Ja 506 Campeyyajātaka
The Story about (the Nāga King) Campeyya (20s)

In the present the Buddha praises keeping the Uposatha precepts. He then tells a story of a Nāga king who allowed himself to be captured rather than break his vows. He was then displayed before the king, to whom he explained how it was he was caught.

The Bodhisatta = the Nāga king Campeyya (Campeyyanāgarājā),
Rāhulamātā = (Nāga queen) Sumanā,
Sāriputta = Uggasena (the king of Benares),
Devadatta = the snake-catcher (ahituṇḍika).

Past Compare: Cp 13 Campeyyanāgacariyā, Mvu ii p 225 Campaka.

Keywords: Virtue, Vows, Precepts, Renunciation, Devas.

“Who is it like.” [4.281] This story the Teacher told while dwelling in Jetavana, about the Uposatha precepts. The Teacher said: “It is well done, lay brethren, that you have taken upon you the Uposatha precepts. Wise men of old likewise even renounced the glory of being a Nāga king, and lived under these vows.” Then at their request he told a story of the past.

In the past, when Aṅga was king in the kingdom of Aṅga, and Magadha king in Magadha, betwixt the realms of Aṅga and Magadha was the river Campā, where was a place where serpents dwelt, and here a serpent king Campeyya held sway.

Sometimes king Magadha took the Aṅga country, sometimes king Aṅga took Magadha. One day king Magadha, having fought a battle with Aṅga and got the worse, mounted his charger and took to flight, pursued by Aṅga’s warriors. When he came to the Campā river, it was in flood. But he said: “Better death drowned in this river than death at the hands of my enemies!” Then man and horse plunged in the stream.

Now the serpent king Campeyya had built under the water a jewelled pavilion; and there at this moment in the midst of his court he was carousing deep. But the king and his horse plunged into the river just in front of the Nāga king. The serpent, beholding this magnificent monarch, conceived a liking for him. Rising from his seat, he made the king sit down upon his own throne, bidding him fear nought, and asked why he came plunging into the water. The king told him all as it was. Then said the serpent, “Fear nothing, O great king! I will make you master of both kingdoms.” Thus he consoled him, and for seven days he showed him high honour.

On the seventh day he with king Magadha left the serpent palace. Then by the Nāga king’s power, king Magadha got possession of king Aṅga, and slew him, and ruled over the two realms together. From that time there was a firm bond between him and the Nāga king. {4.455} Year by year he caused a jewelled pavilion to be built on the bank of the river Campā, and offered tribute to the Nāga king at great cost: the Nāga king would come forth with a large retinue from his palace to receive the tribute, and all the people beheld the glory of the Nāga king. [4.282]

At that time the Bodhisatta was one of a poor family, and he used to go down with the king’s people to the riverside. There seeing the Nāga king’s glory, he became covetous of it; and in this desire Reading with two MS., patthayamāno. he died, and seven days after the death of the serpent king Campeyya, the Bodhisatta, having given alms and lived a virtuous life, came into being in his palace on his royal couch: his body was like a great festoon of jasmine. When he saw it, he was filled with remorse. “As a consequence of my good deeds,” said he, “I have power laid up in the six chief worlds of sense, The six devalokā. as corn is laid up in a granary. But see, here am I born in this reptile shape; what care I for life!” And so he had thoughts of putting an end to himself. But a young female serpent, named Sumanā, seeing him, gave the lead to the rest, “This must be Sakka, mighty in power, born here to us!”

Then they all came and made offering to him, with all manner of musical instruments in their hands. That serpent’s palace of his became as it were the palace of Sakka, the thought of death left him: he put off his serpent shape, and sat on the couch in magnificence of dress and adornment. From that time great was his glory, and he ruled over the serpents. Another time again he repented, thinking: “What care I for this reptile shape? I will live under the Uposatha precepts, and from this place I will shake myself free, amongst men I will go, and learn the Truths, and I will make an end of pain.” But afterwards he still remained in that same palace, fulfilling the Uposatha precepts, and when the young female serpents came about him all gaily adorned, he generally violated his rule of virtue. After that he went forth from the palace into the park, but they followed him there, and his vow was broken as before.

Then he thought: “I must leave this palace, and go into the world of men, and there must I live under the Uposatha precepts.” {4.456} So then on the Uposathas he went forth from the palace, and lay on the top of an antheap by the high road, not far from a frontier village. Said he, “Those who desire my skin or any part of me, let them take it; or if any would have me a dancing snake, let them make me so.” Thus did he yield his body as a gift, and contracting his hood he lay there observing the Uposatha precepts.

Those who went to and fro on the highway espying him, did him worship with scents and perfumes. And the dwellers in that frontier village, holding him to be a serpent king of great power, set up a pavilion over him, spread sand before it, did worship with perfumes and scented things. Now people began to crave sons by his aid, having faith in the Great Being and doing him worship. The Great Being kept there the Uposatha precepts on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the half-moon, lying upon the antheap; and on the first day of the lunar half he would return to his palace; and, as he thus fulfilled his vows, time went by. [4.283]

One day his consort Sumanā spoke to him thus, “My lord, you are wont to go among men to keep your Uposatha precepts. The world of men is dangerous, full of fear. Suppose some danger should come upon you, tell me now by what sign I shall learn of it.” Then the Great Being led her to the side of a lucky pond, and said: “If any one strike me or do me hurt, the water in this pond will become turbid. If a Supaṇṇa bird carry me off, the water will disappear. If a snake-charmer seize me, the water will turn to the colour of blood.” These three signs explained to her, he went forth from his palace to keep the Uposatha of the fourteenth day, went and lay down on the antheap, illuminating the antheap with the sheen of his body. White was his body as a coil of pure silver, like a ball of red wool was his head: now in this Jātaka the Bodhisatta’s body was thick as a plough-head, in the Bhūridattajātaka [Ja 543] thick as a thigh, in the Saṅkhapālajātaka [Ja 546] as big and round as a trough-canoe with an outrigger.

In those days there was a young brahmin of Benares come to Taxila to study at the feet of a world-renowned teacher, from whom {4.457} he had learned the charm which commands all things of sense. Going home along that road, what should he see but the Great Being. “This snake I will catch,” thinks he, “and I will travel through town and village and royal city, making him dance and amassing great profits.” Then he procured magical herbs, and repeating the magic charm he approached the snake. No sooner he heard the sound of this charm, than the Great Being felt his ears as it were pierced by burning splinters, his head was as though broken by the blow of a sword. “What have we here!” thought he; putting forth his head from the hood, he beheld the snake-charmer. Then he thought: “My poison is powerful, and if I am angry and send forth the breath of my nostrils Reputed to be poisonous. Compare ii. 55 and 206 of this translation. his body will be shattered and scattered like a fist-full of chaff; but then my virtue will be broken. I will not look upon him.”

Closing his eyes he drew his head within the hood. The brahmin snake-charmer ate a herb, repeated his charm, spat upon him: by virtue of herb and charm, wherever the spittle touched him, blains arose. Then the man seized him by the tail, dragged him, laid him out at full length: with a goat’s-foot staff he squeezed him till he was weak, then catching tight hold on his head, crushed him hard. The Great Being opened his mouth wide; the man dropped spittle in it, and by the herb and charm broke his teeth; the mouth was full of blood. But the Great Being so feared lest he break his virtue, that he bore all this torment and never so much as opened an eye to glance at him.

Then the man said: “I’ll weaken this royal snake!” From tail to head he squeezed the snake’s body as though he would crush his very bones to powder. Then he wrapped him in [4.284] what they call the cloth-wrap, gave him what they call the rope-rubbing, caught him by the tail and gave him the cotton blow, as they call it. These appear to be technical terms. The Great Being’s body was all smeared with blood, and he was in great pain. Seeing that the serpent was now weak, {4.458} the man made a cane basket in which he laid the snake. Then he carried him to the village, and made him perform to the crowd. Black or blue or what not, round figure and square figure, little or large – whatever the brahmin desired, that the Great Being will do, dancing, spreading his hood as if by hundreds or by thousands. That is, by his swift motion giving the appearance of thousands of hoods.

The people were so pleased that they gave much money: in one day he would take a thousand rupees, and things worth another thousand. At first the man had intended to let him go free when he should gain a thousand pieces of money; but when he got it, he thought: “In a small frontier village I have gained all this; from kings and courtiers how much wealth may I look to win!” So he bought a cart and a pleasure-carriage, and in the cart loaded his goods, while he sat in the carriage. Thus with an attendant throng he traversed town and village, making the Great Being perform, and went on with the intent to show him off before king Uggasena in Benares; and then he would let him go.

He used to kill frogs and give them to the royal snake. But the snake each time refused to eat, that none might be killed for his sake. Then the man gave him honey and fried corn. But the Great Being refused to eat these also; for he thought: “If I take food, I shall be in this basket till I die.”

In a month’s time the brahmin was come to Benares. There he got much money by making the snake perform in the villages beyond the gates. The king also sent for him, and commanded a performance: the man promised this for the morrow, which was the last day of the half-month. Then the king sent a drum beating about the city, with proclamation, that on the morrow a royal snake would dance in the palace court; let the people then gather to see it in their multitudes.

Next day the courtyard of the palace was adorned, and the brahmin summoned. He brought in the Great Being in a jewelled basket on a bright rug, which he set down, and himself took a seat. “The king came down from the upper storey, and sat on his royal seat in the midst of a great concourse of people. The brahmin took out the Great Being, and made him dance. The people could not keep still: thousands of kerchiefs waved in the air; a shower of jewels in all seven kinds fell about the Bodhisatta.

It was now a full month since the Nāga was caught; and for all that time he had taken no food. {4.459} Now Sumanā began to think: [4.285] “My dear husband tarries long. It is now a month since he has not returned; what can the matter be?” So she went and looked at the pond: lo, the water was red as blood! Then she knew that he must have been caught by a snake-charmer. Forth from the palace she came, and to the antheap; she saw the place where he had been caught, and the place where he had been tormented, and she wept. Then she went to the frontier village, and enquired; and learning all the facts, she went on to Benares, and in the midst of the people, above the palace court in the air she stood now lamenting. The Great Being as he danced looked up in the air, and saw her, and being ashamed crept into his basket, and there he lay. When he crept into the basket, the king cried out, “What is the matter now?” Looking this way and that way, he saw her poised in the air, and recited the first verse:

1. “Who is it like the lightning shines, or like a blazing star?
Devatā, Gandhabbī? I think no human thing you are.”

Their conversation is given in the verses following:

2. “No Devī I, nor Gandhabbī, nor human, mighty king
A female of the Nāga kind, come for a certain thing.”

3. “Full of wrath and rage you show,
From your eyes the teardrops flow:
Say what wrong or what desire
Brings you, lady? I would know.”

4. “Crawling serpent, fierce as flame!
So they called him: one there came,
Seized him for his profit, sire:
Freedom for my lord I claim!”

5. “How could such a starveling wight
Catch a creature full of might?
Daughter of the Nāgas, say,
How to discern the Nāga right?” {4.460}

6. “Such his might, that e’en this town
He could burn to cinders down.
But he loves the holy way,
And seeks austerity’s renown.”

Then the king asked how the man had caught him. She replied in the following verse:

7. “On holy days Fourteenth and fifteenth are named. the royal snake
At the four-ways used to take
Holy vows: a juggler caught him.
Free my husband for my sake!”

After these words she added yet these other two verses, begging his release:

8. “Lo sixteen thousand women adorned with jewel and ring,
Beneath the waters counted him their refuge and their king. [4.286]

9. Justly, gently set him free,
Buy the Nāga liberty,
With gold, a hundred kine, a village:
That will merit win for you.” {4.461}

Then the king recited three verses:

10. “Justly now and gently see
I buy the Nāga liberty
With gold, a hundred kine, a village,
That will merit win for me.

11. A jewelled earring give I you, a hundred drachms of gold,
A lovely throne like flower of flax with cushions laid fourfold! This couplet, and half the next, occur above, p. 422.

12. A bull, a hundred kine, two wives of equal birth with you:
Release the holy Nāga: the deed will meritorious be.”

To this the hunter made reply:

13. “I want no gifts, your majesty,
But let the Nāga now go free.
Thus I now release the Nāga:
The deed will meritorious be.”

After this speech he took the Great Being out of his basket. The Nāga king came forth and crept into a flower, where he put off his shape and reappeared in the form of a young man magnificently arrayed: there he stood, as though he had cleft the earth and come through. And down from the sky came Sumanā, and stood beside him. The Nāga king stood reverently joining his hands in respect to the king. {4.462}

To make all clear, the Teacher recited two verses:

14. “The Nāga king Campeyyaka addressed the king, now free:
O king of Kāsi, fostering lord, all honour now to ye!
I do you reverence, ere I go again my home to see.

15. Superhuman beings may
Hardly win belief, they say.
If you speak the truth, O Nāga,
Where’s your palace? Show the way.”

But the Great Being, to make him believe, swore an oath as follows in these two verses:

16. “Should the wind move mountains high,
Moon and sun fall from the sky,
Flow upstream the running rivers,
I, O king! Could never lie.

17. Split the sky, the sea run dry,
Bounteous mother earth awry
Crumpling Reading saṁvaṭṭaye, as Fausböll suggests. roll, uproot Mount Meru,
Yet I, O king, could not lie!” [4.287]

But notwithstanding this assurance, he still disbelieved the Great Being, and said:

18. “Superhuman beings may
Hardly win belief, they say. {4.463}
If you speak the truth, O Nāga!
Where’s your palace? Show the way.”

Again he repeated the same verse, adding, “You must be grateful for the good deeds wrought by me, whether I should believe you to be right or not, however, that is for me to decide.” This he made clear in the next verse:

19. “Deadly envenomed, full of might,
Quick in quarrel, shining bright,
You are freed by me from prison:
Then is gratitude my right.”

The Great Being made oath thus to win his belief:

20. “He that will no thanks return,
Happiness should never learn:
He should die in basket-prison,
He in horrid hell should burn!”

Now the king believed him, and thanked him thus:

21. “As that vow of thine is true,
Anger flee and hate eschew:
As we flee the fire in summer,
May the Supaṇṇa-birds flee from you!” “The serpent tribe” is the literal translation.

The Great Being too on his part said another verse meaning to thank the king:

22. “As a mother would have done
To an only well-loved son,
You are kind to all the Nāgas:
We will serve you, every one.” {4.464}

Now the king eager to visit the Nāga’s world, gave command that his army should be made ready to go in the following verse:

23. “Yoke the royal cars, and stand
Trained Cambodian mules at hand,
Elephants in golden trappings:
We will visit Nāga-land!”

The next is a verse spoken after Fully Awakening:

24. “Bounce the tabors, thump the drums,
Conch and cymbal sounds and thrums,
Glorious mid a host of women
See king Uggasena comes.” [4.288]

At the moment he left the city, the Great Being by his power made visible in the Nāga world an enclosing wall of seven precious things, and gate-towers, and all the road of approach to the abode of the Nāgas he made to be gloriously adorned. By this road the king with his following entered the palace, and saw a delightful spot with mansions in it.

Explaining this, the Teacher said:

25. “The lord of Kāsi saw the ground sprinkled with golden sand,
Fair flowers of coral See Commentator, p. 142. strewn around, gold towers on every hand.

26. So then the king did enter in Campeyya’s halls divine,
Which like the brazen thunderbolt Bronze thunderbolts, shaped somewhat like those which Zeus grasps in Greek vase paintings, are still used in North India as charms. or ruddy sun did shine.

27. Into Campeyya’s halls divine the king his entrance made:
A thousand perfumes scent the air, a thousand trees give shade.

28. Within Campeyya’s palace once the king his step advanced,
Celestial harps made melody, fair Nāgakaññā danced. {4.465}

29. He is shown a golden seat
Cushioned and with sandal sweet,
Where the bevy of fair maidens
Tread the halls with thronging feet.”

No sooner was he there seated, than they set before him food divine of choice flavour, and they gave it also to the sixteen thousand women and to the rest of the company. For seven days he with his retinue partook of the divine food and drink, and enjoyed all manner of pleasure. Sitting in his fair seat he praised the glory of the Great Being. “O king of the Nāgas,” said he, “why did you leave all this magnificence, to lie on an ant-heap, in the world of men, and to keep the Uposatha precepts?” The other told him.

To explain this, the Teacher said:

30. “There the king in pleasure stayed.
To Campeyya then he said:
‘Glorious mansions these of thine!
Ruddy like the sun they shine.
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be?

31. Fair and fine these damsels stand,
Who with taper-fingers hold
Drink in either red-stained hand,
Breast and body girt with gold.
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be? [4.289] {4.466}

32. River, fishpond, glassy-fair,
Each with well-built landing-stair,
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be?

33. Heron, peacock, heavenly geese,
Charms of cuckoo like to these,
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be?

34. Mango, Sāl, and tilak grown,
Cassia, Cassia Fistula. trumpet-flower Bignonia Suaveolens. full-blown,
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be?

35. See the lakes! And wafted o’er
Scents divine on every shore:
Such on earth are none to see:
Why would you an ascetic be?’

36. ‘Not for life or sons or pelf
Do I wrestle with myself;
’Tis my craving, if I can,
To be born again as man.’ ”

To this answer the king replied:

37. “Bravely dressed, eyes red and bleared,
Broad-shouldered, shaven head, and beard,
Like Gandabbha-king addressing
All the world, with sandal smeared.

38. Great in might, in power divine,
Lord of all desires, incline,
Nāga-king, to rede my question:
How our world surpasses thine?” {4.467}

This was answered by the Nāga king as follows:

39. “Comes control and cleansing when
One is in the world of men,
Only there: once man, I’ll never
See nor birth nor death again.”

The, king listened, and thus replied:

40. “Surely ’tis good to venerate the wise
In whom deep wisdom and high thoughts arise. See above, p. 280; and iii. 306 (translation, p. 190).
When you and all these maids I behold,
I will do virtuous actions manifold.”

To him the Nāga king said:

41. “Surely ’tis good to venerate the wise
In whom deep wisdom and high thoughts arise.
When me and all these maids you do behold,
Then do you virtuous actions manifold.” [4.290]

After this speech, Uggasena wished to go, and he took leave, saying: “Nāga king, I have stayed long here, and I must go.” The Great Being pointed to his treasure, and offered him whatever he wished to take, saying this,

42. “I renounce it, gold untold,
Tree-high silver-heaps, behold!
Take and make you walls of silver,
Take and houses make of gold. {4.468}

43. Pearls, five thousand loads, I ween,
Coral blushing in between,
Take and spread them in your palace
Till nor earth nor dirt be seen.

44. Such a mansion as I tell
Build, and there, O monarch! Dwell:
Rich will be Benares city:
Rule it wisely, rule it well.”

The king agreed to this suggestion. Then the Great Being sent proclamation about the city by beat of drum, “Let all the attendants of the king take what they will of my wealth, gold and fine gold!” And he sent the treasure to the king loaded in several hundred carts. After this the king left the serpent world with great pomp, and returned to Benares. From that time, they say, the ground was all golden throughout Jambudīpa.

This discourse ended, the Teacher said: “Thus wise men of old left the glories of the serpent world, to keep the Uposatha precepts.” Then he identified the Jātaka, “At that time, Devadatta was the snake-charmer, Rāhula’s mother was Sumanā, Sariputta was Uggasena, and I was myself Campeyya king of the Snakes.”