Dharma-Saṅgraha
The Dharma Collection

Dharmas 81-100

81. Four Factors of Faith

Catvāri śraddhāṅgāni, tad-yathā:
There are four factors of faith, they are:

{1} Ārya-satyam,
{1} Noble truth(s),

{2} tri-ratnam,
{2} three jewel(s),

{3} karma,
{3} deeds,

{4} karma-phalaṁ ceti.
{4} and deeds and fruit.

82. Nine Succeeding Attainments of Concentration

Navānupūrva-samādhi-samāpattayaḥ, tad-yathā:
There are nine succeeding attainments of concentration, they are:

{1-4} Catvāri dhyānāni,
{1-4} The four absorptions,

{5-8} catasra ārūpya-samāpattayo,
{5-8} the four formless attainments,

{9} nirodha-samāpattiś-ceti.
{9} and the attainment of cessation.

83. Thirty-Two Marks of a Great Man

Dvātriṁśal-lakṣaṇāni, tad-yathā:
There are thirty-two marks of a great man, they are:

{1} Cakrāṅkita-pāṇipāda-talatā,
{1} Wheels on his palms and soles,

{2} supratiṣṭhita-pāṇi-pāda-talatā,
{2} palms and soles well-placed,

{3} jālā-baddhāṅguli-pāṇi-pāda-talatā, Text: jālā-bala-baddhāṅguli-pāṇi-pāda-talatā.
{3} fingers, palms and soles bound with nets,

{4} mdu-taruṇa-hasta-pāda-talatā,
{4} hands and soles that are soft and tender,

{5} saptotsadatā,
{5} seven prominent marks,

{6} dīrghāṅgulitā,
{6} long fingers,

{7} āyata-pārṣṇitā,
{7} heels that are long and deep,

{8} ju-gātratā,
{8} upright limbs,

{9} utsaṅga-pādatā,
{9} high ankles,

{10} urdhvāgra-romatā,
{10} bristling hair,

{11} aiṇeyajaṅghatā,
{11} antelope-like calves,

{12} pralamba-bāhutā,
{12} arms that hang low,

{13} koṣa-gata-vasti-guhyatā,
{13} what is covered by a cloth is ensheathed,

{14} suvarṇa-varṇatā,
{14} golden in colour,

{15} śuklac-chavitā,
{15} fine skin,

{16} pradakṣiṇāvartaika-romatā,
{16} each hair arises singly and turns to the right,

{17} ūrṇālaṅkta-mukhatā,
{17} a circle of hair decorates his forehead,

{18} siṁha-pūrvānta-kāyatā,
{18} a torso like a lion’s,

{19} susaṁvtta-skandhatā,
{19} upper back that is even all round,

{20} citāntarāṁsatā,
{20} between the shoulders it is firm,

{21} rasa-rasāgratā,
{21} his taste buds are supremely sensitive,

{22} nyagrodha-parimaṇḍalatā, [19]
{22} his (body) is well-proportioned like a banyan tree,

{23} uṣṇīṣa-śiras-katā,
{23} he has a protuberance on the head,

{24} prabhūta-jivhatā,
{24} his tongue is large,

{25} siṁha-hanutā,
{25} his jaw is like a lion’s,

{26} śukla-hanutā,
{26} his jaw is fine,

{27} sama-dantatā,
{27} his forty teeth are even,

{28} haṁsa-vikrānta-gāmitā,
{28} a gait like that of a goose,

{29} avirala-dantatā,
{29} the teeth are without gaps,

{30} sama-catvāriṁśad-dantatā,
{30} the forty teeth are even,

{31} abhinīla-netratā,
{31} the eyes are very dark,

{32} gopakṣa-netratā ceti.
{32} and the eyes have eyelashes like a cow’s.

84. Eighty Secondary Characteristics

Aśīty-anuvyañjanāni, tad-yathā:
There are eighty secondary characteristics, they are:

{1} Tāmra-nakhatā,
{1} Copper-coloured nails,

{2} srigdha-nakhatā,
{2} glossy nails,

{3} tuṅga-nakhatā,
{3} prominent nails,

{4} chatrāṅgulitā,
{4} round fingers,

{5} citrāṅgulitā,
{5} firm fingers,

{6} anupūrvāṅgulitā,
{6} regular fingers,

{7} gūḍha-śiratā,
{7} hidden veins,

{8} nigranthi-śiratā,
{8} unhindered veins,

{9} gūḍha-gulphatā,
{9} hidden ankles,

{10} aviṣama-pādatā,
{10} even feet,

{11} siṁha-vikrānta-gāmitā,
{11} a gait like that of a lion,

{12} nāga-vikrānta-gāmitā,
{12} a gait like that of a elephant,

{13} haṁsa-vikrānta-gāmitā,
{13} a gait like that of a goose,

{14} vṣabha-vikrānta-gāmitā,
{14} a gait like that of a bull,

{15} pradakṣiṇa-gāmitā,
{15} a respectful stride,

{16} cāru-gāmitā,
{16} a beautiful stride,

{17} avakra-gāmitā,
{17} straight limbs,

{18} vtta-gātratā,
{18} rounded limbs,

{19} mṣṭa-gātratā,
{19} pleasant limbs,

{20} anupūrva-gātratā,
{20} regular limbs,

{21} śuci-gātratā,
{21} pure limbs,

{22} mdu-gātratā,
{22} soft limbs,

{23} viśuddha-gātratā,
{23} purified limbs,

{24} paripūrṇa-vyañjanatā,
{24} fulsome genitals,

{25} pthu-cāru-maṇḍala-gātratā,
{25} broad, beautiful knees,

{26} samakramatā,
{26} an even step,

{27} viśuddha-netratā,
{27} purified limbs,

{28} sukumāra-gātratā,
{28} delicate limbs,

{29} adīna-gātratā,
{29} noble limbs,

{30} utsāha-gātratā,
{30} upright limbs,

{31} gambhīra-kukṣitā,
{31} a deep belly,

{32} prasanna-gātratā,
{32} clear limbs,

{33} suvibhaktāṅga-pratyaṅgatā,
{33} well-proportioned minor limbs,

{34} vitimira-śuddhālokatā,
{34} a pure luminescence that dispels the darkness,

{35} vtta-kukṣitā,
{35} a rounded belly,

{36} mṣṭa-kukṣitā,
{36} a pleasant belly,

{37} abhugna-kukṣitā,
{37} a straight belly,

{38} kṣāma-kukṣitā, [20]
{38} a slim belly,

{39} gambhīra-nābhitā,
{39} a deep navel,

{40} pradakṣiṇāvartanābhitā,
{40} a navel that turns to the right,

{41} samanta-prāsādikatā,
{41} (an appearance) that is pleasant on all sides,

{42} śuci-samudācāratā,
{42} pure behaviour,

{43} vyapagata-tilaka-gātratā,
{43} limbs that are free of moles,

{44} tūlasa-dśa-sukumāra-pāṇitā,
{44} hands that are soft as cotton,

{45} snigdha-pāṇi-lekhatā,
{45} glossy palms of the hands,

{46} gambhīra-pāṇi-lekhatā,
{46} deep palms of the hands,

{47} āyata-pāṇi-lekhatā,
{47} long palms of the hands,

{48} nātyāyata-vacanatā,
{48} a not overly-long face,

{49} bimba-pratibimboṣṭhatā,
{49} a lovely appearance and lips,

{50} mdu-jivhatā,
{50} a soft tongue,

{51} tanu-jivhatā,
{51} a slim tongue,

{52} rakta-jihvatā,
{52} a red-coloured tongue,

{53} megha-garji-ghoṣatā,
{53} a voice that sounds like thunder,

{54} madhura-cāru-mañjusvaratā,
{54} a voice that is sweet, charming and lovely,

{55} vtta-daṁṣṭratā,
{55} rounded eye-teeth,

{56} tīkṣṇaṁ-daṁṣṭratā,
{56} sharp eye-teeth,

{57} śūkla-daṁṣṭratā,
{57} fine eye-teeth,

{58} sama-daṁṣṭratā,
{58} even eye-teeth,

{59} anupūrva-daṁṣṭratā,
{59} regular eye-teeth,

{60} tuṅganāsatā,
{60} a long nose,

{61} śucināsatā,
{61} a clean nose,

{62} viśālanayanatā,
{62} wide eyes,

{63} citrapakṣmatā,
{63} thick eyelashes,

{64} sitāsita-kamala-dala-nayanatā,
{64} having eyes like the black and white lotus,

{65} āyata-bhrūkatā,
{65} long brows,

{66} śukla-bhrūkatā,
{66} fine brows,

{67} susnigdha-bhrūkatā,
{67} very glossy brows,

{68} pīnāyata-bhujalatā,
{68} having full and long arms,

{69} sama-karṇatā,
{69} even ears,

{70} anupahata-karṇendriyatā,
{70} unimpaired ear faculty,

{71} avimlāna-lalāṭatā,
{71} unfaded forehead,

{72} pthu-lalāṭatā,
{72} spacious forehead,

{73} suparipūrṇottamāṅgatā,
{73} a very complete head,

{74} bhramara-sadśa-keśatā,
{74} hair of the head that is like a black bee (in colour),

{75} citra-keśatā,
{75} beautiful hair,

{76} guḍā-keśatā,
{76} thick hair,

{77} asaṁlulita-keśatā, Text: asammuṇita?
{77} unconfused hair of the head,

{78} aparuṣa-keśatā,
{78} smooth hair of the head,

{79} surabhi-keśatā,
{79} fragrant hair of the head,

{80} śrīvatsa-mukti-kanandy-āvarta-lakṣita-pāṇi-pāda-talatā ceti.
{80} and the curl of hair, pearl, and diagram marks on palms and soles.

85. Seven Jewels of Universal Monarchs

Cakravartināṁ sapta ratnāni, tad-yathā:
There are seven jewels of Universal Monarchs, they are:

{1} Cakra-ratnam-
{1} The wheel jewel,

{2} aśva-ratnaṁ,
{2} the horse jewel,

{3} hasti-ratnaṁ,
{3} the elephant jewel,

{4} maṇi-ratnaṁ,
{4} the gem jewel,

{5} strī-ratnaṁ,
{5} the woman jewel,

{6} khaṅga-ratnaṁ,
{6} the rhinoceros jewel, This is normally given as ghapatiratnam, the householder jewel.

{7} pariṇāyaka-ratnaṁ ceti. [21]
{7} and the advisor jewel.

86. Three Times

Tatra trayo ’dhvānaḥ, tad-yathā:
Herein, there are three times, they are:

{1} Atīto ’dhvā-
{1} Past time,

{2} ’nāgato ’dhvā,
{2} future time,

{3} pratyutpanno ’dhvā ceti.
{3} and present time.

87. Four Aeons

Catvāraḥ kalpāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are four aeons, they are:

{1} Antara-kalpā,
{1} An intervalic aeon,

{2} mahā-kalpāḥ,
{2} a great aeon,

{3} śūnya-kalpāḥ,
{3} an empty aeon,

{4} sāra-kalpāś-ceti.
{4} and an essential aeon.

88. Four Ages

Catvāri yugāni, tad-yathā:
There are four ages, they are:

{1} Kta-yugaṁ,
{1} The accomplished age,

{2} tretā-{yugaṁ},
{2} the threefold-life {age},

{3} dvāparaṁ,
{3} the twofold {-life age},

{4} kali-yugaṁ ceti.
{4} and the dark age. SED: The duration of each (yuga) is said to be respectively 1,728,000, 1,296,000, 864,000, and 432,000 years of men, the descending numbers representing a similar physical and moral deterioration of men in each age.

89. A Pair of Worlds

Loka-dvayaṁ, tad-yathā:
There are a pair of worlds, they are:

{1} Sattva-loko,
{1} The world of beings,

{2} bhājana-lokaś-ceti.
{2} and the inanimate world.

90. Four Wombs

Catvāro yonayaḥ, tad-yathā:
There are four wombs, they are:

{1} Aṇḍajaḥ,
{1} Egg-born,

{2} saṁsvedajo,
{2} moisture-born,

{3} jarāyuja,
{3} viviparous,

{4} upapādukaś-ceti.
{4} and spontaneously-born.

91. Five Stains

Pañca kaṣāyāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are five stains, they are:

{1} Kleśa-kaṣāyo,
{1} The stain of defilements,

{2} dṣṭi-kaṣāyaḥ,
{2} the stain of views,

{3} sattva-kaṣāya,
{3} the stain on beings,

{4} āyuḥ-kaṣāyaḥ,
{4} the stain of age,

{5} kalpa-kaṣāyaś-ceti. [22]
{5} and the stain of practice.

92. Three Comprehensions

Trayaḥ parijñāyāḥ, Text: sattvādhyāḥ? tad-yathā:
There are three comprehensions, they are:

{1} Pūrvānta-koṭi-parijñāyā,
{1} Comprehension of the beginning time,

{2} aparānta-koṭi-parijñāyāś-
{2} comprehension of the end time,

{3} catur-māra-koṭi-parijñāyāś-ceti.
{3} comprehension of the time having four destroyers.

93. Ten Knowledges

Daśa jñānāni, tad-yathā:
There are ten knowledges, they are:

{1} Duḥkha-jñānaṁ,
{1} Knowledge of suffering,

{2} samudaya-jñānaṁ,
{2} knowledge of arising,

{3} nirodha-jñānaṁ,
{3} knowledge of cessation,

{4} mārga-jñānaṁ,
{4} knowledge of path,

{5} dharma-jñānam-
{5} knowledge of dharma,

{6} anvaya-jñānaṁ,
{6} knowledge of conformity,

{7} saṁvti-jñānaṁ,
{7} knowledge of the concealed,

{8} paracitta-jñānaṁ,
{8} knowledge of others’ minds,

{9} kṣaya-jñānam-
{9} knowledge of destruction,

{10} anutpāda-jñānaṁ ceti.
{10} and knowledge of non-production.

94. Five Knowledges

Pañca jñānāni, tad-yathā:
There are five knowledges, they are:

{1} Ādarśana{jñānaṁ},
{1} Mirror-like (knowledge),

{2} samatā{jñānaṁ},
{2} (knowledge) of equality,

{3} pratyavekṣaṇā{jñānaṁ},
{3} (knowledge) of reflection,

{4} ktyānuṣṭhāna{jñānaṁ},
{4} (knowledge) of performance,

{5} suviśuddha-dharma-dhātu-jñānaṁ ceti.
{5} and knowledge of the very pure dharma element.

95. Two Truths

Dve satye, tad-yathā:
There are two truths, they are:

{1} Saṁvti-satyaṁ,
{1} Conventional truth,

{2} paramārtha-satyaṁ ceti.
{2} and ultimate truth.

96. Sixteen Marks of being receptive to Knowledge

Catur-ārya-satyeṣu ṣoḍaśa kṣānti-jñāna-lakṣaṇāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are sixteen marks of being receptive to knowledge regarding the four noble truths, they are:

{1} Duḥkhe dharma-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{1} being receptive to the dharma knowledge of suffering,

{2} duḥkhe dharma-jñānaṁ,
{2} the dharma knowledge of suffering,

{3} duḥkhe ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{3} being receptive to the conformity knowledge of suffering,

{4} duḥkhe ’nvaya-jñānaṁ;
{4} the conformity knowledge of suffering;

{5} samudaye dharma-jñāna-kṣāntiḥ,
{5} being receptive to the dharma knowledge of arising,

{6} samudaye dharma-jñānaṁ, [23]
{6} the dharma knowledge of arising,

{7} samudaye ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣāntiḥ,
{7} being receptive to the conformity knowledge of arising,

{8} samudaye ’nvaya-jñānaṁ;
{8} the conformity knowledge of arising;

{9} nirodhe dharma-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{9} being receptive to the dharma knowledge of cessation,

{10} nirodhe dharma-jñānaṁ,
{10} the knowledge of cessation,

{11} nirodhe ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{11} being receptive to the conformity knowledge of cessation,

{12} nirodhe ’nvaya-jñānaṁ;
{12} the conformity knowledge of cessation;

{13} mārge dharma-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{13} being receptive to the dharma knowledge of the path,

{14} mārge dharma-jñānaṁ,
{14} the dharma knowledge of the path,

{15} mārge ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣāntir-
{15} being receptive to the conformity knowledge of the path,

{16} mārge ’nvaya-jñānaṁ ceti.
{16} and the conformity knowledge of the path.

97. Four Aspects in the Truth of Suffering

Tatra duḥkha-satye catvāra ākārāḥ, tad-yathā:
Herein, there are four aspects in the truth of suffering, they are:

{1} Anityato,
{1} Relating to impermanence,

{2} duḥkhataḥ,
{2} relating to suffering,

{3} śūnyato
{3} relating to emptiness,

{4} ’nātmataś-ceti.
{4} and relating to no-self.

98. Four States in the Truth of Arising

Samudaya-satye catvāra ākārāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are four aspects in the truth of arising, they are:

{1} Hetutaḥ,
{1} Relating to cause,

{2} samudayataḥ,
{2} relating to arising,

{3} prabhavataḥ,
{3} relating to birth,

{4} pratyayataś-ceti.
{4} and relating to conditions.

99. Four States in the Truth of Cessation

Nirodha-satye catvāra ākārāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are four aspects in the truth of cessation, they are:

{1} Nirodhataḥ,
{1} Relating to cessation,

{2} śāntataḥ,
{2} relating to peace,

{3} praṇītato,
{3} relating to performance,

{4} niḥsaraṇataś-ceti.
{4} and relating to escape.

100. Four States in the Truth of the Path

Mārga-satye catvāra ākārāḥ, tad-yathā:
There are four aspects in the truth of the path, they are:

{1} Mārgato,
{1} Relating to the path,

{2} nyāyataḥ,
{2} relating to method,

{3} pratipattito,
{3} relating to practice,

{4} nairyāṇikaś-ceti.
{4} and relating to leading out.