This is an extract of some of the definitions from the Jātaka verse word commentary. The commentary does not always give definitions, as other explanations are also necessary to understand the verse. However, amongst them there are some definitions which I have extracted here.
Also note that the definition is by no means complete, it is just the definition relevant in the particular context it was given, and for the most part does not aim at completeness. Still I feel it supplements the dictionaries and when used in addition to a dictionary it will be helpful.
The sequence is:
defined word, translation of the definition.
akataññu; ungrateful means not acknowledging the good done to oneself.
akāca; flawless means smooth.
akilāsu; untiring means not being lazy, having made an effort.
akilāsu; untiring means not being lazy, thinking: Willingly, let only skin, tendons and bones remain, Let the flesh and blood in the body dry up completely, so one who is said to be endowed with the four factors, who is endowed with effort, is not lazy.
akkhaṇavedhi; a sharp shooter means shooting without missing.
aggapiṇḍa; the choicest food means the best food, endowed with (good) taste, worthy of a king.
aṅkitakaṇṇaka; perforated ears, and only a pierced ear, an ear with a hole, this is said concerning a pendulant ear.
ajjhappatta; swooped down means arrived at.
aṭṭita; afflicted means harassed.
atilobhenā ti; with great greed, great greed is said to be being overcome with continual greed.
atthakāma; one who seeks his good means one wishing for his development.
atthacariya; the one who lives well means the one who works for their own development.
attha; prospers means develops.
atriccha; great desire, with great greed, great desire is said to be what is reckoned as desire for this and that, unending craving.
adha; below means from the earth on down to the great hell and its auxiliaries.
aduṭṭhacitta; one of uncorrupt mind means having become one with a mind uncorrupted by defilements.
anariya; ignoble means one who is unvirtuous, wicked.
anariya; ignoble means being devoid of conscience and concern, a bad person.
anikkasāva; impure; impure is said to be lust, hatred, delusion, anger, rivalry, jealousy, selfishness, deceit, cheating, stubbornness, wrathfulness, conceit, great conceit, vanity, heedlessness, all unwholesome things, all wrong ways of living, all one thousand five hundred deeds leading to existence, that are called impure.
apaṇṇaka; unquestionable means being sure, unfailing, leading to deliverance.
api; although, one meaning of the sound api is support, another meaning is supposition.
apetacitta; the one who is devoid of thought means the one without thought, the one with erroneous thought.
apeti; descends down means it lowers, goes to its home.
appamāṇa; it is not possible to make of measure of this, so it is measureless.
appasanna; disturbed means agitated and not tranquil.
ayasa; iron means manganese.
arañña; in the wilds means in that place which has no villages in the vicinity.
ariya; noble, there are four noble ones, the one of noble behaviour, the one having noble characteristics, the one of noble insight, the one of noble penetration.
ariya; noble one, this is term for the good. But there are four kinds of noble: noble behaviour, noble appearance, noble signs, noble penetration… he who stands on noble behaviour has what is known as noble behaviour… Endowed with good form, good posture, confidence, and good looks, he is known as one with noble appearance… He is living after becoming like an ascetic but grasping at clothing, robes and outward signs, also unvirtuous, he is known as one with noble signs.
avadhi; surely killed means surely slaughtered.
asaññī; those unconscious fare badly too, he points out those with minds reborn in the unconsious realm.
asanta; the bad means endowed with the three ways of wrong conduct, lacking virtue, wicked.
asanta; bad means fools lacking wisdom.
asabbhī; wicked means a bad person, unvirtuous by birth.
ahiṁsa; non-violence means being non-violent, not hurting, others.
ākāra; dispositions means inclinations.
ācāma; (having) eaten the scum of broken rice, here scum is what is said to be the leftovers of rice.
ājañña; thoroughbred means knowing what is and what is not the task (this definition plays on the ambiguity of the formation of the word ājañña, normally taken as from ā + √jan + ya (best born), the form is taken as though from ā + √ñā + ā (best knowledge).
ātura; unhealthy means always sick.
āmajāta; slave-born. Saying: “Yes, I am your female slave. ”
āraddhavīriya; with effort established means taking up effort, being endowed with effort free from the four faults.
iṅgha; come, this particle has the meaning of requesting or reproving.
isi; one who searches for virtue is a seer.
uṇṇanābhi; spiders means arachnids. For him the web comes out like wool from the centre, therefore spiders is said.
uddha; above means from the earth as far as the Brahmā Realm of neither perception nor non-perception.
upeta; endowed means possessed of.
uppalasannāha; lotus mace and armour, a lotus mace and armour, is lotus mace and armour, a mace similar to a lotus, and armour, this is the meaning.
uppāta; auguries means: “There will be such a lunar eclipse, there will be such a solar eclipse, there will be such a conjunction of planets, there will be such a meteor shower, there will be such a conflagration, ” these five great auguries.
uḷāra; noble means supreme.
uḷāra; rich means the best, the excellent.
eka; alone means without a companion.
eḷamūga; foolish means a fool who dribbles at the mouth.
evaṁ; so is used to indicate the simile.
omadda; trample down means trample down, bring low.
khañja; lame means having lame feet.
khara; kharo vuccati kakaco; saw is said to be saw.
khura; eight hoofs, because there are two (hoofs) on each individual foot, (there are) eight hoofs.
kaṇḍa; his shaft has a pointed tip, this is a dart. But because the dart enters right in barb is said, therefore the dart, the barb, here a barb-like dart, this is the meaning. A barb made of fig-tree wood is also a barb, that is a barb.
kapitthana; wave-leafed fig means white fig.
kabaḷa; morsel means at food time, the spicy morsel given first.
kamaṇḍalu; waterpots means waterpots.
kalyāṇa; excellent means most agreeable.
kalyāṇa; lovely means beautiful.
kaḷāya; a fistful of cow peas means a fistful of gram. “A fistful of black king bean,” this is also said.
kāma; surely means with certainty.
kālaghasa; that being who devours time this is a term for the one who has destroyed the pollutants.
kāla; time means the time before noon, and the time after noon, and so on like this.
kāsāva; the yellow robe means being dyed in yellow dye it has the state of the flag of the worthy ones.
kira; it seems, this is a particle with the meaning of hearsay.
kira; seems this is a particle with the meaning of what has been heard.
kukkura; those hounds means those dogs. Just as urine that has been held and heated is called fermented urine, and even a jackal born that day is called an old jackal, and even a lotus that has medicinal creepers is called a stinking creeper, and a golden body is nevertheless called a stinking body, so too even a one hundred year old dog is called a hound.
kuṭa; water jar, this is a synonym for a water jar.
kuṇi; handicapped means having lame hands.
kutūhala; commotion is known as scattered talk.
kulāvaka; nestlings means the young of Supaṇṇas.
kevala; all means the whole, without remainder.
kevala; whole means all.
kevala; entirely means in every way. This word is an encompassing word.
kovida; skilled means clever.
ghatāsana; the fire means the fire. Because it eats the ghee, therefore fire (or ghee eater) is said.
gandhabba; musicians means performers.
gahana; you are a thicket on the inside, inside your heart there is hiding a thicket of grasping at lust, hatred and delusion.
girā; utterance means a word.
Garuḷa; Garuḷa means bird, for all birds this is a respectful, polite word.
chetvā; having cut means having exhausted. ?
cakkhumā; that one who gives vision, after destroying the darkness of those living in the whole universe, by causing the acquisition of vision, through that he gives vision to them, through that vision, he is one who gives vision.
caṇḍa; furious means angry.
cāga; of liberality means sacrificing offerings and giving up defilements.
jagatiruha; tree, jagatī is said to be the earth, as trees are born there jagatiruha (tree) is said.
janinda; leader of men, he addresses the king. Because the king has power over others, leads his men, therefore leader of men (is said).
jamma; contemptible means inferior.
jammi; common means inferior, sluggish.
jātaveda; Jātaveda, he calls on fire. Because he is known or experienced by all that is born, therefore Jātaveda is said.
jātaveda; Jātaveda, he calls on Fire. Even a new born knows fire, experiences it, it is clearly seen, therefore Jātaveda is said.
jātu; jātu is an emphatic expression.
jālina; fisherman, he calls on the fisherman. Because he has a net, fisherman is said.
ñāta; knows means becomes clear.
ṭhāna; basis means cause. Because whatever has a cause has what is known as a fruit as a dependent condition, therefore basis is said.
ḍemāna; flyer means one going, traveling.
tato; then means at that time.
tanuja; a kinsman means his brother.
tappati; suffers means grieves.
titikkhati; endure means tolerate.
tiriya; across the middle means in the human world.
tedaṇḍika; the one with three sticks means having taken three sticks in order to make a stand for his waterpot, he wanders.
dhamma; this is the nature means this is the character.
dhamma; wisdom means investigative wisdom: “It will surely be so because of this, ” this is your investigative wisdom.
dhi-r-atthu; cursed be is a particle expressing blame,
dhikkita; blameable means reproachable.
dhitiya; with firm resolution means with resolution firm, with solid, unbroken, continuous energy, this is the meaning.
dhiti; courage, this is said to be your uninterrupted effort, this is also yours.
dhīra; the wise one means the wise one.
dhīra; Buddhas, Independent Buddhas, Buddhas’ disciples and Bodhisattas: these are called wise.
dhorayhasīlī; the patient one, the patient one, endowed with the behaviour of one who bears the burden, of thoroughbred birth.
Dhammadhaja; raises the flag of Dhamma, raises the flag of the ten wholesome course of actions, like one who having raised it to the peak shows it, this is the meaning.
Dhammānuvatti; conformity to the Dhamma means compliance to the threefold dhamma of good conduct.
dakkhiya; dexterity means being adroit, having the knowledge and wisdom to destroy the fear that is present, this is known as being associated with supreme effort.
dama; self-control means self control of the faculties.
diṭṭha; foe means adversary.
duppasaha; hard to overcome means it is not possible to be overcome, to be overpowered by the enemy.
dummedha; unintelligent means having little wisdom.
dummedha; the unintelligent by the thousand, thinking: “It is suitable to do this deed, it is not suitable, ” through ignorance they undertake the ten paths of unwholesome deeds.
Devadūta; divine messengers, divine (here) is said to be death, the messengers of that means divine messengers.
Deva; Deva means Devas through convention, Devas spontaneously reborn, Devas through purity: these three ways. Amongst them, beginning from the time of Mahāsammata, Devas, kings, princes and so on are known as Devas through convention by the people. Those who are reborn in the Deva world are known as Devas spontaneously reborn. Those who have destroyed the pollutants are known as Devas through purity.
nikati; the clever cheat cannot attain final happiness through cheating, cheating is said to be deceiving. One who is wise in cheating, wise in deceiving, that person who cheats you and cheats you, through deceiving cannot be finally happy. He is not able to be established in happiness constantly, but he certainly attains his own ruin, this is the meaning.
niraṅkaroti; disregarding means removing, putting aside.
nivāsaka; dwells means lives constantly.
nivisati; nresides means is established.
nu; nu is a particle with the meaning of nāma, is known.
nūna; what if is a dubitative particle. It is also suitable as an emphatic.
nettiṁsa; and bearing noble blades, blades are said to be swords, bearing supreme swords, this is the meaning.
pagabbha; the arrogant means endowed with arrogance in body and so on, having bad character.
pacamāna; torturing means mortifying, molesting.
paññā; wisdom means this is known as the wisdom in inference, wisdom in means.
paṭisanthāra; he whose way of life is friendly, friendly in Dhamma and friendly in worldly things, living with these he is one whose way of life is friendly, these are those whose way of life is friendly.
padātave; to receive, (it analyses as) pa plus ādātave, because of junction ā- has been ellided, (so) it should be understood, to take is the meaning.
papa; because water is in a drinkable state drinking water is said. Or, a lot of water is drinking water, a great deal of water is the meaning.
pabhāsara; speak means they speak, talk, tell.
parakkanta; exerting means exerting, making an effort.
paripuṇṇa; perfected means flawless.
parosahassa; more than a thousand means in excess of a thousand.
pahaṭṭhamana; cheerful in his mind means being free from hindrances he is cheerful in his mind, like gold that is beaten, having become radiant, luminous, and resplendent, this is the meaning.
pahaṭṭha; cheerful means free from hindrances.
pākaṭa; being renowned you are well known, famous.
pāṇa; because of breathing, through what is reckoned as continuing by breathing in and breathing out, living creatures (is said).
pātubhūta; manifest means appears.
pābhata; by a present means by (giving) wares or money.
puṅgava; together with their bull, together with the leader of the herd, the bull who protects them from trouble.
putto; son, he is known as a son in four ways: being born from oneself, born by proxy, a pupil, an adopted son. In this connection, born because of oneself one is called born from oneself. Being born by laying the child on the bed, on the sofa, or on the chest, and so on one is born by proxy. Dwelling near while learning a craft one is known as a pupil. One given for nurturing is called an adopted son.
posa; person means a being.
posa; a creature means a being.
Piṅgala; by Piṅgala means by the tawny-eyed one. It seems his two eyes were tawny-flecked, the colour of cats’ eyes, because of this the name Piṅgala was given.
bhaya; fear means a measure of dread in the mind, a little fear.
bhariyā; because she should be supported with food, clothes and so on; or, because she is supported from being one without restraint regarding worldly conditions, therefore: “Wife, ” is said.
bhikkhu, the monk, this is a designation for one who is purified.
bhīruta; fright means when the body is shaking (because of) great fear.
bhūta; because of rebirth and the development of beings, beings (is said).
bhūta; beings, this is a term for beings.
bhojjha; a well-bred horse means a well-bred Sindh horse.
bandhava; he is not (your) kin, kin through friendship, kin through craft-relation, kin through clan, kin through family, he is none of these.
babbu; cat means cat.
balavā; being endowed with power you are strong.
bindussara; rich sound, endowed with a rich, undiffused, precise sound.
bondi; body means body.
brahmacariya; upsetter of the spiritual life, they are upsetters of the highest life, the spiritual life bereft of sexual intercourse.
brahmacariya; I have the fruit of the spiritual life, here the four bases of kindness, being the highest life, it is known as the spiritual life, and being rooted in that, through the attainment of fame, they are called mature. The one whose fame is accomplished, he who is in the highest position is called living the spiritual life.
brāhmaṇa; those brahmins means those purified brahmins who have abandoned evil.
macchagumba; schools of fish means clusters of fish.
macchuddāna; string of fish means a series of fish, other fish were bound together with that fish as one
mati; endowed with wisdom means endowed with wisdom.
mahākāya; hide body, wooden body, metal body, iron body, sand body, water body, plank body, these are the seven great bodies.
māna; a measure means what is known as eight nāḷi, four of which is a half-measure, four nāḷi are known as a tumba.
muni; the sage, sageness is said to be knowledge, or a certain sagacity of body and so on, the person who is endowed with that is said to be a sage. These: a sage with a home, a sage without a home, a sage in training, a sage beyond training, a sage who is an Independent Buddha, a Sage of Sages, these are the various kinds. In this connection, a sage with a home means a householder who has attained fruition, one who knows the dispensation. A sage without a home means such a one who has gone forth. A sage in training means in one of the seven trainings. A sage beyond training is one who has destroyed the pollutants. A sage who is an Independent Buddha means an Independent Sambuddha. A Sage of Sages means a Perfect Sambuddha.
medha; the intelligent one, the one so-called, being endowed with vast, purified, ultimate wisdom.
medhāvī; an intelligent (person) means a wise (person).
medhāvī; intelligent means, wise, knowledgeable, understanding.
yasassī; famous means endowed with a retinue.
yāvatā; as far as is a word setting a limit.
yāva; my heart is very careless, here yāva is an emphatic particle.
yāva; as long as means for as much time as.
yuga; overcoming the ties and the yokes, thinking: “Anger and resentment, smearing and rivalry, ” and so on, in this way, two by two together, the defilements that are known as ties.
yūpa; palace means palace.
yogakkhema; security means bodily and mental happiness. Through the fact of being secure from the yoke of suffering here, he has security.
yoga; the yoke of sensuality, the yoke of existence, the yoke of (wrong) views, the yoke of ignorance, in this round of births what are known as the four yokes from their nature of yoking.
yogakkhema; his security increases means his bodily and mental happiness increases.
raṭṭha; the kingdom means a place where people are spread out.
ramaṇaka; crystal means at that time what was known as quartz.
rasa; tastes means (tasting) with tongue-consciousness, sweet, sour and so on.
rukkhamūla; at the root of a tree means in the vicinity of a tree.
ruppanta; oppressed means being injured, tormented.
lakkhaṇa; fortunate signs, unfortunate signs, signs concerning women, signs concerning men, signs concerning female slaves, signs concerning male slaves, signs concerning snakes, signs concerning elephants, signs concerning horses, signs concerning bulls, signs concerning weapons, signs concerning clothes, so all these signs.
lasi; brains means brains.
litta; smeared means soiled, stained.
ludda; violent means savage.
loka; world is the world of processes, the world of beings, the visible world, the world of the aggregates, the world of the sense spheres, the world of the elements, these various ways.
lokāmisa; worldliness means the five strands of sense pleasure. Because you grasp at what is pleasing, charming, likeable, therefore worldliness is said.
loha; copper means copper.
lohitapa; blood-drinker means blood-sucker.
vakkaṅga; birds! is said calling on the birds. Sometimes their heads sit crooked on their necks, therefore vakkaṅga crooked limb is said. Birds are born crooked in both their wings, so vakkaṅga (is said).
vaṇṇa; the appearance means the form.
vadhitvā; having slaughtered means having killed.
vaḷavā; a mare means an inferior horse born to a Sindh horse family.
vālodaka (vāludaka); this fibrous water means filtered water with fiber.
vijjā; science means whatever is in the eighteen branches of science.
vidha; commands means the divisions or the commands.
vidhi; the rules means the traditions established by the wise men of old.
viriyabala; endowed with strength of effort means endowed with effort and strength of body and the strength of knowledge.
virocana; radiant means through making light they have a radiant nature.
vivana; you go to the desert, having entered the wilderness, a place with no water.
viveka; nurturing solitude, bodily solitude, mental solitude, attachment solitude, these three solitudes
visamacakkhuka; visamacakkhukā ti visamakkhimaṇḍalā, kekarā; eyes that are crossed means having crossed eyeballs, squinting.
vihaṅgama; birds, viha is said to be the sky, as birds fly there vihaṅgama (sky-flyer) is said.
vihaṅgama; sky-goer, going along by his wings, he is going, flapping his wings, across the sky he goes, going across the sky.
vihaññati; he . . . suffers hardship, he who by the wrong means, thinking: “I desire benefit, development, happiness for myself, ” at the wrong time making endeavour, that person suffers hardship, is wearied, achieves total destruction.
vihiyyati; decreases means deteriorates.
vuḍḍha; those people . . . pay homage to an elder, an elder from birth, an elder from age, an elder from virtue, these three elders. Out of these, one endowed with birth, is known as an elder from birth, one standing on age, is known as an elder from age, one endowed with virtue, is known as an elder from virtue.
veṇikata; plaited hair means having braided hair, having her hair set in various weaves, this is the meaning.
verī; an enemy means a person endowed with hostile intent.
Vesāyī; from death’s realm, Vesāyī is said to be Yama (the god of death), his realm.
sacca; truth means truthful speech, saying: “I will come into your presence, ” not making false speech, and then surely coming, this is your truthful speech.
saccupasaṁhita; speaks an utterance connected with truth, he would speak an utterance depending on reality, depending on meaning, depending on reason.
saññī; those who are conscious means except for the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he points out the remainder of those beings with minds.
saddha;faith, because of having faith in deeds and results, he had trustworthy faith.
saddahati; you place your trust … relying on, this is the meaning.
santhava; nothing (is worse) than the intimacy, the intimacy of craving, and the intimacy of a friend.
santhava; intimacy means there is friendly intimacy through being engaged in sexual intercourse.
santi; finds peace right here in his heart means by causing a coolness of mind, of the heart-material, peace comes to be reckoned, what is reckoned as the absorptions, insight, super knowledges, the Path to knowledge of Arahatta, the noble Dhamma is found, is received, this is the meaning.
sandhi; having made peace means having become friendly.
samāsati; you must associate means you should spend time together, you should dwell near, this is the meaning.
sambahula; numerous relatives, from four upwards even to one hundred thousand is called numerous, thus the numerous relatives who dwell depending on each other.
samma; friend, this is a word of endearment.
sarīsapa; creeping things means what are called snakes or serpents.
salla; his shaft has a pointed tip, this is a dart. But because the dart enters right in barb is said, therefore the dart, the barb, here a barb-like dart, this is the meaning. A barb made of fig-tree wood is also a barb, that is a barb.
saṁyama; restraint means restraint according to virtue.
sahāya; he is not a companion who played together (with you) in the mud.
sādhu; well done means excellent, praiseworthy, these not troubled by others, this is the meaning.
sāpada; wild creatures, not just jackals, but the rest of the animals beginning with dogs, deer, cats, etc., all wild creatures.
siri; light means luminous.
sīla; virtue means virtuous behaviour, with this he points out (good) worldly conduct.
sīha; lion, there are four lions: a green lion, a white lion, a black lion, a maned lion with red paws.
sukha; happiness means bodily and mental satisfaction.
suta; learning means learning dependent on reason.
subha; brilliant means radiant.
subhāvita; well-developed means well-cultivated, this is what is known as mental absorption.
suvaṇṇa; golden means having a beautiful colour.
susu; like a boy means like what is known as a youth, a young man.
sūra; being firm of heart you are a hero.
sūra; heroism means being heroic, this is known as the development of fearlessness.
sūra; the hero means brave, endowed with strength.
seyya; better means distinguished, supreme.
haññati; he dies means such a person, in the midst of kin and friends, dies, is exhausted, attains complete destruction.
sovaṇṇaya; valuable means those valuable things of beautiful colour. What things? Silver, jewels, gold, coral, and so on are treasures. For in this place all these valuable things is the intention, a stack of them, a stack of valuable things.
Sataṁ Dhamma; Good Dhamma, the good Dhamma of the Buddhas, Independent Buddhas, Buddhas’ disciples, of the good people, the wise ones.
hantvā; having hit means having beaten.
handa; come now is a particle with the meaning of endeavour.
harissavaṇṇa; he is golden coloured, the colour similar to gold, golden coloured, this is the meaning.
hiri-ottappa; endowed with conscience and concern, endowed with both conscience and concern. Amongst these two those who have a conscience about wrong bodily actions and so on have conscience, this is a term for shame. For those who are concerned about something there is concern, this is a term for fear of wrong. Herein conscience arises internally, concern arises externally. Conscience depends on oneself as authority, concern depends on worldly authority. Shame arises naturally with conscience, fear arises naturally with concern. Conscience is marked by respect, concern is marked by avoidance, timidity and seeing danger.
hiṁsita; harassed means afflicted in various ways by punishment and fines, and so on.
last updated: November 2022