Buddhist Legends

An English translation of this complete translation of the Dhammapada Commentary, which relates many events from the life of the Buddha and his disciples (with an embedded reading of part of the text).

Translated from the original Pāli text of the Dhammapada Commentary by
Eugene Watson Burlingame
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; sometime Harrison Fellow for Research, University of Pennsylvania, and Johnston Scholar in Sanskrit, Johns Hopkins University; Lecturer on Pāli (1917-1918) in Yale University

Part 1–3: Translation of Books 1 to 26
Volumes 28 and 29 and 30

Originally copyright, 1921
Harvard University Press (Cambridge, Mass.)
Now Public Domain

first scanned and ocr-ed by the Internet Archive with a grant from Microsoft Corporation

originally proof-read by

Ven. Khemaratana

finally proof-read and prepared for digital publication by
Anandajoti Bhikkhu
(August, 2015)

 

Volume 1

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Volume 2

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Volume 3

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Html Table of Contents
(outline)

Editor’s Note

Epilogue

Html Table of Contents
(detail)

Chapter I

I. 1. “If Thine Eye Offend Thee, Pluck It Out”
(Cakkhupāla) (1)

I. 2. Why Cry for the Moon?
(Maṭṭhakuṇḍali, Adinnapubbaka) (2)

I. 3. Tissa the Fat
(Tissa, Devala and Nārada) (3-4)

I. 4. “Not Hatred for Hatred”
(A barren woman) (5)

I. 5. The Quarrelsome Monks of Kosambi
(Pārileyyaka) (6)

I. 6. Kāḷa Junior and Kāḷa Senior
(Culla Kāḷa, Mahā Kāḷa, Majjhima Kāḷa ) (7-8)

I. 7. Devadatta Wears an Unbecoming Robe
(Devadatta, Sāriputta) (9-10)

I. 8. The Chief Disciples
(Bodhisatta and Buddha, Sāriputta (Sarada), Mahāmoggallāna (Sirivaḍḍha), Sañjaya,
Añña Koṇḍañña, Yasa, Bhaddavaggiya, Kassapa brothers) (11-12)

I. 9. Nanda the Elder
(Nanda (Kappaṭa), Janapada-Kaḷyānī)(13-14)

I. 10. Cunda the Pork-Butcher (15)

I. 11. The Righteous Lay Brother
(Dhammika) (16)

I. 12. Devadatta’s Career
(Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Ānanda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta) (17)

I. 13. Lady Sumanā
(Visākhā, Anāthapiṇḍika and his daughters, Mahā Subhaddā, Culla Subhaddā, Sumanā) (18)

I. 14. Two Brethren
(One who attained, one who only studied) (19-20)

 

Chapter II

II. 1. Story-Cycle Of King Udena Or Udayana(21-23)

II. 2. The Voice Of A Rich Man (24)

II. 3. Little Wayman (25)

II. 4. Simpletons’ Holiday (26-27)

II. 5. Kassapa The Great (28)

II. 6. Two Brethren (29)

II. 7. How Magha Became Sakka (30)

II. 8. A Monk Attains Arahatship (31)

II. 9. Tissa of the Market-Town (32)

 

Chapter III

III. 1. Elder Meghiya (33-34)

III. 2. The Mind-Reader (35)

III. 3. A Discontented Monk (36)

III. 4. Nephew Saṅgharakkhita (37)

III. 5. Elder Thought-Controlled (38-39)

III. 6. Monks and Tree-Spirits (40)

III. 7. Cruelty a Cause of Boils (41)

III. 8. Nanda the Herdsman (42)

III. 9. Mother of Two and Father of Two (43)

 

Chapter IV

IV. 1. The Soil of the Heart (44-45)

IV. 2. A Monk Attains Arahatship (46)

IV. 3. Viḍūḍabha Wreaks Vengeance on the Sākiyas (47)

IV. 4. Husband-Honorer (48)

IV. 5. Niggardly Kosiya (49)

IV. 6. Pāṭhika the Naked Ascetic (50)

IV. 7. The King and the King of Kings (51-52)

IV. 8. Marriage of Visākhā (53)

IV. 9. Elder Ānanda’s Question (54-55)

IV. 10. Sakka Gives Alms to Kassapa the Great (56)

IV. 11. Godhika Attains Nibbāna (57)

IV. 12. Sirigutta And Garahadinna (58-59)

 

Chapter V

V. 1. The King and the Poor Man with a Beautiful Wife (60)

V. 2. The Rebellious Pupil (61)

V. 3. A Jonah in the House (62)

V. 4. The Pickpocket (63)

V. 5. The Wise Fool (64)

V. 6. From Vice to Virtue (65)

V. 7. A Leper is Tempted to Deny his Faith (66)

V. 8. A Farmer is Unjustly Accused of Theft (67)

V. 9. Sumana the Gardener (68)

V. 10. Rape of Uppalavaṇṇā (69)

V. 11. Jambuka The Naked Ascetic (70)

V. 12. The Snake-Ghost and the Crow-Ghost (71)

V. 13. The Sledge-Hammer Ghost (72)

V. 14. Citta and Sudhamma (73-74)

V. 15. A Seven-Year-Old Novice Wins All Hearts (75)

 

Chapter VI

VI. 1. A Poor Man wins Spiritual Treasure (76)

VI. 2. The Insolent Monks (77)

VI. 3. Channa, Elder (78)

VI. 4. Kappina the Great, Elder (79)

VI. 5. Paṇḍita The Novice (80)

VI. 6. Unshaken as a Rock (81)

VI. 7. After the Storm, Calm (82)

VI. 8. A Pack of Vagabonds (83)

VI. 9. Husband and Wife (84)

VI. 10. “Few There Be That Find It” (85-86)

VI. 11. Abandon the Dark State (87-89)

 

Chapter VII

VII. 1. The Tathāgata Suffers Not (90)

VII. 2. Free from Attachment (91)

VII. 3. A Monk stores Food (92)

VII. 4. The Monk and the Goddess (93)

VII. 5. Sakka honors a Monk (94)

VII. 6. A Fancied Slight (95)

VII. 7. The Loss of an Eye (96)

VII. 8. Not by the Faith of Another (97)

VII. 9. Elder Revata of the Acacia Forest (98)

VII. 10. A Courtezan Tempts a Monk (99)

 

Chapter VIII

VIII. 1. A Public Executioner (100)

VIII. 2. Conversion of Bāhiya Dārucīriya (101)

VIII. 3. The Maiden who Married a Thief (102-103)

VIII. 4. Gain and Loss (104-105)

VIII. 5. Sāriputta’s Uncle (106)

VIII. 6. Sāriputta’s Nephew (107)

VIII. 7. Sāriputta’s Friend (108)

VIII. 8. The Lad whose Years Increased (109)

VIII. 9. Saṁkicca the Novice (110)

VIII. 10. The Monk and the Thieves (111)

VIII. 11. On the Razor’s Edge (112)

VIII. 12. Paṭācārā is Bereft of all her Family (113)

VIII. 13. Kisā Gotamī Seeks Mustard Seed to Cure her Dead Child (114)

VIII. 14. The Widow Bahuputtikā and her Ungrateful Children (115)

 

Chapter IX

IX. 1. The Brahman with a Single Robe (116)

IX. 2. A Discontented Monk (117)

IX. 3. Goddess and Monk (118)

IX. 4. Anāthapiṇḍika and the Goddess (119-120)

IX. 5. The Monk who failed to keep his Requisites in Orders (121)

IX. 6. Treasurer Catfoot (122)

IX. 7. Merchant Great-Wealth (123)

IX. 8. The Enchanted Hunters (124)

IX. 9. The Hunter who was devoured by his own Dogs (125)

IX. 10. The Jeweler, the Monk, and the Heron (126)

IX. 11. Three Parties of Monks (127)

IX. 12. Suppabuddha Insults the Teacher (128)

 

Chapter X

X. 1. The Band of Six (129)

X. 2. The Band of Six (130)

X. 3. A Company of Boys (131-132)

X. 4. The Monk and the Phantom (133-134)

X. 5. Visākhā and her Companions keep Fast-Day (135)

X. 6. The Boa-Constrictor Ghost (136)

X. 7. Death of Moggallāna the Great (137-140)

X. 8. The Monk of many Possessions (141)

X. 9. Santati the King’s Ministers (142)

X. 10. The Monk and the Ragged Garment (143-144)

X. 11. Sukha the Novice (145)

 

Chapter XI

XI. 1. Visākhā’s Companions Intoxicate Themselves (146)

XI. 2. The Teacher Cures A Monk of Love (147)

XI. 3. The Aged Nun (148)

XI. 4. A Company of Over-Confident Monks (149)

XI. 5. The Nun and the Phantom (150)

XI. 6. Queen Mallikā and her Dog (151)

XI. 7. The Monk who always said the Wrong Thing (152)

XI. 8. Elder Ānanda’s Stanzas (153-154)

XI. 9. Great-Wealth, the Treasurer’s Son (155-156)

 

Chapter XII

XII. 1. Prince Bodhi and the Magic Bird (157)

XII. 2. The Greedy Monk (158)

XII. 3. “Be Ye Doers of the Word” (159)

XII. 4. “And Hate not his Father and Mother” (160)

XII. 5. Killing of Mahā Kāla (161)

XII. 6. Devadatta seeks to slay the Tathāgata (162)

XII. 7. Devadatta seeks to cause a Schism in the Order (163)

XII. 8. The Jealous Monk (164)

XII. 9. Courtezans save a Layman’s Life (165)

XII. 10. By Righteousness Men honor the Buddha (166)

 

Chapter XIII

XIII. 1. A Young Girl Jests with a Young Monk (167)

XIII. 2. The Buddha visits Kapila (168-169)

XIII. 3. Five Hundred Monks attain Insight (170)

XIII. 4. Prince Abhaya loses his Nautch-Girl (171)

XIII. 5. The Monk with a Broom (172)

XIII. 6. Conversion of the Robber Finger-Garland (173)

XIII. 7. The Weaver’s Daughters (174)

XIII. 8. Thirty Monks (175)

XIII. 9. Ciñcā falsely accuses the Buddha (176)

XIII. 10. Gifts beyond Compare (177)

XIII. 11. Virtue Bought and Paid For (178)

 

Chapter XIV

XIV. 1. The Buddha has naught to do with Women (179-180)

XIV. 2. The Twin Miracle (181)

XIV. 3. The King of the Dragons and his Daughters (182)

XIV. 4. How did the Seven Buddhas keep Fast-Day? (183-185)

XIV. 5. The Buddha cures a Monk of Discontent (186-187)

XIV. 6. The Monk and the Dragon (188-192)

XIV. 7. Whence come Men of Noble Birth? (193)

XIV. 8. What is the Pleasantest Thing in the World? (194)

XIV. 9. Honor to whom Honor is Due (195-196)

 

Chapter XV

XV. 1. A Quarrel among Brethren (197-199)

XV. 2. Māra possesses Villagers (200)

XV. 3. Defeat of the King of Kosala (201)

XV. 4. “Look not on a Woman to lust after Her” (202)

XV. 5. The Buddha feeds the Hungry (203)

XV. 6. On Moderation in Eating (204)

XV. 7. By Righteousness Men honor the Buddha (205)

XV. 8. Sakka Ministers to the Buddha (206-208)

 

Chapter XVI

XVI. 1. Mother and Father and Son (209-211)

XVI. 2. The Buddha comforts the Afflicted (212)

XVI. 3. The Buddha comforts the Afflicted (213)

XVI. 4. The Licchavi Princes and the Courtezan (214)

XVI. 5. The Golden Maiden (215)

XVI. 6. Set not your Heart on Worldly Possessions (216)

XVI. 7. Kassapa wins a Basket of Cakes (217)

XVI. 8. The Elder who had attained the Fruit of the Third Path (218)

XVI. 9. Nandiya attains Heavenly Glory (219-220)

 

Chapter XVII

XVII. 1. How Anger marred a Maiden’s Looks (221)

XVII. 2. The Tree-Spirit and the Monk (222)

XVII. 3. The Poor Man and his Daughters (223)

XVII. 4. Do Trifling acts of Merit lead to Heaven? (224)

XVII. 5. A Brahman greets the Buddha as his Son (225)

XVII. 6. It is the Giver that makes the Gift (226)

XVII. 7. Nothing, too much, and too little (227-230)

XVII. 8. The Band of Six (231-234)

 

Chapter XVIII

XVIII. 1. The Cow-Killer and his Son (235-238)

XVIII. 2. Little by Little (239)

XVIII. 3. The Louse that would have his Own (240)

XVIII. 4. Pride goeth before a Fall (241)

XVIII. 5. The Wickedness of Women (242-243)

XVIII. 6. Courtesy and Rudeness (244-245)

XVIII. 7. All of the Precepts are Hard to Keep (246-248)

XVIII. 8. The Fault-Finding Novice (249-250)

XVIII. 9. The Inattentive Laymen (251)

XVIII. 10. Treasurer Ram (252)

XVIII. 11. The Fault-Finding Monk (253)

XVIII. 12. Is there a Path through the Air? (254-255)

 

Chapter XIX

XIX. 1. The Unjust Judges (256-257)

XIX. 2. The Band of Six (258)

XIX. 3. Not therefore is a Man praised for his much Speaking (259)

XIX. 4. Can a Young Monk be an “Elder”? (260-261)

XIX. 5. What is an accomplished Gentleman? (262-263)

XIX. 6. It is not Tonsure that makes the Monk (264-265)

XIX. 7. What is it that makes the Monk? (266-267)

XIX. 8. It is not Silence that makes the Sage (268-269)

XIX. 9. Noble is as Noble does (270)

XIX. 10. Be not puffed up (271-272)

 

Chapter XX

XX. 1. The Eightfold Path is the best of Paths (273-276)

XX. 2. Impermanence (277)

XX. 3. Suffering (278)

XX. 4. Unreality (279)

XX. 5. Do not postpone until To-morrow (280)

XX. 6. The Pig-Ghost (281)

XX. 7. Poṭhila the Empty-Head (282)

XX. 8. The Old Monks and the Old Woman (283-284)

XX. 9. “The Grass withereth, the Flower fadeth” (285)

XX. 10. Thou shalt surely Die (286)

XX. 11. The Bereaved Mother and the pinch of Mustard-Seed (287)

XX. 12. The Woman who was bereft of all her Family (288-289)

 

Chapter XXI

XXI. 1. The Ascent of the Ganges (290)

XXI. 2. “Not Hatred for Hatred” (291)

XXI. 3. The Monks who were given to Vanities (292-293)

XXI. 4. The Monk who had Killed his Mother and Father (294-295)

XXI. 5. The Youth and the Demons (296-301)

XXI. 6. The Vajjian Prince who became a Monk (302)

XXI. 7. Citta the Faithful Layman (303)

XXI. 8. Cullā Subhaddā the Virtuous (304)

XXI. 9. The Solitary Monk (305)

 

Chapter XXII

XXII. 1. Murder of Sundarī (306)

XXII. 2. The Skeleton-Ghost (307)

XXII. 3. Magic for Meat (308)

XXII. 4. The Man whom Women Loved (309-310)

XXII. 5. The Presumptuous Monk (311-313)

XXII. 6. The Jealous Woman (314)

XXII. 7. Fortify yourself like a City (315)

XXII. 8. Degrees of Nakedness (316-317)

XXII. 9. Children visit the Buddha (318-319)

 

Chapter XXIII

XXIII. 1. The Sectaries insult the Buddha (320-322)

XXIII. 2. The Monk who had been an Elephant-Trainer (323)

XXIII. 3. The Old Brahman and his Sons (324)

XXIII. 4. On Moderation in Eating (325)

XXIII. 5. The Novice and the Ogress (326)

XXIII. 6. An Elephant sticks fast in the Mud (327)

XXIII. 7. An Elephant waits upon the Buddha (328-330)

XXIII. 8. Māra tempts the Buddha (331-333)

 

Chapter XXIV

XXIV. 1. Redfish (334-337)

XXIV. 2. The Young Sow (338-343)

XXIV. 3. The Renegade Monk (344)

XXIV. 4. The Prison-House (345-346)

XXIV. 5. Beauty is but Skin-Deep (347)

XXIV. 6. The Youth who married a Female Acrobat (348)

XXIV. 7. Young Archer the Wise (349-350)

XXIV. 8. Māra seeks in vain to frighten Rāhula (351-352)

XXIV. 9. The Skeptical Ascetic (353)

XXIV. 10. The Summum Bonum (354)

XXIV. 11. Treasurer Childless (355)

XXIV. 12. The Greater and the Lesser Gift (356-359)

 

Chapter XXV

XXV. 1. Guard the Doors of the Senses (360-361)

XXV. 2. The Goose-Killing Monk (362)

XXV. 3. The Monk who failed to hold his Tongue (363)

XXV. 4. By Righteousness Men honor the Buddha (364)

XXV. 5. The Traitor Monk (365-366)

XXV. 6. The Brahman who gave the Gifts of First-Fruits (367)

XXV. 7. The Conversion of a Pack of Thieves (368-376)

XXV. 8. “The Grass withereth, the Flower fadeth” (377)

XXV. 9. The Monk whose Mother was a Lioness (378)

XXV. 10. The Monk and the Ragged Garment (379-380)

XXV. 11. “Whosoever beholds the Law, he beholds Me” (381)

XXV. 12. The Novice and the Dragon (382)

 

Chapter XXVI

XXVI. 1. Brahman Great-Joy (383)

XXVI. 2. What are the “Two States”? (384)

XXVI. 3. What is the “Far Shore”? (385)

XXVI. 4. What is a Brahman? (386)

XXVI. 5. The Buddhas shine both Day and Night (387)

XXVI. 6. What is a Monk? (388)

XXVI. 7. The Patient subdues the Violent (389-390)

XXVI. 8. Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī receives the Precepts (391)

XXVI. 9. Reverence to whom Reverence is due (392)

XXVI. 10. What is a Brahman? (393)

XXVI. 11. The Trickster Brahman (394)

XXVI. 12. Kisā Gotamī, Wearer of Refuse-Rags (395)

XXVI. 13. What is a Brahman? (396)

XXVI. 14. Uggasena the Acrobat (397)

XXVI. 15. A Tug of War (398)

XXVI. 16. The Patient subdues the Insolent (399)

XXVI. 17. Sāriputta is reviled by his Mother (400)

XXVI. 18. Are not the Arahats creatures of Flesh and Blood? (401)

XXVI. 19. A Slave lays down his Burden (402)

XXVI. 20. Khemā the Wise (403)

XXVI. 21. The Monk and the Goddess (404)

XXVI. 22. The Monk and the Woman (405)

XXVI. 23. The Four Novices (406)

XXVI. 24. Did Big Wayman yield to Anger? (407)

XXVI. 25. The Force of Habit (408)

XXVI. 26. The Monk who was accused of Theft (409)

XXVI. 27. Sāriputta is Misunderstood (410)

XXVI. 28. Moggallāna is Misunderstood (411)

XXVI. 29. Renounce both Good and Evil (412)

XXVI. 30. Elder Moonlight (413)

XXVI. 31. Seven Years in the Womb (414)

XXVI. 32. A Courtezan tempts the Monk Ocean-of-Beauty (415)

XXVI. 33. Jotika and Jaṭila (416)

XXVI. 34. Ajātasattu attacks Jotika’s Palace (416)

XXVI. 35. The Monk who was once a Mime (417)

XXVI. 36. The Monk who was once a Mime (418)

XXVI. 37. The Skull-Tapper (419-420)

XXVI. 38. Husband and Wife (421)

XXVI. 39. Aṅgulimāla the Fearless (422)

XXVI. 40. It is the Giver that makes the Gift (423)

 

Editor’s Note

In preparing this work for digital publication I have made a few minor changes which I will outline here. I have occasionally added notes to the translation, when I thought something needed explaining or a reference was occasional missed by the translator. To distinguish them from Burlingame’s own notes they are prefaced as ‘Ed. note:’.

The original publication quoted only the first few words of the verse(s) that the story is attached to; it is the same in the original Pāḷi text which is being translated. Here, though, as I think it helps to know the verse(s) in advance, I have in most cases included a full quotation of the verse(s) at the top of the story, except when the story is so short it hardly makes a difference.

The pagination of the translation is included in square brackets, so that for instance [28.145] means Vol. 28 of the Harvard Oriental Series, pg. 145. The pagination of the text of the Pāḷi Text Society is included in curly brackets. It was released in 4 volumes, so that {2.138} means Vol. 2, pg. 138. For aesthetic reasons I have normally placed the pagination after the title, and before the text, though the page of course begins with the title.

There are html, pdf, epub, mobi The Introduction is missing from the epub and mobi files because of the difficulty in reproducing the tables well in those formats. 01 and flipbook versions of this text, but unlike my normal practice I have not yet recorded all the audio. I am making some recordings of the stories at present, and will update when I can.

To make the work a manageable size I have divided the eBooks into three volumes, following the original publication scheme.

In September, 2015, I have added in the very useful Introduction by the learned Burlingame, which greatly helps, particularly for those interested in comparative studies.

Anandajoti Bhikkhu
September, 2015.