Dhamma Topics and their Analysis
(Dhammatthavinicchayo)



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Awakening Topics

15. The Four Ways of Attending to Mindfulness

Cattāri Satipaṭṭhānāni

from Satipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ, MN 10

1. Here, monastics, a monastic dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body (kāyānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
2. he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings (vedanānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
3. he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind (cittānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
4. he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things (dhammānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

from Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅgo (Vibh. 7)

1. And how does a monastic dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself?

Here What follows is what is considered to constitute the root (mūla) form of the mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna) teaching, before it was expanded with additions to what now are the discourses at DN 22 and MN 10. See Sujāto, A History of Mindfulness. a monastic in regard to himself – from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin, and filled with manifold impurities – reflects (thus):

There are in this body:

{1} Hairs of the head,
{2} body hairs,
{3} nails,
{4} teeth,
{5} skin,
{6} flesh,
{7} sinews,
{8} bones,
{9} bone-marrow,
{10} kidneys,
{11} heart,
{12} liver,
{13} pleura,
{14} spleen,
{15} lungs,
{16} intestines,
{17} mesentery,
{18} undigested food,
{19} excrement,
{20} bile,
{21} phlegm,
{22} pus,
{23} blood,
{24} sweat,
{25} fat,
{26} tears,
{27} grease,
{28} spit,
{29} mucus,
{30} synovial fluid,
{31} urine.

He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition... In the text it continues by applying the same instruction in regard to another, then in regard to himself and another, which sections are omitted here. For full text see Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅgo.

2. And how does a monastic dwell contemplating (the nature of) the feelings in the feelings in regard to himself?

{1} Here a monastic when experiencing a pleasant feeling knows: I experience a pleasant feeling;
{2} when experiencing an unpleasant feeling he knows: I experience an unpleasant feeling;
{3} when experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows: I experience a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling,
{4} or, when experiencing a sensual pleasant feeling he knows: I experience a sensual pleasant feeling;
{5} or, when experiencing a spiritual pleasant feeling he knows: I experience a spiritual pleasant feeling;
{6} or, when experiencing a sensual unpleasant feeling he knows: I experience a sensual unpleasant feeling;
{7} or, when experiencing a spiritual unpleasant feeling he knows: I experience a spiritual unpleasant feeling;
{8} or, when experiencing a sensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows: I experience a sensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling;
{9} or, when experiencing a spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows: I experience a spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling.

He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition...

3. And how does a monastic dwell contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself?

{1} Here a monastic when the mind has passion knows: My mind has passion,
{2} or, when the mind is without passion he knows: My mind is without passion;
{3} or, when the mind has hate he knows: My mind has hate,
{4} or, when the mind is without hate he knows: My mind is without hate;
{5} or, when the mind has delusion he knows: My mind has delusion,
{6} or, when the mind is without delusion he knows: My mind is without delusion;
{7} or, when the mind is collected he knows: My mind is collected,
{8} or, when the mind is scattered he knows: My mind is scattered;
{9} or, when the mind has become very great he knows: My mind has become very great,
{10} or, when the mind has not become very great he knows: My mind has not become very great;
{11} or, when the mind is surpassable he knows: My mind is surpassable,
{12} or, when the mind is unsurpassable he knows: My mind is unsurpassable;
{13} or, when the mind is concentrated he knows: My mind is concentrated,
{14} or, when the mind is not concentrated he knows: My mind is not concentrated;
{15} or, when the mind is liberated he knows: My mind is liberated,
{16} or, when the mind is not liberated he knows: My mind is not liberated.

He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition...

4. And how does a monastic dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself?

{1} Here a monastic having sensual desire (kāmacchanda) This and what follows constitute the five hindrances. in himself knows: There is sensual desire in myself; or, not having sensual desire in himself he knows: I do not have sensual desire in myself. How there is an arising of sensual desire that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sensual desire that has arisen, that he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sensual desire again in the future, that also he knows.
{2} Having ill-will (byāpāda) in himself he knows: There is ill-will in myself; or, not having ill-will in himself he knows: I do not have ill-will in myself. How there is an arising of ill-will that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of ill-will that has arisen, that he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned ill-will again in the future, that also he knows.
{3} Having sloth and torpor (thīnamiddha) in himself he knows: There is sloth and torpor in myself; or, not having sloth and torpor in himself he knows: I do not have sloth and torpor in myself. How there is an arising of sloth and torpor that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sloth and torpor that has arisen, that he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sloth and torpor again in the future, that also he knows.
{4} Having agitation and worry (uddhaccakukkucca) in himself he knows: There is agitation and worry in myself; or, not having agitation and worry in himself he knows: I do not have agitation and worry in myself. How there is an arising of agitation and worry that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of agitation and worry that has arisen, that he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned agitation and worry again in the future, that also he knows.
{5} Having doubt (vicikicchā) in himself he knows: There is doubt in myself; or, not having doubt in himself he knows: I do not have doubt in myself. How there is an arising of doubt that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of doubt that has arisen, that he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned doubt again in the future, that also he knows.

{1} Having the mindfulness (sati) factor of complete awakening These and what follows constitute the seven factors of awakening, see also section 20 below. in himself he knows: There is the mindfulness factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the mindfulness factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the mindfulness factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the mindfulness factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the mindfulness factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{2} Having the investigation of the (nature) of things (dhammavicaya) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the investigation of the (nature) of things factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the investigation of the (nature) of things factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the investigation of the (nature) of things factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the investigation of the (nature) of things factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the investigation of the (nature) of things factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{3} Having the energy (viriya) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the energy factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the energy factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the energy factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the energy factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the energy factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{4} Having the joy (pīti) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the joy factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the joy factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the joy factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the joy factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the joy factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{5} Having the calmness (passaddhi) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the calmness factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the calmness factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the calmness factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the calmness factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the calmness factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{6} Having the concentration (samādhi) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the concentration factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the concentration factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the concentration factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the concentration factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the concentration factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.
{7} Having the equanimity (upekkhā) factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: There is the equanimity factor of complete awakening in myself; or, not having the equanimity factor of complete awakening in himself he knows: I do not have the equanimity factor of complete awakening in myself. How there is an arising of the equanimity factor of complete awakening that has not arisen, that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the cultivation of the equanimity factor of complete awakening that has arisen, that also he knows.

He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition...

16. The Four Right Endeavours The four right endeavours are a part of the eightfold noble path, and recurr in the appropriate place ins ection 21 below.

Cattāri Sammāvāyāmā

from Satipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ, MN 10

1. Here, monastics, a monastic regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen generates desire for their non-arising, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
2. regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have already arisen he generates desire for their abandonment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
3. he generates desire for the arising of wholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
4. regarding wholesome thoughts that have arisen he generates desire for their endurance, persistence, multiplication, extension, cultivation, and fulfilment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

from Nettippakaraṇaṁ, Hāravibhaṅgo

1. What are bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen?

{1} The thought of sensual pleasure (kāmavitakka),
{2} the thought of ill-will (byāpādavitakka),
{3} the thought of harming (vihiṁsāvitakka). These constitute wrong thought (micchāsaṅkappa), the opposite of the second factor of the eightfold noble path.

These are bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen.

2. What are bad and unwholesome thoughts that have already arisen?

Underlying tendencies and unwholesome roots.

These are bad and unwholesome thoughts that have already arisen.

3. What are wholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen?

Whatever faculties a stream-enterer has.

These are wholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen.

4. What are wholesome thoughts that have arisen?

Whatever faculties the eighth (person) I.e. one practising to become a stream-enterer. has.

These are wholesome thoughts that have arisen.

17. The Four Bases of Spiritual Power

Cattāro Iddhipādā

from Iddhisaṁyuttaṁ, SN 51.1

There are, monastics, these four bases of spiritual power, which, when developed and made much of, lead to going from the near shore to the far shore.

Which four?

1. Here, monastics, a monastic cultivates the basis of spiritual power that is concentration of desire (chanda) accompanied by the volition of striving,
2. he cultivates the basis of spiritual power that is concentration of energy (viriya) accompanied by the volition of striving,
3. he cultivates the basis of spiritual power that is concentration of thought (citta) accompanied by the volition of striving,
4. he cultivates the basis of spiritual power that is concentration of investigation (vīmaṁsā) accompanied by the volition of striving.

These, monastics, are these four bases of spiritual power, which, when developed and made much of, lead to going from the near shore to the far shore.

18. The Five Faculties

Pañcindriyāni

from Indriyasaṁyuttaṁ, SN 48.9

There are, monastics, these five faculties.

Which five?

1. The faith faculty (saddhindriya),
2. the energy faculty (viriyindriya),
3. the mindfulness faculty (satindriya),
4. the concentration faculty (samādhindriya),
5. the wisdom faculty (paññindriya).

1. And what, monastics, is the faith faculty?

Here, monastics, a noble disciple is faithful, he has faith in the Realised One’s Awakening (thus):

Such is he, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha, the one endowed with understanding and good conduct, the Fortunate One, the one who understands the worlds, the unsurpassed guide for those people who need taming, the Teacher of gods and men, the Buddha, the Gracious One.

This, monastics, is called the faith faculty.

2. And what, monastics, is the energy faculty?

Here, monastics, a noble disciple lives with energy aroused for the giving up of unwholesome things, for the establishment of wholesome things, being firm, making strong endeavour, and having persistence in regard to wholesome things.

This, monastics, is called the energy faculty.

3. And what, monastics, is called the mindfulness faculty?

Here, monastics, a noble disciple is mindful, endowed with superior mindfulness and carefulness, remembering and recalling what was done a long time ago and what was said a long time ago.

This, monastics, is called the mindfulness faculty.

4. And what, monastics, is called the concentration faculty?

Here, monastics, a noble disciple having relinquished sense objects, attains concentration, attains one-pointedness of mind.

This, monastics, is called the concentration faculty.

5. And what, monastics, is called the wisdom faculty?

Here, monastics, a noble disciple is wise, endowed with wisdom concerning rise and fall, having noble penetration into the right way leading to the destruction of suffering.

This, monastics, is called the wisdom faculty.

These, monastics, are the five faculties.

19. The Five Strengths

Pañcabalāni

from Balasaṁyuttaṁ, SN 50.1

There are, monastics, these five strengths.

Which five?

1. The faith strength (saddhabala),
2. the energy strength (viriyabala),
3. the mindfulness strength (satibala),
4. the concentration strength (samādhibala),
5. the wisdom strength (paññābala).

These, monastics, are the five strengths.

And how, monastics, does a monastic cultivate the five strengths, make much of the five strengths, so they tend to Nibbāna, incline to Nibbāna, lead to Nibbāna?

1. Here, monastics, a monastic cultivates the faith strength, depending on solitude, depending on dispassion, depending on cessation, maturing in relinquishment,
2. cultivates the energy strength, depending on solitude, depending on dispassion, depending on cessation, maturing in relinquishment,
3. cultivates the mindfulness strength, depending on solitude, depending on dispassion, depending on cessation, maturing in relinquishment,
4. cultivates the concentration strength, depending on solitude, depending on dispassion, depending on cessation, maturing in relinquishment,
5. cultivates the wisdom strength, depending on solitude, depending on dispassion, depending on cessation, maturing in relinquishment.

Thus, monastics, a monastic cultivates the five strengths, make much of the five strengths, so they tend to Nibbāna, incline to Nibbāna, lead to Nibbāna.

20. The Seven Factors of Awakening

Satta Bodhyaṅgāni

from Bojjhaṅgasaṁyuttaṁ, SN 46.4

There are, venerable friends, these seven factors of awakening.

Which seven?

1. The mindfulness (sati) factor of complete awakening,
2. the investigation of (the nature of) things (dhammavicaya) factor of complete awakening,
3. the energy (viriya) factor of complete awakening,
4. the joy (pīti) factor of complete awakening,
5. the calmness (passaddhi) factor of complete awakening,
6. the concentration (samādhi) factor of complete awakening,
7. the equanimity (upekkhā) factor of complete awakening.

There are, venerable friends, these seven factors of awakening.

from Ānāpānasatisuttaṁ, MN 118

1. Monastics, a monastic who, at whatever time, dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world, This is part of the definition of mindfulness (sati) in the satipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ (DN 22, MN 10). at that time has mindfulness established and he is not forgetful, and monastics, at whatever time a monastic’s mindfulness is established and he is not forgetful, at that time the mindfulness factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
2. Living mindfully in this way he investigates that state with wisdom, examining and entering into a deep enquiry (into it), and monastics, at whatever time a monastic living mindfully in this way investigates that state with wisdom, examining and entering into a deep enquiry (into it), at that time the investigation (of the nature) of things factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
3. For he who is investigating that state with wisdom, examining and entering into a deep enquiry (into it), there is an undertaking of unshaken energy, and monastics, at whatever time for a monastic investigating that state with wisdom, examining and entering into a deep enquiry (into it), there is an undertaking of unshaken energy, at that time the energy factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
4. For he who has undertaken energy spiritual joy arises, and monastics, at whatever time for a monastic who has undertaken energy spiritual joy arises, at that time the joy factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
5. For one who has a joyful mind the body is calm, and the mind is calm, and monastics, at whatever time a monastic has a joyful mind and a body that is calm, and a mind that is calm, at that time the calmness factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
6. For one with a calm body and happiness his mind becomes concentrated, and monastics, at whatever time a monastic has a calm body and happiness and a mind that becomes concentrated, at that time the concentration factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic…
7. He who has a well-concentrated mind in this way becomes completely equanimous, and monastics, at whatever time a monastic’s well-concentrated mind in this way becomes completely equanimous, at that time the equanimity factor of complete awakening has been undertaken for that monastic, at that time that monastic is cultivating the equanimity factor of complete awakening, at that time that monastic’s equanimity factor of complete awakening is cultivated and heading towards fulfilment.

21. The Noble Eightfold Path

Ariyaṭṭhaṅgiko Maggo

from Saccavibhaṅgasuttaṁ, MN 141 This discourse is spoken by Ven Sāriputta.

Now what, venerable friends, is the noble truth of the practice leading to the end of suffering?

It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows:

1. Right view (sammā diṭṭhi),
2. right thought (sammā saṅkappa),
3. right speech (sammā vācā),
4. right action (sammā kamanta),
5. right livelihood (sammā ājīvā),
6. right endeavour (sammā vāyāma),
7. right mindfulness (sammā sati),
8. right concentration (sammā samādhi).

1. Now what, venerable friends, is right view?

{1} That, venerable friends, which is knowledge about suffering (dukkha),
{2} knowledge about the arising of suffering (dukkhasamudaya),
{3} knowledge about the cessation of suffering (dukkhanirodha),
{4} knowledge about the practice leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā).

This, venerable friends, is called right view.

2. Now what, venerable friends, is right thought?

{1} The thought of renunciation (nekkhamma),
{2} the thought of good-will (avyāpāda),
{3} the thought of non-violence (avihiṁsā).

This, venerable friends, is called right thought.

3. Now what, venerable friends, is right speech?

{1} Refraining from false speech (musāvāda),
{2} refraining from malicious speech (pisuṇavācā),
{3} refraining from rough speech (pharusavācā),
{4} refraining from frivolous talk (samphappalāpā).

This, venerable friends, is called right speech.

4. Now what, venerable friends, is right action?

{1} Refraining from killing living creatures (pāṇātipāta),
{2} refraining from taking what has not been given (adinnādāna),
{3} refraining from sexual misconduct (kāmesumicchācāra).

This, venerable friends, is called right action.

5. Now what, venerable friends, is right livelihood?

Here, venerable friends, a noble disciple, having given up wrong ways of livelihood, earns his living by a right way of livelihood.

This, venerable friends, is called right livelihood.

6. Now what, venerable friends, is right endeavour?

{1} Here, venerable friends, a monastic regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen generates desire for their non-arising, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
{2} regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have already arisen he generates desire for their abandonment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
{3} he generates desire for the arising of wholesome things that have not yet arisen, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort,
{4} regarding wholesome thoughts that have arisen he generates desire for their endurance, persistence, multiplication, extension, cultivation, and fulfilment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

This, venerable friends, is called right endeavour.

7. Now what, venerable friends, is right mindfulness?

{1} Here, venerable friends, a monastic dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body (kāyānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
{2} he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings (vedanānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
{3} he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind (cittānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world,
{4} he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things (dhammānupassanā), ardent, fully aware and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

This, venerable friends, is called right mindfulness.

8. Now what, venerable friends, is right concentration?

{1} Here, venerable friends, a monastic, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unwholesome things, having thinking, reflection, and the joy and happiness born of seclusion, dwells having attained the first absorption,
{2} with the calming down of thinking and reflection, with internal clarity, and one-pointedness of mind, being without thinking, without reflection, having the happiness and joy born of concentration, he dwells having attained the second absorption,
{3} with the fading away of joy he dwells equanimous, mindful, fully aware, experiencing happiness through the body, about which the Noble Ones declare: He dwells pleasantly, mindful, and equanimous, he dwells having attained the third absorption,
{4} having abandoned pleasure, abandoned pain, and with the previous passing away of mental happiness and sorrow, without pain, without pleasure, and with complete purity of mindfulness owing to equanimity, he dwells having attained the fourth absorption.

This, venerable friends, is called right concentration.

This, venerable friends, is called the noble truth of the practice leading to the cessation of suffering.