Ja 55 Pañcāvudhajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Pañcāvudha (1s)
In the present a monk gives up the struggle easily. The Buddha tells him a story about a past life in which he refused to give up the fight even though ensnared by a Yakkha and threatened with death. The Yakkha, recognising his courage, lets him go.
The Bodhisatta = prince Pañcāvudha (Pañcāvudhakumāra),
Aṅgulimāla = the Yakkha (Silesaloma).
Keywords: Courage, Perseverance, Devas.
“When no Attachment.”
“In bygone days, monk,” said the Teacher, “the wise and good won a throne by their dauntless perseverance in the hour of need.” And so saying, he told this story of the past.
In the past when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, it was as his queen’s child that the Bodhisatta came to life once more. On the day when he was to be named, the parents enquired as to their child’s destiny from eight hundred brahmins, to whom they gave their hearts’ desire in all pleasures of sense. Marking the promise which he showed of a glorious destiny, these clever soothsaying brahmins foretold that, coming to the throne at the king’s death, the child should be a mighty king endowed with every virtue; famed and renowned for his exploits with five weapons, he should stand peerless in all Jambudīpa. This was one of the four islands, or dipā, of which the earth was supposed to consist; it included India, and represented the inhabited world to the Indian mind.
Now, when the prince was come to years of discretion, and was sixteen years old, the king bade him go away and study.
“With whom, sire, am I to study?” asked the prince.
“With the world-famed teacher in the town of Taxila in the Gandhāra country. Here is his fee,” said the king, handing his son a thousand pieces.
So the prince went to Taxila and was taught there. When he was leaving, his master gave him a set of five weapons, armed with which, after bidding adieu to his old master, the prince set out from Taxila for Benares.
On his way he came to a forest haunted by a Yakkha named Silesaloma [Hairy-grip]; and, at the entrance to the forest, men who met him tried to stop him, saying: “Young brahmin, do not go through that forest; it is the haunt
“Whither away?” cried the monster. “Halt! You are my prey.” “Yakkha,” answered the Bodhisatta, “I knew what I was doing when entering this forest. You will be ill-advised to come near me. For with a poisoned arrow I will slay you where you stand.” And with this defiance, he fitted to his bow an arrow dipped in deadliest poison and shot it at the Yakkha. But it only stuck on to the monster’s shaggy coat. Then he shot another and another, till fifty were spent, all of which merely stuck on to the Yakkha’s shaggy coat. Hereon the Yakkha, shaking the arrows off so that they fell at his feet, came at the Bodhisatta; and the latter, again shouting defiance, drew his sword and struck at the Yakkha. But, like the arrows, his sword, which was thirty-three inches long, merely stuck fast in the shaggy hair. Next the Bodhisatta hurled his spear, and that stuck fast also. Seeing this, he smote the Yakkha with his club; but, like his other weapons, that too stuck fast. And thereupon the Bodhisatta shouted, “Yakkha, you never heard yet of me,
Yet even when thus caught and snared in fivefold wise, the Bodhisatta, as he hung upon the Yakkha, was still fearless, still undaunted. And the monster thought to himself, “This is a very lion among men, a hero without a peer, and no mere man. Though he is caught in the clutches of a Yakkha like me, yet not so much as a tremor does he exhibit. Never, since I first took to slaying travellers upon this road, have I seen a man to equal him. How comes it that he is not frightened?” Not daring to devour the Bodhisatta offhand, he said: “How is it, young brahmin, that you have no fear of death?”
“Why should I?” answered the Bodhisatta. “Each life must surely have its destined death. Moreover, within my body is a sword of adamant, which you will never digest, if you eat me. It will chop your inwards into mincemeat, and my death will involve yours too. Therefore it is that I have no fear.” (By this, it is said, the Bodhisatta meant the Sword of Knowledge, which was within him.)
Hereon, the Yakkha fell to thinking. “This young brahmin is speaking the truth and nothing but the truth,” thought he. “Not a morsel so big as a pea could I digest of such a hero. I’ll let him go.” And, so, in fear of his life, he let the Bodhisatta go free, saying: “Young brahmin, you are a lion among men; I will not eat you. Go forth from my hand, even as the moon from the jaws of Rāhu, and return to gladden the hearts of your kinsfolk, your friends, and your country.”
“As for myself; Yakkha,” answered the Bodhisatta, “I will go. As for you, it was your defilements in bygone days that caused you to be reborn a ravening, murderous, flesh-eating Yakkha; and, if
In this and other ways the Bodhisatta showed the evil consequences of the five bad courses, and the blessing that comes of the five good courses; and so wrought in divers ways upon that Yakkha’s fears that by his teaching he converted the monster, imbuing him with self-denial and establishing him in the Five Precepts. Then making the Yakkha the Devatā of that forest, with a right to levy dues, Or, perhaps, “to whom sacrifices should be offered.” The translation in the text suggests a popular theory of the evolution of the tax-collector. See also No. 155. and charging him to remain steadfast, the Bodhisatta went his way, making known the change in the Yakkha’s mood as he issued from the forest. And in the end he came, armed with the five weapons, to the city of Benares, and presented himself before his parents. In later days, when king, he was a righteous ruler; and after a life spent in generosity and other good works he passed away to fare thereafter according to his deeds.
This lesson ended, the Teacher, after Fully Awakening, recited this verse:
1. “When no attachment hampers heart or mind,
When righteousness is practised peace to win,
He who so walks, shall gain the victory
And all the fetters utterly destroy.” See Ja 56 and 156.
When he had thus led his teaching up to Arahatship as its crowning point, the Teacher went on to preach the Four Truths, at the close whereof that monk became an Arahat. Also, the Teacher showed the connection, and identified the Jātaka by saying: “Aṅgulimāla Aṅgulimāla, a bandit who wore a necklace of his victims’ fingers, was converted by the Buddha and became an Arahat. cf. MN No. 86. was the Yakkha of those days, and I myself prince Pañcāvudha.”
last updated: November 2021