Ja 54 Phalajātaka
The Birth Story about the Fruit (1s)

Alternative Title: Kiṁphalajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks come across a clever gardener, who knows all the fruits and their various stages. When the Buddha hears of this, he tells of how in a past life his knowledge of fruits had saved the lives of the men of his caravan, when he had correctly identified a poisonous fruit that looked like a mango.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan leader (satthavāha),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Ja 54 Phala, Ja 85 Kimpakka, Ja 366 Gumbiya.

Keywords: Skill, Discrimination.

“This tree is not hard to climb up.” This was told by the Teacher while at Jetavana, about a lay brother who was skilled in the knowledge of fruits. It appears that a certain householder of Sāvatthi had invited the Saṅgha with the Buddha at their head, and had seated them in his pleasure gardens, where they were regaled with rice-gruel and cakes. Afterwards he bade his gardener go round with the monks and give mangoes and other kinds of fruits to the venerables. In obedience to orders, the man walked about the grounds with the monks, and could tell by a single glance up at the tree what fruit was green, what nearly ripe, and what quite ripe, and so on. And what he said was always found true. So the monks came to the Tathāgata and mentioned how expert the gardener was, and how, while himself standing on the ground, he could accurately tell the condition of the hanging fruit. “Monks,” said the Teacher, “this gardener is not the only one who has had knowledge of fruits. A like knowledge was shown by the wise and good of former days also.” And so saying, he told this story of the past.

In the past when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a merchant. When he grew up, and was trading with five hundred wagons, he came one day to where the road led through a great forest. {1.271} Halting at the outskirts, he mustered the caravan and addressed them thus, “Poison trees grow in this forest. Take heed that you taste no unfamiliar leaf, flower, or fruit without first consulting me.” All promised to take every care; and the journey into [1.136] the forest began. Now just within the forest-border stands a village, and just outside that village grows a Kimphala tree. The Kimphala tree exactly resembles a mango alike in trunk, branch, leaf, flower, and fruit. And not only in outward semblance, but also in taste and smell, the fruit – ripe or unripe – mimics the mango. If eaten, it is a deadly poison, and causes instant death.

Now some greedy fellows, who went on ahead of the caravan, came to this tree and, taking it to be a mango, ate of its fruit. But others said: “Let us ask our leader before we eat,” and they accordingly halted by the tree, fruit in hand, till he came up. Perceiving that it was no mango, he said: “This ‘mango’ is a Kimphala tree; don’t touch its fruit.”

Having stopped them from eating, the Bodhisatta turned his attention to those who had already eaten. First he dosed them with an emetic, and then he gave them the four sweet foods to eat; so that in the end they recovered.

Now on former occasions caravans had halted beneath this same tree, and had died from eating the poisonous fruit which they mistook for mangoes. On the morrow the villagers would come, and seeing them lying there dead, would fling them by the heels into a secret place, departing with all the belongings of the caravan, wagons and all.

And on the day too of our story these villagers did not fail to hurry at daybreak to the tree for their expected spoils. “The oxen must be ours,” said some. “And we’ll have the wagons,” said others; while others again claimed the wares as their share. But when they came breathless to the tree, there was the whole caravan alive and well!

“How came you to know this was not a mango tree?” demanded the disappointed villagers. “We didn’t know,” said they of the caravan, “it was our leader who knew.”

So the villagers came to the Bodhisatta and said: “Man of wisdom, what did you do to find out this tree was not a mango?”

“Two things told me,” replied the Bodhisatta, and he repeated this verse: {1.272}

1. Nāyaṁ rukkho durāruho, na pi gāmato ārakā,
Ākāraṇena jānāmi nāyaṁ sāduphalo dumo ti.

This tree is not hard to climb up, nor is it far from the village, for this reason I know that this tree does not have delicious fruit.

And having taught the Dhamma to the assembled multitude, he finished his journey in safety.

“Thus, monks,” said the Teacher, “in bygone days the wise and good were experts in fruit.” His lesson ended, he showed the connection and identified the Jātaka by saying: “The Buddha’s followers were then the people of the caravan, and I myself was the caravan leader.”