undertook the practice of the fasting day rules.

They crossed the sea. Half way across the sea the ship, beaten by the rough winds, was destroyed, and they all died.

Maitrāyajña, grasping a copper bowl that had … attached to its mouth, landed on the shore. He roamed around till he saw the golden wall of a city furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes, with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Four nymphs came out from there, and taking hold of him, they entered the city. He played with them for many years – he played for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

Then they said to him: “Noble sir, this country is quite new to you, without our knowing about it, you should not go outside. But if you do go outside by all means you should not go in the northerly direction.” After an interval he went out from there.

Once again while going along he saw a city with silver walls, furnished with pleasure parks, groves …

Much as before. Instructions to the reciter are placed in italics here and below.

From there eight nymphs came out, It is noticeable that as the quality of the walls of the city, and presumably its glory, decrease, so the number of nymphs available for sensual pleasures increase. took hold of him, and entered the city. He played with them for many years – he played for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

As before.

After an interval he came out from there.

Once more he roamed around till he saw a city having walls made of beryl, furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes, with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

And from there sixteen nymphs came out, and played with him for many years.

As before.

They said to him: “Noble sir, this country is quite new to you, you should not go without us accompanying. But then if you do go outside, by all means you should not go in the northerly direction.”

After an interval he came out from there.

Once again while roaming around, he saw a city with crystal walls, and again it was furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes, with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

From there thirty-two nymphs came out, and they played with him for many years, for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

They said to him: “Noble sir, this country is quite new to you, you should not go out without us accompanying. But then if you do go outside, you should not go in the northerly direction.”

Ignoring them, wearied with pleasure, he came out, and while going north he arrived at a forest of thorns.

Then he saw a city with black iron walls. He entered it, and just after entering the city gate closed up. He looked up, the wall expanded, and he heard a fearful noise. Standing there he thought: “What is that?”

He went there and he saw a man with a wheel having swords that was cutting through his head. Fearfully he asked: “Why is this, good man?”

The hell-being said: “This is a personal hell.”

Maitrāyajña said: “What wicked deed did you do?”

He explained: “On our Rose-Apple Isle there is a city called Mahākośalī. There I was the son of a great caravan leader. I went with five hundred friends to the park, and they said: ‘Your father was a caravan leader previously, having made him our leader and gone to another country, they made an acquisition of gold. Entering the Land of Gold, the Lion Isle, It is not clear if this Lion Isle (Siṁhaladvīpa) is to be identified with Śrī Laṅkā here or not. I do know of anywhere else where Śrī Laṅkā is called the Land of Gold. they saw the interior of the island. We also, with you as our leader, will look to another country.’

‘Let us go,’ I replied.

Having returned home, and greeted my mother, I said: ‘I also will go to another country!’

My mother said: ‘Son, your father crossed the seas and went to another country and died there. You are my only son, there is plenty of riches in the home, stay here, you should not go!’

‘I will not go,’ I replied.

So it was twice, thrice and four times, falling at my feet, she prevented me.

After an interval I again went to the park and my friends said: ‘Certainly we should go!’

‘I will go,’ I replied.

Then when getting ready, my mother, having fallen at my feet near the door, without moving said: ‘Son, it is not proper to leave me!’

Then, having kicked her on the head with my foot, I left. Together with my five hundred friends, I went to the sea shore. Having undertaken the eight fasting day rules we crossed the sea. Setting forth for the Land of Gold our ship, beaten by the rough winds, was destroyed, and they all died.

But I, after many days, by some means crossed over the sea, then wearying I saw the golden wall of a city, furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes, with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Four nymphs came out from there, and with them I entered into the city. I played with them for many years – I played for a hundred years, a hundred thousand years.

Then, after an interval, I went out …

As before.

From there the nymphs came out, and with them I entered into the city. I played with them for many years – I played for a hundred years, a hundred thousand years.

So with the walls made of beryl.

From there sixteen nymphs came out …

I came out from there.

I saw a city with walls made of crystal.

As before.

From there thirty-two nymphs came out.

I also played with them …

I arrived at a forest of thorns …

Up to ‘I saw an iron city’.

I entered it.

With my entrance the gate closed.

And there …

As before.

I saw a man with a wheel having swords cutting through his head. Having entered that place, the wheel having swords crossed over onto my head.

What mother I … turned back. It seems this line is out of place here.

I took up the eight fast-day rules. The result of that deed is that I enjoyed the personal heaven in those four cities. Having kicked my mother on the head, I left. The result of that deed is that a wheel having swords cut my head.”

Maitrāyajña thought: ‘I have done the exact same deed, and now the result of my deed is near to hand.’

The hell-being asked: “Who are you?”

Maitrāyajña said: “There is in the Rose-Apple Isle a great city called Tāmalipta. I am from there. This is all going to happen to me.”

The hell-being said: “Today I heard a noise in the firmament, saying: ‘The result of your deed is exhausted. Today the son of a caravan leader called Maitrāyajña will come, who has done the same deed.’ ”

Maitrāyajña said: “What is there to eat?”

He said: “Only whatever pus and blood flows from your head after it is cut.”

After saying that, that person fell down dead.

Maitrāyajña, fearful and anxious, after prostrating with his whole being to his mother and father, said:

“Stretching from the top of existence to the Ceaseless hell,
through countless pathways across the world systems,
myself, and the multitude of gods, anti-gods, men, nāgas, ghosts –
whatever beings approach – may they all be happy!”

Having thought thus, and honouring mother and father with his whole being, he prostrated and made this aspiration: “Wherever I am reborn may I be of service to my mother and father! Whatever beings there are reborn in personal hells, for the benefit of them all I remain here. Whatever beings there are in the world, both bound and free, I worship them. May they protect me!”

Having said that, in that hell-being’s place he stayed for some time. And again he made an aspiration, saying:

“From the Ceaseless hell to the top of existence,
whatever beings fall away and are bound and attached to various destinations,
may they all be happy, may they spend their time devoted to Dharma,
and experience the ageless and deathless Nirvāṇa!”

Then the wheel, without touching his head, all the time remained hovering in the sky. And all the time, it seems, his mother was praying: “If there is some fruit of merit for me, from giving, or from virtue, or from the spiritual life, or from the vows I undertook, through the fruit of that merit, may my son, wherever he may be, not have any misfortune!” And through that he was safe.

As in the Śyāma story, This story, in which a son was saved by his parents’ avowal of truth was well known in the ancient world. In Pāḷi the story is No. 540 of the Jātaka collection, Suvaṇṇa-sāma-jātaka. It was also known to the Mahāvastu (II, 210 ff); the Avadāna-kalpalatā (No. 101) and other collections. with a poisoned arrow … Because of the blessing of prince Śyāma’s mother and father the dart came out, the poison was destroyed, and he who was dead returned to life. Because of that blessing he was safe.

Just as was said by the noble Śāradvatīputra An alternate name for Ven. Śāriputra. in the Dhanaṁjaya discourse This discourse is unknown to me. There are a number of Dhanañjayas known in the Pāḷi texts, but no interactions with Ven. Sāriputta recorded as far as I am aware. at the adamantine Rājagha: “That brahmin honoured regularly his mother and father, and rightly worshipped them with a beautiful mind set on compassion. Shaken, their son acted according to righteousness, virtuously, and never did any wicked deed.” The whole discourse can be utilised here.

Just as in the Śivālaka discourse, cf. DN 30, Sigālovāda-sutta: In five ways, householder’s son, should a child attend to their mother and father, (thinking:) I will support those who supported me, I will do my duty to them, I will uphold the family lineage, I will look after the inheritance, then when they die I will make an offering to the pretas. the Fortunate One said: “Householder’s son, as your mother and father served you in five ways, so should you serve them in five ways. Householder’s son, again, when an individual has compassion for his mother and father prosperity is to be expected.”

So he remained, feeding on joy, for a full 60,000 years.

Just as king Ajātaśatru passed away before the full measure of life in hell was fulfilled. Commentary to Dhp 12, cp. 29a above. But as deeds are not barren he still had severe headaches.

We should also say here that after Maitrāyajña made his aspiration he was eager to obey his mother and father.

Just as in the Śyāma birth story his blind mother and father protected him with their hands. And a hundred other birth stories.

Then the Fortunate One, when the time had arrived, addressed the monastics: “It may be, monastics, that at that time, on that occasion, you think it was Maitrāyajña, who became the son of a caravan leader. It should not be seen like this. At that time, on that occasion, I was Maitrāyajña, the son of a caravan leader. Therefore, monastics, have faith in my words. You should have respect for the Buddha. You should have respect for the Dharma and the Sangha. You should have respect for your mother and father, teachers and preceptors. In this way you should train yourselves, monastics. Whoever has gone to another country experiences both happiness and suffering, just as Maitrāyajña, when he had gone to another country, there underwent in his life a personal heaven and a personal hell, so whoever has gone to another country experiences both happiness and suffering.”

This is the deed that has results in another country. This concluding sentence suggests to me that this was originally the conclusion of the examples, and the examples that follow were added later.

32c

This was shown by the Fortunate One: “As with me, so it is with mother and father, teachers and preceptors. The word spoken has the same result in this world and in the next world. How is the result of the deed the same in this world? Just like the poor man in Śrāvastī, This may refer to the story at 36a below. after seeing the Fortunate One together with the Sangha of disciples eating, his mind became full of faith. Through this deed that he did he acquired a great heap of merit, which led him to majesty. It was also the seed of his release from saṁsāra. Knowing this the Fortunate One spoke this verse: AN 5.36, Kāla-dāna-sutta: Those who rejoice there, or those who serve, do not lack an offering, they have a share of the merit.

“Those who rejoice here, and those who serve,
are not lacking in skill, they are entitled to their merit.”

This is the basis of the verse: cf. Dhp 2: Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, their quality is made by mind, if with pure mind one speaks or acts, through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.

“Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, they are impelled by mind,
if with a pure mind one speaks or acts,
through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.”

Then he passed away and was reborn amongst the gods.

32d

Just as with the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī. More than one Pacceka-buddha called Tagarasikhī is also known to the Pāḷi tradition (see below) but this particular story is not found. In a time of famine he received a broth from a poor man, and on that same day the poor man in that very city was anointed king. And after an interval of time he became an Independent Buddha. He is mentioned in another discourse Perhaps this would equate to one of these two discourses MN 116, SN 1.139? where he is also called the Independent Buddha Tagaraśikhī. So from that mind full of faith in the Fortunate One he had an immediate fruit and result.

32e

How is it with mother and father? Just as Maitrāyajña, the son of a caravan leader, four times was turned back by the word of his mother, so he experienced the pleasure of a personal heaven in four great cities, and through that planted the seed of release from saṁsāra, so he also had an immediate fruit and result through respecting mother and father.

32f

And how does one with corrupt mind towards the Fortunate One, and mother and father, go to hell? It is said: “Devadatta, through having a corrupt thought towards the Fortunate One, fell into the great and Ceaseless hell.”

32g

Likewise in the Sindhu realm What we would now call Pakistan. there was a city called Rauruka, DPPN, s.v. Sovīra. and there prince Śikhaṇḍī, having killed his father, fell into hell. This is how one with corrupt mind towards the Fortunate One, and mother and father, goes to hell.

What, is there no differentiation made? It is said: “There is a great differentiation made.”

The Fortunate One produced and accumulated the roots of wholesomeness that were acquired over one hundred thousand aeons and an uncountable amount of time. When the path was unknown, the Buddha attained it, and pointed out the path to Awakening. Therefore having faith in him has fruit and results that are immeasurable, and in the end there is Nirvāṇa.

But mother and father to not know the path to release. Again mother and father’s word is not made for everyone. Some parents’ minds are affected by wrong views and they say to their son: “Come, lead me to the wilderness to die there, this will be both for your good and happiness and for mine. [Throw me down a precipice,] or, make me enter a fire.”

But this is not to be done. What is the reason? Those who kill mother or father will certainly to to hell. For this reason the Fortunate One did not allow the going-forth for one who had killed mother or father, and for him who has gone forth, there is no higher ordination, and there is no attainment of fruit.

In this way it is prevented, just as for mother and father, so it is the same for teacher and preceptor. How is it the same?

Did not the Fortunate One say: “Mother and father have a love for a child that penetrates and remains as far as the bone-marrow, for this reason without the permission of mother and father there is no going-forth.”

Just as the Fortunate One did not give the going-forth to the noble Rāṣṭrapāla, Śoṇa, and others without their respective mother’s and father’s permission, and even today we do not give the going-forth without permission. Just as with the going-forth of the Fortunate One, his father Śuddhodana covered his eyes through grief for his son.

It is said: This seems to be out of place again. cf. AN 5.39 Putta-sutta: The wise desire a child seeing five reasons, (thinking:) he will support those who supported him, he will do his duty to them, he will uphold the family lineage, he will look after the inheritance, then he will make an offering to the pretas. “Considering these five reasons mother and father wish for a child:

[1] He will look after us when we are old,
[2] as he was protected so he will protect us,
[3] he will be master of our wealth,
[4] when we have died he will make the ancestor offerings,
[5] he will preserve our family lineage.

These are the five reasons mother and father wish for a child.

It is not so with teachers and preceptors. They act wholly out of kindness, thinking: “How could he make an end to the stream of time that rolls on in this wheel of saṁsāra?”

32h

As was said by the Fortunate One in the Discipline: cf. Vin. PTS 1.45: The preceptor, monastics, should establish in his live-in attendant the mind of a son, and the live-in attendant should establish in his preceptor the mind of a father. Thus these having respect, deference, living together in common, will meet with development, growth and fulfilment. “Preceptors should perceive their students as sons, and students should perceive their preceptors as fathers, depending on each other in this way they will be happy.” In this way teacher and preceptor are the same as mother and father.

32i

Just as the Fortunate One said in the Discourse about the Universal Monarch: This discourse does not seem to be extant; it is also mentioned at 70b and 75a and 76a below. “What is the deed having the result that the king, the universal monarch, receives elephant-jewels and horse-jewels?” A Universal Monarch is said to have seven jewels, they are: the wheel jewel, the horse jewel, the elephant jewel, the gem jewel, the woman jewel, the rhinoceros jewel, and the advisor jewel. See f.i. Dharma-saṅgraha.

For a long time the king, the universal monarch, carried his mother and father on his shoulders, or had them transported in a chariot, or, he had his teacher and preceptor transported. Because of this the result was that the king, the universal monarch, received elephant and horse jewels. For this reason mother and father are the same as teachers and preceptors. There is another differentiation made: householders worship mother and father and those gone-forth, but those gone-forth must worship only teachers and preceptors.

32j

Just as in the Mahīśāsaka lineage a different explanation has arisen and is remembered within their Discipline thus: “As the Fortunate One said, ‘Monastics, one should not go to another country without having first paid respects to your teacher and preceptor. cf. Vin. PTS I.50: Without asking his preceptor he should not enter the village. Why? Monastics, there is an obstacle to life, an obstacle to the spiritual life, an obstacle to the bowl and robes. The Pāḷi tradition knows of ten obstacles Vin I.112-3: Herein, there are these obstacles: the king-obstacle, the thief-obstacle, the fire-obstacle, the water-obstacle, the human-obstacle, the non-human obstacle, the snake-obstacles, the reptile-obstacle, the obstacle to life, the obstacle to the spiritual life. Previously, monastics, there was a son of a caravan leader called Maitrāyajña…’ ” This tradition is to be recited here, just as it is. In this way mother and father are the same as teachers and preceptors.

32k

As was said by the Fortunate One: cf. AN 2.34: If, monastics, one were to carry your mother on one shoulder, and carry your father on one shoulder, and live for a hundred years… one would not have done enough for your parents, or have repaid them… But whoever, monastics, having faithless parents, establishes them successfully in faith… to that extent one has done enough for your parents, and have repaid them. “Monastics, whoever would roam around the Rose Apple Isle carrying his mother and father on his shoulders, and would support them, and give them all the finest gold in the four continents, still would not have given back the help he had from his mother and father. But whoever instils faith in the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha, and establishes them in the five virtuous precepts, beloved of the noble ones, in this way a son would have given back the help he had from mother and father.” Teachers and preceptors do all this.

32l

As is said by the Fortunate One in the discourse on the Analysis of Offerings: cf. MN 142, Dakkhiṇa-vibhaṅga-sutta: For the person, Ānanda, who because of another person has gone for refuge to the Buddha, has gone for refuge to the Dhamma, has gone for refuge to the Saṅgha, Ānanda, it is not easy for that person to be repaid by the other person, I say, that is to say: with worship, rising from one’s seat, reverential salutation, homage, gifts of robes, alms-food, dwellings, and requisites of medicine for support when sick. “Just as, Ānanda, a person who because of another person has gone for refuge to the Buddha, has gone for refuge to the Dharma and the Sangha…”

32m

The training rules should also be quoted. “Ānanda, that person is not able to repay the other person, that is to say, with worship, rising up, or with loving-kindness.” Thus teachers and preceptors are again more distinguished than mothers and fathers.

32n

Just as Mahākātyāyana entered Āvantī and converted the western countries. cf. Vin. PTS I.194ff.

32o

Just as the noble Madhyandina tamed the five hundred nāgas in Kashmir and converted the district, For the Pāḷi recollection of the Missions, where the names and details often differ, see Mahāvaṁsa XII. and having brought saffron from lake Anavatapta and established it in Kashmir, where it is still enjoyed in the world today. He also had a monastery built which is still inhabited today. Just as the noble Gavāmpati converted the one-hundred league country called the Land of Gold. Just as the noble Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja converted the Eastern Videhas and had monasteries built which are still inhabited today. Just as the noble Mahendra converted the fearsome rākṣasas with Vibhīṣaṇa at the fore in Śrī Laṅkā and at that time established the country in faith.

32p

Just as in the discourse on The One Hundred and Fifty the noble Pūrṇa converted the five hundred lay disciples in Śūrpāraka, and had the Sandalwood-forest monastery built.

32q

Just as the Fortunate One, together with five hundred monastics, having gone through the air converted the people. But why grasp at the names of these monastics? Since the Fortunate One attained Nirvāṇa … whatever monks and nuns, laymen and laywomen were guided they all were guided by the monastics. Whoever has converted him becomes for him a teacher and preceptor

…the Fortunate One said: “Considering these five reasons mother and father wish for a child… This fragment seems a repetition of section 32g above.

But the teachers and preceptors out of kindness teach the Dharma for the attainment of Nirvāṇa. For this reason teachers and preceptors are more distinguished than mother and father.”

This is the reason it was said by the Fortunate One: I have been unable to find a parallel to this. “Monastics, if you have faith in the words of the Fortunate One, you must have supreme faith in the Dharma and the Sangha, you must have supreme faith in mother and father, teachers and preceptors. That will be for your happiness and welfare for a long time.”

This is the deed that has results in another country.

33. Happy then Unhappy

What is the deed, provided with which, a person first becomes happy, and later becomes unhappy?

It is said:

Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and rejoicing gives it. But after giving he has regret. When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which has great riches, great wealth, but later that wealth is lost and exhausted, so that he later becomes poor.

33a

Like the noble Gopaka. A few Gopakas are known in Pāḷi, but not this story. The name is anyway generic, meaning cowherder, and may only be attached because of his gift of a cow. It seems that at the time of the Fully Awakened Buddha Kakucchanda he gave a milch cow to the Sangha of monks. Later others blamed him, saying: “You did not do well in giving this.”

Through that his mind was corrupted. I.e. he regretted his giving. Wherever he was reborn, in that place he first had great wealth, but later, because of that corrupt mind, he became poor. In his last existence he was reborn in a certain house in the city of Rājagha, and through that birth his mother died, so his mother was killed through giving birth. He was born at the time of the Root lunar mansion.

Thinking: “Let this family not be uprooted through this inauspicious event,” they abandoned him together with his mother in the charnel ground. Through the power of his merit milk flowed from one of his mother’s breasts and he lived on. When he had grown up he went-forth under the Fortunate One.

Previously this whole story was told to the monastics by the Fortunate One. Thus he first gave a milch cow and through this faith arose, and later he was angry, and this was the fruit of that deed. So he previously through a mind full of faith planted the seed of release.

33b

Just as the householder’s son Īśvara Unother unknown person. in the great city of Campā. With his hand he had given all his wealth to his dependents and dispatched them as merchants in the four directions. Having gone to another country all was lost, and it came about he had to work for others. The story seems to be lacking as it doesn’t quite say he regretted his deed, even if we can infer it. It should perhaps have been under 32 above, rather than here.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes happy, and later becomes unhappy.

34. Unhappy then Happy

What is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes unhappy, and later becomes happy?

It is said:

Being asked, someone takes a gift, and approving of the same, then gives it to another with difficulty. But after giving the gift, later joy arises. When he is reborn amongst humans he is reborn into a family which is poor, but later that wealth increases.

34a

Here the tradition about Aniruddha should be told. cf. the story of Anuruddha’s past in DhpA, 25.12. It seems that in Rājagha he gave a share of millet and rice as alms food to the Independent Buddha Upariṣṭha. That day itself the king, being satisfied, gave him eight great villages. And later he was [never] poor. For him it was just as in the explanation in the Past and Future discourse. Also mentioned at 8 above MA 66, the Discourse on Origins, which gives the full story related in brief here.

34b

Just as in Śrāvastī a poor man, having asked his kinsmen for fruits, took them to a field in order to plant them. His wife, having delivered food to another house, had brought back rice and prepared it as alms food. Then the Fortunate One said this to some monastics including Śāriputra, Maudgalyāyana, Mahākāśyapa and Subhūti: “You should receive the alms food first at the home of this householder.” They all went there first, and they all received alms food from there.

Then later the Fortunate One also went. Then that woman, with faith arisen, gave all the remaining alms food to the Fortunate One, and made this aspiration: “Fortunate One, by the root of this wholesome deed may I never again be poor!”

“So be it,” the Fortunate One replied.

That very day a great hidden treasure appeared to her. Having heard that, king Prasenajit went to that home, and said this: “Our former kings deposited these gold coins.”

Therefore the householder gave to him an abundance with reverence, but they became ashes. The king gave them to the householder again, and they became gold. Then king Prasenajit, with wonder arisen, having gone to the Fortunate One informed him.

The Fortunate One said: “The merit that arose was not grasped at by the householder…” and all is as related before. Thus when he was asked, this was given with difficulty, but he approved it. He gave with difficulty, but after giving, his mind was full of faith. For this reason previously having been poor, later he became one of great wealth.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes unhappy, and later becomes happy.

35. Happy and Happy

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy?

It is said:

Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and happily gives it. After giving he is also joyous. When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches.

35a

Here the result for the four master-donors including Miṇḍhaka His story is known to Divyāvadāna, 9 & 10, where his name is Meṇḍhaka. in Bhadrika city should be spoken. It seems they gave alms food to the Independent Buddha Tagaraśikhī.

35b

Here the tradition in the discipline should also be spoken. It is unclear what this refers to.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy.

36. Unhappy and Unhappy

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first and also later unhappy?

It is said:

Someone here is bereft of spiritual friends, and does not give a gift. But he also does not commit any wicked deed. When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is poor, that has little food and drink to enjoy.

36a

Just as was explained in Śrāvastī in the Tradition about the Poor Boy. This story and verses seem to be mentioned at 32b above, but are otherwise unknown. It doesn’t seem to illustrate the teaching. In Śrāvastī, it seems, the Fortunate One was roaming about for alms food. Then in Śrāvastī it was the day known as the Twelve Sugar-canes, and the Fortunate One received sugar-cane. A certain poor boy stood in the doorway, and asked the Fortunate One for sugar-cane. The Fortunate One gave some. He again asked from the Fortunate One.

“My dear, say this: ‘I do not desire it’, and I will give it again.”

He said: “Fortunate One, I have never said, ‘I do not desire.’ previously.”

The Fortunate One said: “My dear, say this: ‘I do not desire, Fortunate One,’ and I will give it all.”

Out of greed for the sugar-cane he said, ‘I do not desire it’. The Fortunate One gave him all.

Then the noble Ānanda asked: “Fortunate One, why is this?” The Fortunate One said: “Never before, Ānanda, has he been satiated with forms, tastes, smells, touches and so on, and never before has he said: ‘I do not desire it’. This word of his, ‘I do not desire it’ will be the cause of few desires.”

And he said:

“ ‘I do not desire it,’ this utterance, was never spoken before.
From where come forms and sounds, from where come smells and touches?
Praying in this way the fool roams on constantly.
‘I do not desire it,’ – uttering this speech with joy,
will be for him the cause of few desires.” The story doesn’t really illustrate the teaching.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first and also later unhappy.

37. Well-Off and Selfish

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off but selfish?

It is said:

Someone gives a small gift in the bowl here to someone who is virtuous, but he does not repeat the generous practice again. When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches through that particular gift. But because he does not repeat that generous practice again, his deeds become selfish.

37a

Just as in the tradition about the householder Hilliśāla at Śrāvastī. He, it seems, in a previous birth was selfish. Then the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī came to his doorway. He gave alms food to him. Then, having seen him carrying it away, having regret, he didn’t give alms food again, and the monk vanished. Through this deed he experienced success amongst gods and men, and being reborn as a son of a high family in Śrāvastī he was selfish and later died.

King Prasenajit, took the wealth of the one without heir, as is told in the One Hundred Chapters Scripture, in the Thematic Discourses about Prasenajit, in the discourse called the Distribution of the King. Prasenajit said to the Fortunate One: “Here, Fortunate One, one of high family has died. Having no heir his property has been taken by me.”

The Fortunate One said: “Great king, how much is the wealth of that householder worth?”

He said: “Fortunate One, whatever has been fixed, is a hundred times a hundred thousand, but the rest of his wealth is without measure, and cannot be fixed.”

The Fortunate One said: “Great king, this is the seventh time the one without heir has had his wealth taken away. Whatever merit he gained by supplying the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī with alms food, that deed is exhausted for him, and he has made no other wholesome roots. Today is the first night he is being cooked in the Great Screaming hell.”

Then the Fortunate One spoke these verses:

“Wealth, corn, gold, cows, horses, jewels, earrings,
slaves, servants, dependants – and others who live dependent on him,
When dying these do not follow one, he goes without taking them along.
But whatever deed there is, good and then bad,
that is his own, he goes and takes that along.

Therefore do meritorious deeds, accumulate them for the next world,
meritorious deeds are his in the next world, recall them as the support for living beings,
He leaves his body in the house, while loved kin lie in the charnel ground,
when going both good deeds and bad deeds follow one along.”

[This is the deed, provided with which] this person is well off but selfish.

38. Poor but Generous

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous?

It is said:

Someone gives many a gift here, but to animals and to those without virtue who do not live the spiritual life. Again and again he repeats his generosity. When he is reborn amongst humans, he is poor, but because of repeating that gift he is generous. Whoever gives a gift into the bowls of those without virtue, because of that becomes poor.

38a

Just as was explained in the origin story of the weaver in the Discipline there in Śrāvastī. The origin of this story is as yet unknown. He was generous, but poor. Again and again he had the thought of generosity.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous.

39. Well-Off and Generous

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous?

It is said:

Someone gives many a gift here into the bowls of those are virtuous, and he repeats the generous practice again and again. Through that deed when he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches. And because he repeated that gift again and again he became generous.

39a

Just as Anāthapiṇḍada, it seems, dedicated the Jetavana in the time of the Perfect Sambuddha Krakucchanda His name is spelt as both Krakucchanda and Kakucchanda in this text. and had a monastery built there. Also in this way in the times of the Perfect Buddhas Kanakamuna, Kāśyapa and Sarvārthasiddha. And again for Maitreya he will dedicate it by covering it with gold.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous.

40. Life Exhausted not Deeds

For which person is life exhausted, but not his deeds?

It is said:

Whatever person who, falling from hell is reborn in hell, falling from the animal realm is reborn in the animal realm, falling from the Yama world is reborn in the Yama world, falling from the gods is reborn amongst the gods.

40a

Just as with the brahmin Varṣākāra who died and was reborn again and again as a monkey. His story is told at 16b above.

40b

Just as with the Kashmir householder spoken about previously who was reborn again and again as a bull. His story is told at 1a above.

40c

Just as in Śrāvastī there was a certain poor landholder who died. In his doorway stood a bull with a wound on his shoulder. That landholder’s mind was attached to his home and he was reborn as a worm on the shoulder of that bull. The moment he was reborn he was eaten by a crow. Again he was reborn as a worm right there, thus it happened that he died seven times in one day. The moment he was reborn he was eaten by a crow.

40d

Just as the noble Mahāmaudgalyāyana, while roaming for alms food in Magadha, arrived at a certain home. In that home the householder together with his wife were taking their meal consisting of fish and meat. He held his son on his lap, and a black bitch stood in front of him, and he cast fish bones at her.

Then the householder, having seen Mahāmaudgalyāyana, said: “Go away, noble sir, there is no one here who will give you alms.”

He went away.

At that doorway were some wise men who had come from another country, and having seen that, they became full of wonder, and said: “Alas, it is amazing, this one is known as the one with foremost spiritual powers, who tamed the two nāga-kings Nanda and Upananda, who with his left toe shook the Vaijayanta palace, See MN 37, Cūḷa-taṇhā-saṅkhaya-sutta for this story. who caused Śakra to wonder at how he crossed the three thousand world system in the blink of an eye, he has surely returned without alms food, rejected!”

Then the elder, to stir their spiritual anxiety, said: “Dears, this is not amazing.” The men said: “Then what else is amazing and a reason for wonder?”

He said: “This householder taking his meal consisting of fish and meat, that fish is the householder’s father. When he was in this place, at the back of the house stood a pond from which he caught Literally: extracted-extracted, or drawn up and up. fish for eating. When he died he was reborn as a fish right there. He was repeatedly caught and eaten. And right there again and again he is reborn.

Also this bitch is the householder’s mother. Because of her greed and hatred she never gave any gifts, didn’t practice virtue, and protected her whole wealth for her family alone. Because her mind was attached to her home when she died she was reborn amongst the bitches. Again and again she died and was reborn right here. All night she roams the house on all sides and prevents any entrance.

And the son he holds on his lap was this woman’s secret lover. He heard from another about his wife: ‘This your wife has become attached to another man.’ The householder under the pretext of a journey to another village departed from the home. His wife slept with the other man. At night the householder came back and killed the man. The man’s mind being attached to the woman by the bonds of love he was reborn in her womb. See, dears, it is the father’s flesh he now eats.

His mother, that he was born from, who gives the sharp fish bones. It is his enemy, whom he killed in anger, who was with his wife, whom he now carries in his lap. This is the fault in saṁsāra, you should be wearied by it. This is an amazing thing here!”

Then the monk Mahāmaudgalyāyana, for the benefit of all, summed it up in a verse for the spiritual anxiety of future generations. Like this he spoke:

“He eats his father’s flesh, he threw sharp bones to his mother,
he nourishes his wife’s lover, the world is covered by delusion and blindness!”

This is the person whose life is exhausted, but not his deeds.

41. Deeds Exhausted not Life

For which person are deeds exhausted, but not his life?

It is said:

Whatever person is happy at first and later becomes unhappy, or he who is unhappy at first and later becomes happy.

For this person deeds are exhausted, but not his life.

42. Deeds and Life Exhausted

For which person are deeds exhausted and his life?

It is said:

Whatever person falling away from hell is reborn amongst animals, falling away from animals is reborn in the Yama world, falling away from the Yama world is reborn amongst humans, falling away from humans is reborn amongst the gods.

42a

Just as in Śrāvastī a merchant’s son went to a park and climbed an Aśoka tree at the request of his wife to pick flowers. I do not know the provenance of this story. The branch of that tree broke, and he fell onto a flat stone and died. There a great crowd of people cried out.

Then the monks went in the middle of the day, and having seen this, anxiously reported it to the Fortunate One, saying: “Fortunate One, alas impermanence! Today in the park a young son of a householder, who had not yet enjoyed his riches, fell from an Aśoka tree and died. In that place a great crowd of people have gathered and a sound like that in the Screaming hell is heard.”

The Fortunate One said: “Monastics, previously this son of a householder was reborn in the great ocean in a certain nāga family. He had just been born there and was playing with the women when he was caught by a garuḍa and eaten. Those nāga maidens who cried there are here the women who cry. And he who climbed the tree at the request of the woman was angry at her, thinking: ‘It is her fault I climbed the tree!’ Dying while angry he was reborn in hell.

For this person deeds are exhausted and his life.

43. Merits Exhausted and Life

For which person are merits exhausted and his life?

It is said: No teachings are then given. Evidently the text is very faulty here.

43a

Just as with the householder Hilliśālī. His story is told at 37 above, where his name is given in a slightly different form as Hilliśāla. As the Fortunate One said: “Again great king that householder’s good deed is exhausted for him, and he has made no other merit. Today is the first night he is being cooked in the Screaming hell.”

43b

Just as with king Prasenajit who, fallen from royalty, arrived in Rājagha. There he threw old radish leaves into his mouth, eating what had been thrown at him by a man. Then with his mouth full of dirt he came to death. This was a result of the alms food he had previously given an Independent Buddha. There must have been a story where Pasenajit in a previous life had given dirt to an Independent Buddha, but I do not know of such a story.

This is the person whose life is exhausted and his merits.

43.bis Life not Exhausted nor Deeds

For which person is life not exhausted, nor his deeds, but some defilements are exhausted?

It is said:

For the stream-enterer, the once-returner, the non-returner, the Independent Buddha.

This is the person whose life is not exhausted, nor his deeds, but some defilements are exhausted.

44. Happy in Body not in Mind

Which is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind?

It is said:

An ordinary person who has done merit is happy in body, but not in mind.

44a

Like the very wealthy brahmin householders, and king Māndhātā. The latter is also mentioned at 2c above.

This is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind.

45. Happy in Mind not in Body

Which is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body?

It is said:

Whoever is a worthy one but is without merit is happy in mind, but not in body.

45a

Just as the noble Soṇottara, it seems, in a previous life had given cow-dung mixed with itching powder for bathing to an Independent Buddha. Because of the result of that deed his body was destroyed by leprosy. Therefore the verse says:

“Deeds are surely the strongest, because deeds are hard like diamonds,
wherever I come under their control I undergo the suffering of deeds.”

45b

Just as with Kāśyapa the Late. Otherwise seemingly unknown. It seems in Vārāṇasī he had replied to an Independent Buddha: “I will give alms food.” After a great deal of effort he gave alms food near the end of the time for giving.

Through this deed, having become free from lust in a later life, he roamed in the morning for alms. Near the end of the time for giving he received some alms food. Through this he was called Kāśyapa the Late.

This is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body.

46. Happy in Body and in Mind

Which is the person who is happy in body and in mind?

It is said:

The worthy one, who has destroyed the pollutants, and made merit.

46a

Just as with Bakula, This monk is known in the Pāḷi tradition as Bākula, or Bakkula. He was named by the Buddha as the foremost of those who had little sickness, and is reputed to have lived till he was 160 years old. The stories below though, are not known. the son of king Dharmayaśa of Kashmir. As in his lion’s roar: “It is eighty years, venerables, since my going-forth and I have had no sickness previously, not even a simple headache.”

Having become a perfume seller in Vārāṇasī, it seems, he had invited the Perfect Sambuddha Kakucchanda, together with his disciples, with medicine to help when sick, and some of the Arahat monastics received myrobalan. Through this deed the result was he was never sick. “Health is the supreme gain,” cf. Dhp 204. said the Fortunate One.

46b

Just as was said about the noble Aniruddha. In Pāḷi his name was remembered as Anuruddha. As a result of his giving alms food, The Pāḷi knows a story of his giving food to the Pacceka-buddha Upariṭṭha, through which he was never short of food. The details recorded below though are unknown to that tradition. venerables, seven times he was reborn amongst the excellent chapter of gods of the Thirty-Three, and seven times he ruled over men. As a result of his giving alms food he received the fruit of Arahatship, and he received robes, alms-food, dwellings, and requisites of medicine for support when sick. So through his giving to five-hundred monastics, together with the Fortunate One, in a time of famine, the power of his merit was that all this endless and divine alms food manifested.

This is the person who is happy in body and in mind.

47. Happy neither in Mind nor in Body

Which is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body?

[It is said:]

An ordinary person who has not done anything meritorious, with a family lineage fallen into oblivion, being bereft of clothing, food and drink, who wanders amongst the houses. I.e. is homeless. Because of that he is afflicted with sicknesses like leprosy, tuberculosis, consumption, fever, jaundice, infirmity, skin disease, scab and so on, and is missing hands and feet, or has loss of eyesight.

This is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body.

48. Lower Realms and Handsome

What is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant, with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking?

It is said:

Whatever person who is endowed with lust, but provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms, including being reborn as a peacock, a parrot, a mynah, a duck, a ruddy shelduck.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant, with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking.

49. Lower Realms and Ugly

Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and is unpleasant looking?

It is said:

Whatever person who is endowed with hate, provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms, like being reborn as a lion, a tiger, a crow, a hyena, a cobra, a preta, a piśāca and so on.

This is the deed, [provided with which, a person] is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and is unpleasant looking.

50. Lower Realms and Undeveloped

Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped?

It is said:

Whatever person who is furnished with delusion, and endowed with a lack of virtue, and is reborn in the lower realms, like being reborn as a muskrat, a worm, a louse, a fly and so forth; like being in a body where the twenty kinds of worms are born.

This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped.