Dhammapadaṁ The title is extracted from the end title in the original text. It is rather unexpected that Dhammapadaṁ is a singular, as this is a collection, and we might have expected Dhammapadā or Dhammapadāni, plural. For the translation I have opted to give it in plural form.
The introductory verse to the Gāndhārī Dharmapada gives the title of that collection in the singular also.
The so-called Patna Dhammapada has the plural Dhammapadā in the end-title, but it does not seem to be used as a title of the collection, despite the given name.
I take it that pada here means a word, a verse, a sentence; not, as some translations have it, a path. The compound is quite rare, but it occurs a number of times in this text, and this is the meaning it has when it occurs at vv. 45, 46, and 102.

Dhamma Verses

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Yamakavaggo
1. The Chapter about the Pairs

Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā,
Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (their quality is) This meaning of this line has to be understood by reference to the whole verse, which is an ethical statement about the quality of mind bringing suitable returns. I believe many mistranslations have occurred by treating it as a descriptive, quasi-Abhidhammic, statement about the relationship between mind and mental objects. made by mind, In parallel versions the reading is always given as manojavā, impelled (or driven) by mind, which might seem more congruous with the early teaching. This reading also occurs in Peṭakopadesa, PTS p. 164, which reads in the context of this verse: Manojavā ti yattha mano gacchati tattha ime dhammā gacchantī ti manojavā; impelled by mind means wherever the mind goes there these thoughts go, (therefore) impelled by mind is said.

manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā,
if with a base mind one speaks or acts,

tato naṁ dukkham-anveti cakkaṁ va vahato It is curious that vahatu, an ox, is not found in PED or CPED. padaṁ. [1]
through that suffering follows him like a wheel (follows) We see here and it many other places that the verb is made to work twice; in Pāḷi the meaning is clear, but in English we have to restate the verb, otherwise it is ambiguous. the ox’s foot. This verse evidently belongs with the following one, and must have been composed together, but the commentary assigns very different occasions to their composition. The same could be said about many others pairs of verses, and not only in this Chapter.

Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā,
Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (their quality is) made by mind,

manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā,
if with pure mind one speaks or acts,

tato naṁ sukham-anveti chāyā va anapāyinī. [2]
through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.

 

“Akkocchi maṁ, avadhi maṁ, ajini maṁ, ahāsi me”,
“He abused me, he struck at me, he overcame me, he robbed me,” Presumably me is ablative, he took from me, he robbed from me.

ye ca taṁ upanayhanti veraṁ tesaṁ na sammati. [3]
those We might have expected the genitive, not the nominative, form here, yesaṁ, for those..., the line could easily be rewritten to fit the metre: yesañ-ca upanayhanti, and in the next line: yesaṁ na upanayhanti. who bear ill-will towards this their hatred is never appeased.

“Akkocchi maṁ, avadhi maṁ, ajini maṁ, ahāsi me”,
“He abused me, he struck at me, he overcame me, he robbed me,”

ye taṁ na upanayhanti veraṁ tesūpasammati. This is an unexpected formation here, we either have tesaṁ + upasammati giving sandhi tesūpa-, or the locative is being used tesu + upasammati; if it is the former, then we might have expected tesañ-ca sammati, to match the verb in the preceding verse. [4]
those who do not bear ill-will towards this their hatred is appeased.

 

Na hi verena verāni sammantīdha kudācanaṁ,
For not by hatred do hatreds cease at any time in this place,

averena ca sammanti, esa dhammo sanantano. Interestingly an alternative name for what is now known as Hinduism is the sanātana (variant form of sanantana) Dharma; this is the earliest use of the phrase I know of. [5]
they only cease with non-hatred, this truth is (surely) eternal. This verse and the one that follows do not form a pair, but seem to have been attracted into the collection at this point by word collocation on vera.

 

Pare ca na vijānanti mayam-ettha yamāmase,
The others do not understand that we should restrain ourselves here,

ye ca tattha vijānanti tato sammanti medhagā. [6]
but (for) those As in verse three the genitive would have made more sense here: yesaṁ tattha vijānanti..., for those who do understand... here who do understand, through that, (their) dissensions will cease.

 

Subhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ, indriyesu asaṁvutaṁ,
Living contemplating In the commentary it is clear that viharantaṁ belongs with subhānupassiṁ, not with indriyesu asaṁvutaṁ, as many translations have it. Cf. kāye kāyānupassī viharati, etc. from Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ (DN 22), see elsewhere on this website. what is pleasant, uncontrolled in sense faculties,

bhojanamhi amattaññuṁ, kusītaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ –
not knowing the limit in food, indolent, low in energy –

taṁ ve pasahati Māro vāto rukkhaṁ va dubbalaṁ. [7]
Māra surely overthrows that one, like wind (overthrows) a weak tree.

Asubhānupassiṁ viharantaṁ, indriyesu susaṁvutaṁ,
Living contemplating the unpleasant, well-controlled in sense faculties,

bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṁ, saddhaṁ āraddhavīriyaṁ –
and knowing the limit in food, faithful, with energy aroused –

taṁ ve nappasahati The form here does not arise through sandhi; na is so closely associated with the verb it is modifying it becomes part of it, as we see frequently with the negative. Māro vāto selaṁ va pabbataṁ. [8]
Māra does not overthrow that one, just as wind does not (overthrow) a mountain made of rock.

 

Anikkasāvo The form is a double negative, a + nis + kasāva; the word is related is to the one following, the kāsāva, or discoloured robe. kāsāvaṁ yo vatthaṁ paridahessati,
The one who, while still impure, would wear the renunciant’s robe,

apeto damasaccena na so kāsāvam-arahati. [9]
unendowed with restraint and truth, is not worthy of the renunciant’s robe.

Yo ca vantakasāvassa, sīlesu susamāhito, It is unexpected that the opposite form, sīlesu asamāhito, unsteady in virtue, is not found in the corresponding line in the previous verse.
The one who, steady in virtue, throws out (any) impurity,

upeto damasaccena sa ve kāsāvam-arahati. [10]
endowed with restraint and truth, is indeed worthy of the renunciant’s robe.

 

Asāre sāramatino, sāre cāsāradassino, This parses as ca + asāra + dassino; it is not clear to me why ca is found here, as it is not needed by the grammar, the meaning or the metre.
Finding the essential in what is unessential, and seeing the unessential in what is essential,

te sāraṁ nādhigacchanti, micchāsaṅkappagocarā. [11]
they do not understand what is essential, and resort to wrong intention.

Sārañ-ca sārato ñatvā, asārañ-ca asārato,
Knowing the essential in what is essential, Interesting use of the ablative here, perhaps indicating the starting point. and the unessential in what is unessential,

te sāraṁ adhigacchanti, sammāsaṅkappagocarā. [12]
they understand what is essential, and resort to right intention.

 

Yathā agāraṁ ducchannaṁ vuṭṭhī samativijjhati,
Just as the rain penetrates a house with thatching that is poor,

evaṁ abhāvitaṁ cittaṁ rāgo samativijjhati. [13]
so passion penetrates a mind that is undeveloped.

Yathā agāraṁ succhannaṁ vuṭṭhī na samativijjhati,
Just as rain does not penetrate a house with thatching that is good,

evaṁ subhāvitaṁ cittaṁ rāgo na samativijjhati. [14]
so passion cannot penetrate a mind that is well-developed. This is one of the most perfect of the compositions showing reversal of meaning in the two verses.

 

Idha socati, pecca socati,
Here Here means here in this world. Idha often has this meaning, just as loke, in the world, often means simply here. he laments, after death he laments,

pāpakārī ubhayattha socati,
the wicked one laments in both places,

so socati, so vihaññati,
he laments, he suffers vexation,

disvā kammakiliṭṭham-attano. [15]
seeing the defilement of his own deeds. Again this and the following verse, which were probably composed together have been separated by the commentary and given different foundation stories.

Idha modati, pecca modati,
Here he rejoices, after death he rejoices,

katapuñño ubhayattha modati,
the meritorious one rejoices in both places,

so modati, so pamodati,
he rejoices, he greatly rejoices,

disvā kammavisuddhim-attano. [16]
seeing the purity of his own deeds.

 

Idha tappati, pecca tappati,
Here he suffers, after death he suffers,

pāpakārī ubhayattha tappati,
the wicked one suffers in both places,

“Pāpaṁ mĕ katan”-ti tappati,
he suffers, thinking: “I have done wickedness,”

bhiyyo tappati duggatiṁ gato. [17]
gone to a bad fate, he suffers much more. This and the following verse, which again belong together, do not have any parallels in other collections of Dhammapadāni, and may have been composed as variations of the preceding pair of verses.

Idha nandati, pecca nandati,
Here she is happy, According to the commentary the verse was spoken about Anāthapiṇḍika’s younger sister. after death she is happy,

katapuñño ubhayattha nandati,
the righteous one is happy in both places,

“Puññaṁ mĕ katan”-ti nandati,
she is happy, thinking: “I have done merit,”

bhiyyo nandati suggatiṁ gato. [18]
gone to a good fate, she is happy much more.

 

Bahum-pi ce sahitaṁ In Sanskrit the g Veda is called saṁhita (a variant form of this word), but according to the commentary sahita means the Tipiṭaka here. bhāsamāno,
Even though reciting abundant scriptures,

na takkaro = taṁ kāro, with assimilation. hoti naro pamatto,
the heedless fellow, who does not do (what they say),

gopo va gāvo gaṇayaṁ paresaṁ,
like a cowboy counting other’s cattle,

na bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti. [19]
does not partake of the ascetic life.

 

Appam-pi ce sahitaṁ bhāsamāno,
Even though reciting but few scriptures,

Dhammassa hoti anudhammacārī,
but living righteously in accordance with Dhamma,

rāgañ-ca dosañ-ca pahāya mohaṁ,
abandoning greed, hate and delusion,

sammappajāno suvimuttacitto,
understanding aright, with mind well-released,

anupādiyāno idha vā huraṁ vā,
that one, unattached here and hereafter,

sa bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti. [20]
(surely) partakes of the ascetic life.

Yamakavaggo Paṭhamo
The Chapter about the Pairs, the First

 

Related Verses from the Dhammapada

Yathā pi ruciraṁ pupphaṁ vaṇṇavantaṁ agandhakaṁ,
Just like a beautiful flower, which has colour, but lacks fragrance,

evaṁ subhāsitā vācā aphalā hoti akubbato. [51]
so are well-spoken words fruitless for the one who acts not (on them).

Yathā pi ruciraṁ pupphaṁ vaṇṇavantaṁ sagandhakaṁ,
Just like a beautiful flower, which has colour, and has fragrance,

evaṁ subhāsitā vācā saphalā hoti pakubbato. [52]
so are well-spoken words fruitful for the one who does act (on them).

 

Yāvajīvam-pi ce bālo paṇḍitaṁ payirupāsati,
Even if a fool attends on a wise man for his whole life long,

na so Dhammaṁ vijānāti, dabbī sūparasaṁ yathā. [64]
he does not learn Dhamma, just as spoon learns not the taste of curry.

Muhuttam-api ce viññū paṇḍitaṁ payirupāsati,
If a perceptive man attends on a wise man even for a second,

khippaṁ Dhammaṁ vijānāti, jivhā sūparasaṁ yathā. [65]
he quickly learns Dhamma, just as the tongue (learns) the taste of curry.

 

Na taṁ kammaṁ kataṁ sādhu, yaṁ katvā anutappati,
That deed is not well done, which, having done, one has regret,

yassa assumukho rodaṁ, vipākaṁ paṭisevati. [67]
for which he has tears on his face, as the result follows him round.

Tañ-ca kammaṁ kataṁ sādhu, yaṁ katvā nānutappati,
But that deed is well done, which, having done, one has no regret,

yassa patīto sumano, vipākaṁ paṭisevati. [68]
for which he is pleased and happy, as the result follows him round.

 

Pāpañ-ce puriso kayirā, na taṁ kayirā punappunaṁ,
Should a person do that which is wicked, he should not do it again and again,

na tamhi chandaṁ kayirātha, dukkho pāpassa uccayo. [117]
let him not place his intention in it, (for) there is an accumulation of suffering for the wicked one.

Puññañ-ce puriso kayirā, kayirāthetaṁ punappunaṁ,
If a person should make merit, he should do it again and again,

tamhi chandaṁ kayirātha, sukho puññassa uccayo. [118]
let him place his intention there, there is an increase of happiness for the one who has made merit.

 

Pāpo pi passati bhadraṁ yāva pāpaṁ na paccati,
Even the wicked one experiences good fortune while the wickedness does not ripen,

yadā ca paccati pāpaṁ atha pāpo pāpāni passati. [119]
but when the wickedness ripens then the wicked one experiences wicked things.

Bhadro pi passati pāpaṁ yāva bhadraṁ na paccati,
Even the fortunate one experiences wickedness as long as the good fortune does not ripen,

yadā ca paccati bhadraṁ atha bhadro bhadrāni passati. [120]
but when the fortune ripens then the fortunate one experiences good fortune.

 

Māppamaññetha pāpassa: na maṁ taṁ āgamissati,
One should not despise a little wickedness (thinking): it will not come to me,

udabindunipātena udakumbho pi pūrati,
through the falling of water drops the water-pot is (quickly) filled,

bālo pūrati pāpassa, thokaṁ thokam-pi ācinaṁ. [121]
the fool, gathering bit by bit, becomes full of wickedness.

Māppamaññetha puññassa: na maṁ taṁ āgamissati.
One should not despise a little merit (thinking): it will not come to me,

udabindunipātena udakumbho pi pūrati,
through the falling of water drops the water-pot is (quickly) filled,

dhīro pūrati puññassa, thokathokam-pi ācinaṁ. [122]
the wise one, gathering bit by bit, becomes full of merit.

 

Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yo daṇḍena vihiṁsati,
One who harms with a stick beings who desire happiness,

attano sukham-esāno, pecca so na labhate sukhaṁ. [131]
while seeking happiness for himself, won’t find happiness after death.

Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yo daṇḍena na hiṁsati,
One who harms not with a stick beings who desire happiness,

attano sukham-esāno, pecca so labhate sukhaṁ. [132]
while seeking happiness for himself, will find happiness after death.

 

Avajje vajjamatino, vajje cāvajjadassino,
Finding blame in what is blameless, not seeing blame in what is blameable,

micchādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti duggatiṁ. [318]
undertaking wrong views, beings go to a bad destiny.

Vajjañ-ca vajjato ñatvā, avajjañ-ca avajjato,
Knowing blame in what is blameable, and no blame in what is blameless,

sammādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti suggatiṁ. [319]
undertaking right views, beings go to a good destiny.

 

Sace labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ
If you should find a prudent friend

saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,
or companion, one who lives well, a wise one,

abhibhuyya sabbāni parissayāni
overcoming all your troubles

careyya tenattamano satīmā. [328]
you should live with that one, glad and mindful.

No ce labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ
If you do not find a prudent friend

saddhiṁcaraṁ sādhuvihāridhīraṁ,
or companion, one who lives well, a wise one,

rājā va raṭṭhaṁ vijitaṁ pahāya
like a king who abandons his conquered kingdom

eko care mātaṅgaraññe va nāgo. [329]
one should live alone like a solitary elephant in the forest.