Ja 48 Vedabbhajātaka Dr. Richard Morris was the first to trace in this Jātaka an early form of Chaucer’s Pardoner’s Tale (see Contemporary Review for May, 1881); Mr. H. T. Francis and Mr. C. H. Tawney independently traced the same connection in The Academy, Dec. 22, 1883 (subsequently reprinted in an enlarged form), and in the Cambridge Journal of Philology, Vol. xii. 1883.
The Birth Story about the Vedabbha (Brahmin) (1s)
Alternative Title: Vedabbajātaka (Cst)
In the present the Buddha hears of an undisciplined monk, and tells a story of how in a past life, despite being warned against it, he had exercised his powers to gain treasure, which fell from the sky, and how this had led to his own destruction, and the destruction of 1,000 more.
The Bodhisatta = the pupil (antevāsika),
the wilful monk = the Vedabbha brahmin.
Keywords: Disobedience, Wilfullness, Devas.
“He who by the wrong means.” This story was told by the Teacher while at Jetavana, about a wilful monk. Said the Teacher to that monk, “This is not the first time, monk, that you have been wilful; you were of just the same disposition in bygone times also;
In the past when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, there was a brahmin in a village who knew the charm called Vedabbha. Now this charm, so they say, was precious beyond all price. For, if at a certain conjunction of the planets the charm was repeated and the gaze bent upwards to the skies, straightaway from the heavens there rained the Seven Things of Price – gold, silver, pearl, coral, catseye, ruby, and diamond.
In those days the Bodhisatta was a pupil of this brahmin; and one day his master left the village on some business or other, and came with the Bodhisatta to the country of Ceti.
In a forest by the way dwelt five hundred robbers – known as “the Dispatchers” who made the way impassable. And these caught the Bodhisatta and the Vedabbha brahmin.
(Why, you ask, were they called the Dispatchers? Well, the story goes that of every two prisoners they made they used to dispatch one to fetch the ransom; and that’s why they were called the Dispatchers. If they captured a father and a son, they told the father to go for the ransom to free his son; if they caught a mother and her daughter, they sent the mother for the money; if they caught two brothers, they let the elder go; and so too, if they caught a teacher and his pupil, it was the pupil they set free. In this case, therefore, they kept the Vedabbha brahmin, and sent the Bodhisatta for
And the Bodhisatta said with a bow to his master, “In a day or two I shall surely come back; have no fear; only fail not to do as I shall say. Today will come to pass the conjunction of the planets which brings about the rain of the Things of Price. Take heed lest, yielding to this mishap, you repeat the charm and call down the precious shower. For, if you do, calamity will certainly befall both you, and this band of robbers.” With this warning to his master, the Bodhisatta went his way in quest of the ransom.
At sunset the robbers bound the brahmin and laid him by the heels. Just at this moment the full moon rose over the eastern horizon, and the brahmin, studying the heavens, knew
The brahmin, marking the conjunction of the planets, repeated his charm with eyes uplifted to the heavens. Forthwith the Things of Price poured down from the skies! The robbers picked them all up, wrapping their booty into bundles with their cloaks. Then with their brothers they marched away; and the brahmin followed in the rear. But, as luck would have it, the party was captured by a second band of five hundred robbers! “Why do you seize us?” said the first to the second band. “For booty,” was the answer. “If booty is what you want, seize on that brahmin, who by simply gazing up at the skies brought down riches as rain. It was he who gave us all that we have got.” So the second band of robbers let the first band go, and seized on the brahmin, crying, “Give us riches too!” “It would give me great pleasure,” said the brahmin, “but it will be a year before the requisite conjunction of the planets takes place again. If you will only be so good as to wait till then, I will invoke the precious shower for you.”
“Rascally brahmin!” cried the angry robbers, “you made the other band rich off-hand, but want us to wait a whole year!” And they cut him in two with a sharp sword, and flung his body in the middle of the road. Then hurrying after the first band of robbers, they killed every man of them too in hand-to-hand combat, and seized the booty. Next, they divided into two companies and fought among themselves, company against company, till two hundred and fifty men were slain. And so they went on killing one another, till only two were left alive. Thus did those thousand men come to destruction.
Now, when the two survivors had managed to carry off the treasure they hid it in the jungle near a village; and one of them sat there, sword in hand,
“Covetousness is the root of ruin!” mused he Or perhaps a full stop should be inserted after eva ti, the words “Covetousness… ruin” being treated as a maxim quoted parenthetically by the author.” that stopped by the treasure. “When my mate comes back, he’ll want half of this. Suppose I kill him the moment he gets back.” So he drew his sword and sat waiting for his comrade’s return.
Meanwhile, the other had equally reflected that the booty had to be halved, and thought to himself, “Suppose I poison the rice, and give it to him to eat and so kill him, and have the whole of the treasure to myself.” Accordingly, when the rice was boiled, he first ate his own share, and then put poison in the rest, which he carried back with him to the jungle. But scarce had he set it down, when the other robber cut him in two with his sword, and hid the body away in a secluded spot. Then he ate the poisoned rice, and died then and there. Thus, by reason of the treasure, not only the brahmin but all the robbers came to destruction.
Howbeit, after a day or two the Bodhisatta came back with the ransom. Not finding his master where he had left him, but seeing treasure strewn all round about, his heart misgave him that, in spite of his advice, his master must have called down a shower of treasure from the skies, and that all must have perished in consequence; and he proceeded along the road.
On his way he came to where his master’s body lay cloven in twain upon the way. “Alas,” he cried, “he is dead through not heeding my warning.” Then with gathered sticks he made a pyre and burnt his master’s body, making an offering of wild flowers. Further along the road, he came upon the five hundred “Dispatchers,” and further still upon the two hundred and fifty, and so on by degrees until at last he came to where lay only two corpses. Marking how of the thousand all but two had perished, and feeling sure that there must be two survivors, and that these could not refrain from strife, he pressed on to see where they had gone. So on he went till he found the path by which with the treasure they had turned into the jungle; and there he found the heap of bundles of treasure, and one robber lying dead with his rice-bowl overturned at his side.
Realising the whole story at a glance, the Bodhisatta set himself to search for the missing man, and at last found his body in the secret spot where it had been flung.
1. Anupāyena yo atthaṁ icchati so vihaññati,
Cetā haniṁsu Vedabbaṁ, sabbe te byasanam-ajjhagū ti.
He who by the wrong means wishes for benefit suffers hardship, the Cetā thieves killed Vedabba, and they all came to destruction.
Thus spake the Bodhisatta, and he went on to say, “Even as my master’s misguided and misplaced effort in causing the rain of treasure to fall from heaven wrought both his own death and the destruction of others with him, even so shall every other man who by mistaken means seeks to compass his own advantage, utterly perish and involve others in his destruction.” With these words did the Bodhisatta make the forest ring; and in this verse did he preach the Dhamma, while the Tree Devatās shouted applause. The treasure he contrived to carry off to his own home, where he lived out his term of life in the exercise of generosity and other good works. And when his life closed, he departed to the heaven he had won.
Said the Teacher, “This is not the first time, monk, you were wilful; you were wilful in bygone times as well; and by your wilfulness you came to utter destruction.” His lesson ended, he identified the Jātaka by saying: “The wilful monk was the Vedabbha brahmin of those days, and I myself his pupil.”
last updated: August 2023