Ja 478 Dūtajātaka
The Story about the Messenger (13s)

In the present the monks are discussing the Buddha’s resourcefulness in teaching. The Buddha tells a story of a young brahmin who, having finished his studies, lost his teacher’s fee, and sat on the bank of the Ganges till the king came, as only the latter could repair the matter.

The Bodhisatta = the young brahmin (brāhmaṇamāṇava),
Sāriputta = the teacher (ācariya),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Skilful means, Resource.

“O plunged in thought.” This story the Teacher told while dwelling at Jetavana, about praise of his own wisdom. In the Dhamma Hall they were talking, “See, monks, the One with Ten Powers’ skill in resource! He showed that young [4.140] gentleman Nanda Buddha’s half-brother. For the allusion see No. 182, Saṅgāvācarajātaka, and Hardy, Manual, p. 204; Warren, Buddhism in Translations, 269 ff. the host of Accharā, and made him an Arahat; he gave a cloth to his little foot-page, Reading cullupaṭṭhākassa. and made him an Arahat along with the four branches of analytic knowledges; Of attha-, dhamma-, nirutti-, paṭibhāna-[paṭisambhidā]. For explanation of these obscure terms the reader is referred to Childers, p. 366; and Warren, Buddhism in Translations, Index s. v. “Analytical Sciences.” to the blacksmith he showed a lotus, and made him an Arahat; with what diverse expedients he instructs living beings!” The Teacher entered and asked what they sat talking of; they told him. Said he, “It is not the first time that the Tathāgata has had skill in means, and knew what will have the desired effect; he had skill in means before.” So saying, he told a story of the past.

In the past, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the country was without gold; for the king oppressed the country and so got treasure. At that time the Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family of a certain village in Kāsi. When he came of age, he went to Taxila, saying: “I will get money to pay my teacher afterwards, by soliciting alms honourably.” He acquired learning, and when his education was done, he said: “I will use all diligence, my teacher, to bring you the money due for your teaching.” Then taking leave of him, he departed, and traversing the land sought alms.

When he had honourably and fairly got a few ounces “Seven nikkhas.” Nikkho is a variable weight, equal to 250 phalas, which we may call grains. of gold, he set out to hand them over to his teacher; and on the way went aboard a boat in order to cross the Ganges. As the boat swayed to and fro on the water, the gold fell in. Then he thought: “This is a country hard to get gold in; {4.225} if I go seeking again for money to pay my teacher withal, there will be long delay. What if I sit fasting on the bank of the Ganges? The king will by and by come to learn of my sitting here, and he will send some of his courtiers, but I will have nothing to say to them. Then the king himself will come, and by that means I shall get my teacher’s fee from him.” So he wrapped about him his upper robe, and putting outside the sacrificial thread, sat on the bank of the Ganges, like a statue of gold upon the silver sand.

The passing crowds, seeing him sit there and take no food, asked him why he sat. But he had never a word for one of them. Next day the villagers of the suburb got wind of his sitting there, and they too came and asked, but he told them no more; the villagers seeing his exhausted condition went away lamenting. On the third day came people from the city, on the fourth came the city grandees, on the fifth those about the king, on the sixth day the king sent his ministers; but to none of them would the man speak. [4.141]

On the seventh day the king in alarm came to the man, and asked an explanation, reciting the first verse:

1. “O plunged in thought on Ganges’ bank, why spoke you not again
In answer to my messages? Will you conceal your pain?”

When this he heard, the Great Being replied, “O great king! The sorrow must be told to him that is able to take it away, and to no other,” and he repeated seven verses:

2. “O fostering lord of Kāsi land! If sorrow be your lot,
Tell not that sorrow to a soul if he can help it not.

3. But whosoever can relieve one part of it by right,
To him let all his wish declare each sorrow-stricken wight.

4. The cry of jackals or of birds is understood with ease;
Yea, but the word of men, O king, is darker far than these. {4.226}

5. A man may think, ‘This is my friend, my comrade, of my kin,’
But friendship goes, and often hate and enmity begin! These two couplets [4-5] occur above in No. 476 (p. 135).

6. He who not being asked and asked again
Out of due season will declare his pain,
Surely displeases those who are his friends,
And they who wish him well lament amain.

7. Knowing fit time for speaking how to find,
Knowing a wise man of a kindred mind,
The wise to such a one his woe declares,
In gentle words with meaning hid behind.

8. But should he see that nothing can amend
His hardships, and that telling them will tend
To no good issue, let the wise alone
Endure, reserved and shamefast to the end.” {4.227}

Thus did the Great Being discourse in these seven verses to teach the king; and then repeated four others to show his search for money to pay the teacher withal:

9. “O king! Whole kingdoms I have scoured, the cities of each king,
Each town or village, craving alms, my teacher’s fee to bring.

10. Householder, courtier, man of wealth, brahmin – at every door
Seeking, a little gold I gained, an ounce or two, no more.
Now that is lost, O mighty king! And so I grieve full sore.

11. No power had your messengers to free me from my pain:
I weighed them well, O mighty king! So I did not explain.

12. But you have power, O mighty king! To free me from my pain,
For I have weighed your merit well; to you I do explain.”

When the king heard his utterance, he replied, “Trouble not, brahmin, for I will give you your teacher’s fee,” and he restored him two-fold. [4.142]

To make this clear the Teacher repeated the last verse:

13. “The fostering lord of Kāsi land did to this man restore
(In fullest trust) of gold refined twice what he had before.”

When the Great Being had thus delivered himself, he proceeded to pay his teacher’s fee; and the king in like manner followed his advice, giving alms and doing good, and ruled in righteousness. So did they both finally pass away according to their deeds. {4.228}

When the Teacher had ended this discourse, he said: “So, monks, it is not only now, but the Tathāgata had skill in means previously.” Then he identified the Jātaka, “At that time Ānanda was the king, Sāriputta the teacher, and I was the young man.”