Book XXVI. The Brahman, Brāhmaṇa Vagga

XXVI. 4. What is a Brahman? Text: N iv. 141-142.
Aññatarabrāhmaṇavatthu (386)

386. He that meditates...

This religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a certain Brahman. [30.278]

The story goes that one day this Brahman thought to himself, “The Teacher calls his own disciples ‘Brahmans:’ {4.142} now I am by birth and lineage a Brahman; therefore he ought to apply this title to me also.” So he approached the Teacher and asked him about the matter. The Teacher replied, “I do not call a man a Brahman merely because of his birth and lineage; I call by this title only that man who has reached the supreme goal, Arahatship.” So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza,

386. He that meditates, he that is incorrupt,
He that has done his duty, he that is free from the evil passions,
He that has reached the supreme goal, that man I call a Brahman.